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What Causes Kidney Cancer?

The human kidneys are two bean-shaped organs the size of a fist. They are located behind the abdominal organ, one kidney on each side of the spine. The kidneys’ primary function includes maintaining fluid balance, removing waste products, controlling blood pressure, and producing hormones needed to make blood. Some of the essential hormones are Erythropoietin, Renin, and Calcitriol.

The abnormal growth of cells in the kidney tissue is known as Kidney Cancer, and kidney cancer can spread to other tissues or vital organs.

Symptoms of Kidney Cancer

Symptoms from the early stages of Kidney Cancer are not very prominent; however, by the time symptoms may develop, like.

  • Back Pain – that never goes away.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Blood in the urine can be red, pink, or cola color.
  • Fever
  • Tiredness
  • Weight Loss
  • Bone Pain
  • Pain in the side.
  • Unusual or High Blood Pressure

Causes of Kidney Cancer

Reasons for Kidney Cancer are not clear yet, but according to some doctors, Kidney cells developing changes in their DNA causes Kidney Cancer. DNA instructs a cell on what to do, and those changes instructed by DNA tell Kidney cells to grow and divide rapidly. This accumulation of abnormal cells forms a tumor, which can grow uncontrollably and extend beyond the kidney and even affect other vital organs.

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Risk Factors of Kidney Cancer

Causes may not be found, but risk factors have been identified. Some of them are as follows,

1- Von Hippel Lindou – VHL

It’s a disorder that causes non-cancerous tumors in blood vessels like the brain and eyes. People who inherit this disorder are at greater risk of developing Kidney Cancer.

2- Obesity

Overweight people have a higher risk of developing kidney cancer.

3- Smoking

Smokers have a greater risk of developing kidney cancer as compared to non-smokers.

4- Tuberous Sclerosis

It is a disease that causes intellectual disabilities and seizures, including the formation of tumors in vital organs like kidneys.

5- Family History

Having a family history of Kidney Cancer can increase the risk of developing kidney cancer.

6- Long-term Dialysis Treatment

Dialysis is a process in which blood passes through a particular machine in order to cleanse it. This process is generally used by people having dysfunctional kidneys.

7- High Blood Pressure

Doctors found that patients with hypertension have a higher risk of developing Kidney Cancer.

Types of Kidney Cancers

There are different types of Kidney Cancer, which include:

1- Wilm’s Tumor

It is reportedly the most common type of kidney cancer diagnosed in children.

2- Renal Sarcoma

Renal sarcoma is the least common type of Kidney Cancer, which begins from the connective tissues of the kidney. It can spread to near bones or organs.

3- Transitional Cell Carcinoma

In the case of transitional cell carcinoma, cancer starts from the renal pelvis, which is the area where the ureter connects to the main part of the kidney.

4- Renal Cell Carcinoma

It is the most common type of Kidney Cancer in adults. It usually develops in one kidney but can affect the other one.


After analyzing the symptoms, Doctors usually perform tests to verify the occurrence of kidney cancer. These tests are as follows:

  • Ultra-sound
  • Renal Mass Biopsy
  • Urine lest
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
  • Blood Test
  • Computed Tomography scan

Treatment Options

There are two ways to treat Kidney Cancer, depending on the type of cancer, the stage of cancer and the grade of tumor, and the patient’s age. They are described as follows,

1- Partial Nephrectomy

The surgery is where the surgeon removes the part of the kidney that contains the tumor.

2- Radical Nephrectomy

The surgery in which the whole kidney is removed and even the tissues around the kidney are removed.

Both of the above treatments are followed by chemotherapy.


Improving health may help in reducing the risk of kidney cancer. To reduce risk factors, try to:

  • Maintain a healthy weight
  • Quit Smoking
  • Control Blood Pressure
  • Eating balanced diet


Kidney cancer usually begins in just one of the kidneys. One may still experience early symptoms like blood in urine, bone pain, high blood pressure, etc. it is crucial to consult with your doctor right away if you are experiencing any unusual symptoms. If kidney cancer is diagnosed, try to take precautionary measures like quitting smoking, balancing your diet, and controlling blood pressure.

It is always best to consult professionals for better guidance. Book an appointment with the best Urologist in Karachi through Marham for more information.

What Causes Kidney Cancer