How to make Slime Activator with Salt

How to make Slime Activator with Salt

How to make Slime Activator with Salt – This is our number one favorite on the slime activator list because it makes an awesome stretchy slime. It’s also more easily available for UK, Australian and Canadian residents.

How to make Slime Activator with Salt : SALINE SOLUTION 

This slime activator is also commonly used as a contact solution, but I highly recommend picking up the lesser expensive saline solution instead.

Also, on our slime activators list is salt. So how to make slime activator with salt. You have to make a saline solution first by mixing salt with water. To make this saline solution use one cup of water and half a teaspoon of salt and place this in a pan. Boil this for approximately fifteen minutes and keep the pan lid on to avoid evaporation. You will then need to allow the pan to cool until it is at room temperature. Finally, carefully pour this solution into a bottle and jar which has a lid. You are now ready to start combining it with the glue to make some gooey fun stuff!

How to make Slime Activator with Salt – Salt is a good option as an activator for slime as it is readily available and it is also cheap to purchase. The volume of salt that you can purchase can produce a large quantity of slime which is useful if you need to make a large amount or if you plan to make it on a few occasions.

HOW TO MAKE SALINE SOLUTION SLIME RECIPE

YOU WILL NEED:

  • 1/2 cup Clear or White PVA School Glue
  • 1 tablespoon Saline Solution (must contain boric acid and sodium borate)
  • 1/2 cup of Water
  • 1/4-1/2 tsp Baking Soda
  • Food coloring, confetti, glitter, and other fun mix-ins (CHANGE FOR RECIPE)

How to make Slime Activator with Salt

 

STEP 1:  In a bowl mix 1/2 cup water and 1/2 cup of glue well to combine completely.

How to make Slime Activator with Salt

STEP 2: Now’s the time to add (color, glitter, or confetti)! Remember when you add color to white glue, the color will be lighter. Use clear glue for jewel toned colors!

BAKING SODA SLIME

STEP 3: Stir in 1/4- 1/2 tsp baking soda.

Baking soda helps to firm and form the slime. You can play around with how much you add but we prefer between 1/4 and 1/2 tsp per batch. I get asked all the time why do you need baking soda for slime. Baking soda helps to improve the firmness of the slime. You can experiment with your own ratios!

This slime recipe is also called BAKING SODA SLIME!

STEP 4: Mix in 1 tbsp saline solution and stir until slime forms and pulls away from sides of the bowl.   This is exactly how much you will need with the Target Sensitive Eyes brand, but other brands may differ slightly!

If your slime still feels too sticky, you may need a few more drops of saline solution. As I mentioned above, start by squirting a few drops of the solution onto your hands and kneading your slime longer. You can always add but you can’t take away.  Saline solution is preferred over contact solution.

STEP 5:  Start kneading your slime! It will appear stringy at first but just work it around with your hands and you will notice the consistency changes. You can also put it in a clean container and set it aside for 3 minutes, and you will also notice the change in consistency!

 

SLIME TIP:   We always recommend kneading your slime well after mixing. Kneading the slime really helps to improve its consistency. The trick with this slime is to put a few drops of the saline soluti9n onto your hands before picking up the slime.

You can knead the slime in the bowl before you pick it up as well. This slime is stretchy but can be stickier. However, keep in mind that although adding more activator (saline solution) reduces the stickiness, and it will eventually create a stiffer slime.

BAKING SODA SLIME

You will love how easy and stretchy this saline slime is to make, and play with too!  Once you have your desired slime consistency, time to have fun!  How big of a stretch can you get without the slime breaking?

SLIME TIPS AND TRICKS on How to make Slime Activator with Salt

  • Baking soda helps to firm and form the slime.  You can experiment with your own ratios!
  • BAKING SODA SLIME TIP: Clear glue slime usually doesn’t need quite as much baking soda as white glue slime!
  • The saline solution is the slime activator and helps the slime to get its rubbery texture! Be careful, adding too much saline solution can make for a slime that’s too stiff and not stretchy!
  • Give this slime a fast stir to activate the mixture. You will notice the thickness change as you stir it.  You will also notice the volume of your mixture changes as you whip it up.
  • Slime is awesome for tactile sensory play, but make sure to wash hands and surfaces after making and playing with slime.
  • Make a few batches in different colors and swirl them together as shown in the cover photo or below! Think of what other color combinations your kids would enjoy. Slime making is only limited by the imagination of the hands creating it!

More info at : Little Bins Little Hands

Livestock Guard Dogs Feeding

Livestock Guard Dogs Feeding

Livestock Guard Dogs Feeding – Livestock guardian dog (LGD) breeds and food, this is a really touchy subject.  And for this reason, I’ve been putting off writing this article for a long time.  There is just too much opposing science and too many differing (all well-argued) opinions to know for sure who’s right on this one.  But, here goes…

Livestock Guard Dogs Feeding

What should you feed your livestock guardian dog breed?  Livestock guardian dog breeds should be fed high quality commercial food or a carefully balanced raw food diet. Be aware that LGDs have historically lived on marginal diets, and modern-day owners need to take care not to overfeed their dogs as this leads to shortened lifespans and numerous health problems. 

Whether you’ve got a large Great Pyrenees or a smaller (but, yes, still large) Sarplaninac, livestock guardian dogs of all origins were traditionally bred to live on marginal diets.  Yes, they are large dog breeds, and for that fact alone, they will require a lot of food, but you don’t want to overfeed these dogs.

Livestock Guard dogs Feeding

Feeding routines are important. Feed the pup near the livestock (not at your house) preferably at the same time every day. Secure the pup’s food so it can eat in peace, without competition from the livestock. Allowing livestock to eat the dog’s food creates unnecessary conflict that can escalate as the dog grows in size.

What to Feed Livestock Guard Dogs: Commercial or Raw Food

The very general basis of raw food diets is that wolves eat raw food diets, and because dogs are closely related to wolves (and originally developed from wolves or a wolf-life ancestor), an optimal diet for them should also be one of raw foods.

Others have argued that domesticated dogs actually have a digestive system that’s different enough from that of wolves that we can’t assume they should be eating the same diet.  Dogs digestive systems are tailored toward a more varied diet, they say.

Many livestock guardian dog owners swear by raw food diets.  The Hoof and Fang Spanish Mastiff breeders worked with their vet to develop a raw food diet for their dogs.  They have an excellent “Raw Food Cheat Sheet” I highly recommended if you’re interested in this approach.  You can check it out at their website here.  They also provide a list of helpful websites and books if you’re interested in learning more about raw food diets.

When it comes to commercial dog food, you get what you pay for.  And yes, that truly is unfortunate because high quality dog food can be pricey.

Negri hypothesized the culprit causing these fights may have been a cheap brand of food.  She recommended the girls be given a high-quality food.  The client followed through and the fighting stopped pretty much immediately.  The girls’ weren’t getting the nutrition they needed out of the cheaper food, and so they were aggressive around the food bowl, trying to digest as much as possible to get the nutrients their bodies were starved for. With the more expensive food, they were getting what they needed and didn’t need to fight for resources.

Livestock Guard Dogs Feeding – How Often To Feed

I recommend feeding adults twice a day and puppies three times a day, although I’ve seen some sources that say four times for puppies up to three months.  I think your best bet is to check with both your dog’s breeder (if he’s not a rescue) and your vet.

I do not recommend free feeding if you can avoid it.  Some ranchers have so many livestock guardian dogs that feeding them twice a day is a major undertaking, so they free feed with food available all the time.  If you are in this position, you need to really keep an eye on your dogs’ weights to make sure that none of them are gaining too much weight.

Guard dogs for sheep and goats

Can Dogs eat Smoked Salmon?

Is Xanthan Gum safe for dogs

What human food can I feed my diabetic dog

Final Stages of Dog Diabetes

dog diabetes life expectancy

How Much To Feed LGD’s?

The amount you feed your dog will depend on your dog’s weight and how active she is.  You can use the recommendation given on your dog food bag and double check with your vet.

Keep in mind that dogs in the latter half of pregnancy and lactating dogs will need more food.  Sick and older dogs often have different food requirements.  Be sure to check with your vet to get it right.

What human food can I feed my diabetic dog

What human food can I feed my diabetic dog

What human food can I feed my diabetic dog – Many people are in the view that dogs can eat all of the human food but this is not the case, here is a wise list of human foods that you can serve to your diabetic dog.

What human food can I feed my diabetic dog

Winter Squash

A number of human food squash are good for diabetic dogs like pumpkin, butternut squash, and acorn squash because these squashes are high in fiber content. However, before serving winter squash should be cooked.

Alpha Sprouts

It is a high fiber food that is also safe for dogs and very supportive to cure diabetes in dogs. For a diabetic-friendly dinner mix it with the rice, oats and low-fat meat.

Is Xanthan Gum safe for dogs

Final Stages of Dog Diabetes

dog diabetes life expectancy

Carrots

Dogs love to eat this human food, according to many of studies naturally occurring sugar like sugar from carrots do not affect the insulin level in the body of dogs. Either you served it in the raw or cooked form, Its beneficial in both ways. To be safely swallowed pulp the carrots, that becomes easy to digest too.

Parsley

This leafy green vegetable is low in sugar and high in fiber, Its an ideal human food for diabetic dogs.

Garlic

For diabetic support, you can add garlic in any of good that you cook at home or paste of garlic can be added in commercial food. It’s just an ingredient do not feed as a stand-alone vegetable. A high quantity of garlic may cause anemia in dogs. Consider to serve small dosage of garlic with other foods as a remedy and on the safe side do not cross the limit of three cloves on a daily basis.

Broccoli and Cauliflower

Both are known as low glycemic index human food. These green vegetables contain few sugars and very high in fiber. Both should be well pulped to make these digestions friendly and to get maximum benefits. The nutritional makeup of both vegetables is same and ideal for diabetic dogs.

Green Beans

You can choose this human food to provide fiber to your pooch, it contains a lot of fiber but not good in carbohydrates. You can serve it in raw form, pulped or cooked with other vegetables. It is a must-have vegetable for a diabetic dog because it supports the dog to stay energetic.

Leafy Salad Greens

Kale, collard greens, turnip greens, mustard greens, lettuce and all of your typical green salads are beneficial for diabetic dogs. Avoid spinach and Swiss chard.

Peapods

To get the maximum benefits of human food you need to feed entire pea in the pod. According to studies, this combination makes them balanced food for carbohydrate and fiber.

Can Dogs eat Smoked Salmon?

Insulin resistance in dogs

Beets

When you are cooking a multi-ingredient food for your dog, you can include beets
to make your dog’s food colorful. This human food is high in sugar but good for
moderation. You may add some beet green instead of red to balance the sugar level
in food.

What human food can I feed my diabetic dog

What human food can I feed my diabetic dog – What grains

When your dog is suffering from diabetes, switching to a grain-free food is not a good choice at all. To stay healthy and active in daily activities dogs need vitamins, minerals, and fiber. So instead of starchy food, you should choose while grains from the human foods for your pooch. Because whole grains are rich in fiber, minerals, and vitamins. Processed foods may contain added sugar and other toxic ingredients but in the pure form, these whole grains provide energy as well as supportive towards curing diabetes. You must look for under-listed human food whole grains to include in your dog’s diet.

  • Bulgur (cracked wheat)
  • Brown rice
  • Triticale
  • Whole wheat flour
  • Wild rice
  • Buckwheat
  • Whole oats/oatmeal
  • Whole grain corn
  • Brown rice
  • Triticale
  • Millet
  • Whole rye
  • Whole grain barley
  • Whole farro
  • Quinoa
  • Sorghum
  • Whole rye
  • Whole grain barley
  • Whole farro
  • Wild rice
  • Buckwheat

What human food can I feed my diabetic dog – Some time when your dog has difficulty in digestion along with diabetes eliminating the whole grains can be a solution to keep him regular. But when he returns to the normal health you can include these grains in food.

Many studies conclude that easy to digest starches are a reason to trigger spikes in the blood sugar level right after a meal, it also can lead to weight gain. You can add human food whole grain in your dog’s diet to reach the blood sugar goals.

If you are already feeding a diet that contains whole grains then prefer to feed the same, but prefer to feed only whole grain diets because it also helps your dog in weight management.

There three most important in the list:

  • 1. Quinoa (related to spinach)
  • 2. Buckwheat (related to spinach)
  • 3. Amaranth (related to rhubarb)

These three are not truly grains but these are the best gain like human foods that you can feed to your diabetic dog. All of these foods contain fiber, protein and other important nutrient and the specialty is these will not increase the sugar level as much as true grains.

The list of these three What human food can I feed my diabetic dog may seem strange or new to you but humans are eating them from hundred of years.

What human food can I feed my diabetic dog

Other Foods for Diabetic dog

What human food can I feed my diabetic dog – Protein

High-quality proteins are very essential when managing diabetes in your dog. Meat sources like lamb and beef have the L-Carnitine amino acid which can help enhance fat metabolism and assist in maintaining lean body mass. Other great sources of proteins for a diabetic canine include chicken, fish, and turkey.
Since we’re trying to avoid body fat from adding up, aim for the low-fat foods like lean red meats or chicken breast.

What human food can I feed my diabetic dog – Carbohydrates

When it comes to carbs, you truly have to be careful not to cause a blood sugar spike in your dog. The body usually digests carbs faster than proteins or fats. As you choose the right meal for your pet, you have to avoid simple carbs which are characterized by high glycemic index (GI). High GI food can make the glucose spike very fast, therefore you should stick with wholesome or low GI carb. Some of these foods include whole grains, legumes, brown rice, potatoes, and honey.

Some of the high-glycemic food that you ought to avoid include, white bread, white rice, etc.

What human food can I feed my diabetic dog – Fiber

As of now, fiber has come to prove to be the best meal in a dog living with diabetes. The food helps a lot in digestion and also slows down the emptying of gastric and the digestion of carbs. This, in turn, minimizes the release of glucose and prevent the blood sugar levels from spiking.

Some of the best fiber human fiber foods that you can use to control diabetes in your dog include spinach, broccoli, and cauliflower. Also, fruits like blueberries, raspberries, and pears can be used but in small portions, since they contain high natural sugars.

What human food can I feed my diabetic dog – Fats

As I have suggested earlier, a dog with diabetes requires a low-fat diet to ensure optimal functioning of the insulin. Foods that are rich in omega-3 fatty acids can assist a lot in decreasing blood lipid levels and even regulation of the immune system. So far, fish and fish oils are the best in this role.

Can Dogs eat Smoked Salmon?

Can Dogs eat Smoked Salmon

Can Dogs eat Smoked Salmon? Well, as pet parents, we know that food which is good for us is not always good for our pets.

Salmon is an exceptionally nutritious food for humans as it is low in fat and high in protein. As well as containing essential vitamins and minerals that are vital for good health.

Obviously, we would love our dogs to benefit from this healthy and tasty fish as well!

But can dogs eat salmon?

The good news is, yes! You can feed salmon to dogs if it is properly cooked and prepared.

However, raw and uncooked salmon is extremely poisonous to dogs and can be deadly.

Can Dogs eat Smoked Salmon

Can dogs eat salmon?

Dogs can safely eat salmon so long as it is fresh, boneless, well-cooked and fed in small portions.

Salmon is often the main ingredient in many high quality dry and wet dog food products.

Like many human foods, you should limit giving salmon to your dog no more than once a week.

But, is salmon bad for dogs in any way?

Yes, it can be if not fed correctly.

You should never let dogs eat salmon if it is raw or under-cooked as it contains bacteria and parasites which are harmful to dogs, possibly leading to salmon poisoning disease (SPD) which can be fatal.

So, before you consider feeding salmon to your dog, there are some essential points you need to be aware of to keep your pet safe.

Can Dogs eat Smoked Salmon

Can dogs eat smoked salmon?

Can Dogs eat Smoked Salmon? – So, if cooked salmon is okay, can dogs eat salmon when it’s smoked? No!

You should never give smoked salmon to your dog.

The reason for this is that smoked salmon is cured so contains an excessive amount of salt that is dangerous for dogs.

There is also a small chance that smoked salmon contains parasites which can result in a fatal condition in canines.

Can Dogs eat Smoked Salmon

Is salmon good for dogs?

Salmon is an excellent source of Omega 3 fatty acids, which helps promote a healthy skin and coat for your dog.

As well as being useful for his heart and immune system.

Older dogs and those who have arthritis can benefit from salmon as it assists in the reduction of inflammation and stiffness in the joints.

Feeding salmon to young puppies helps develop their brains as well as assisting older dogs to concentrate better. Especially those that are a little senile.

Salmon is also high in amino acids, essential for keeping your dog healthy and active.

As well as being an excellent food for those dogs with skin irritations and allergies.

Is Xanthan Gum safe for dogs

Final Stages of Dog Diabetes

dog diabetes life expectancy

What human food can I feed my diabetic dog

Potential hazards in smoke-flavored fish

Salmon dog food

There are many commercial brands available producing salmon dog food.

Some products contain only salmon as a meat protein source whereas others have salmon as the primary protein but include additional meat.

So, why would you feed salmon dog food to your pet?

If your dog appears to be healthy and passes his annual vet checks with flying colors, then there is no need to change his feed.

However, if he has the occasional digestive upset, has itchy, flaky skin or his coat appears dull, then it may be an idea to change his diet onto salmon dog food.

It is also a good choice of food if your dog is a picky eater as many cannot resist the taste of salmon!

Can Dogs eat Smoked Salmon? – Your vet can always advise if you are unsure.

If your dog has allergy issues caused by traditional meats such as beef and chicken, then it is vital that you check the ingredients to ensure the food only contains salmon.

But dogs cannot live on salmon alone as it does not fulfill a dog’s essential carbohydrate and vitamin requirements.

Therefore, it is crucial when using a salmon dog food product that you check it is made with real salmon, high-quality ingredients and offers 100% balanced nutrition, consisting of all the necessary vitamins and minerals.

The label should reveal the food is “complete and balanced” and approved by the AAFCO (Association of American Feed Control Officials) or other.

Salmon poisoning in dogs

Salmon poisoning in dogs is potentially fatal if it is left untreated.

Can Dogs eat Smoked Salmon? – The problem is that it can take up to a week before a dog displays any clinical signs, so you and your vet may not even consider salmon poisoning.

As a result, this can make diagnosis and treatment difficult, which is not good news for your dog.

Also, it is possible for dogs with salmon poisoning to spread the infection to other dogs via their feces.

The most common dog salmon poisoning symptoms include:

  • Diarrhea
  • Vomiting
  • Lack of appetite
  • Rapid weight loss
  • Lethargy
  • Fever
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Dehydration

What do to if you think your dog has salmon poisoning

Take your dog immediately to your veterinarian if he displays any of these symptoms.

Inform your vet if you know, or suspect that your dog has eaten raw salmon.

A fecal sample, detecting the parasite’s eggs within the feces, or a needle sample from a swollen lymph node reveals the diagnosis for salmon poisoning.

Treatment for salmon poisoning is quite straightforward if detected in time.

Your veterinarian will most likely prescribe an antibiotic to kill the rickettsial organisms that caused the poisoning and a wormer to kill the parasite.

If your dog is dehydrated, then your veterinarian will give him intravenous fluid.

The good news is, that once treatment has started, dogs usually show rapid improvement within a couple of days.

Is Xanthan Gum safe for dogs

Is Xanthan Gum safe for dogs

In this article we will answer the question: “Is Xanthan Gum safe for dogs?”

Is Xanthan Gum safe for dogs

Xanthan gum is something humans should try to avoid in their own food and their pet’s food as well.

Xanthan gum is a “Generally Recognized as Safe” (GRAS) food additive in the US, Canada, Europe, and many other countries.

Yet it is known to be potentially as irritating as gluten for some with Celiac disease, causing gas, bloat and diarrhea; and for causing flare-ups for those with Crohn’s disease or Ulcerative Colitis (inflammatory bowel disease).

Is Xanthan Gum safe for dogs

In fact, “the rapid increase in the incidence and prevalence of IBD in recent decades strongly suggests an environmental trigger for IBD, one of which may be dietary patterns. There are several pathways where diet may influence intestinal inflammation, such as direct dietary antigens, altering the gut microbiome, and affecting gastrointestinal permeability.

A review article, “Evidence-based dietary advice for patients with inflammatory bowel disease” indicates that emulsifiers in processed foods have been indicated in Crohn’s disease.

What is Xanthan Gum?

Xanthan gum is a polysaccharide (sugar like compound) produced by bacterial fermentation of a sugar-containing medium.  Nutritionally speaking, it is a carbohydrate with about seven grams of fiber per tablespoon.

Xanthan gum is a powdery, sugar like substance that is used as a thickening or stabilizing additive in foods, toothpastes and medicine. It can be used to treat lower blood sugar and cholesterol in people with diabetes. While it is FDA approved as a food additive, it is created in a laboratory and is a soluble fiber adding no nutritional value to any sort.

It helps ingredients blend together and to stay blended. Think of canned pet food with chunks of carrots throughout.

Xanthan gum is a laboratory creation. It is a product:

– fermented on potential allergens
– when fermented on corn or soy (as it often is), GMO concerns exist
– cannot be manufactured without the use of toxic carcinogens

Is Xanthan Gum safe for dogs – Why it is in pet food?

Xanthan gum is gaining in popularity with pet food manufacturers because it has a low glycemic index and food containing it can be marketed as ‘gluten free’ which is certainly a buzz word in the nutrition business these days. It is used almost exclusively in wet food.

Xanthan gum is used as a thickening and suspending agent in wet or canned dog foods. It has little nutritional value.

What is Xanthan Gum substitute

Final Stages of Dog Diabetes

Are there any risks to feeding your pet xanthan gum?

Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) is the voluntary association of local, state, and federal agencies that oversees pet food and they have issued preliminary approvals for the use of xanthan gum in canned cat and dog food. That being said, it is not a natural substance and how your pet reacts should always be monitored.

Is Xanthan Gum safe for dogs – Benefits or risks

Several studies have shown that xanthan gum is  ‘safe’ in normal doses, for humans and pets.  That said, xanthan gum requires a ‘medium’ to grow and often the medium of choice is a carbohydrate like corn, soy, dairy, or wheat, all of which are potentially allergenic substances, especially if fed over long periods of time.

Xanthan gum: Safety evaluation by two-year feeding studies in rats and dogs and a three-generation reproduction study in rats

Miscellaneous facts about Xanthan Gum

Xanthan gum is used to stabilize and bind cosmetic products.

In human foods, xanthan gum is most often found in salad dressings and sauces because it helps to prevent oil separation.

Xanthan Gum was “discovered” by a team of USDA researchers in the 1960’s. In 1968 it was approved for use as a food additive in the US and Europe.

Some common foods that contain xanthan gum are salad dressings, sauces, beverages, syrups, baked goods, cookies, candy and low fat spreads.

Xanthan gum can also be found in lipsticks, lotions, toothpaste and some medicines.

Is Xanthan Gum safe for dogs – Common names

The most commonly used name is xanthan.  Other names include xantham gum, corn sugar gum and bacterial polysaccharide.

How to calculate leap year

How to calculate leap year

This article will explain how to calculate leap year as well as some other interesting facts about leap years.

How to calculate leap year

Very simple to see if a specific year is a leap year or not. To calculate if a specific year is a leap year:

Take the year and divide it by 4.

If the answer of division is equal to a whole number, the year is a leap year.

If the answer to the division is not equal to a whole number, the year is not a leap year.

Example One:

Year : 1983 :

1983/4 = 495.75

495.75 is not a whole numbers as .75 is a fraction.

Thus 1983 is not a leap year.

How to calculate leap year - Example One

Example Two:

Year : 2004 :

2004/4 = 501

501 is a whole number

Thus 2004 is a leap year.

How to calculate leap year - Example Two

What is Affiliate Marketing?

New Year’s Day and Leap Year in English History in Google Scholar

How to calculate leap year Formula:

How to calculate leap year Formula

What Is a Leap Year?

Leap years are years where an extra, or intercalary, day is added to the end of the shortest month, February. The intercalary day, February 29, is commonly referred to as leap day.

Leap years have 366 days instead of the usual 365 days and occur almost every four years.

Why do we need leap years?

The Gregorian calendar, which now serves as the standard calendar for civil use throughout the world, has both common years and leap years. A common year has 365 days and a leap year 366 days, with the extra–or intercalary–day designated as February 29. A leap year occurs every four years to help synchronize the calendar year with the solar year, or the length of time it takes the earth to complete its orbit around the sun, which is about 365¼ days.

The length of the solar year, however, is slightly less than 365¼ days-by about 11 minutes. To compensate for this discrepancy, the leap year is omitted three times every four hundred years.

In other words, a century year cannot be a leap year unless it is divisible by 400. Thus 1700, 1800, and 1900 were not leap years, but 1600, 2000, and 2400 are leap years.

How to calculate leap year: Divide by 4: Whole number is leap years: Fractions is not leap years

What are your chances of being born on leap day?

About 1 in 1,500.

How to calculate leap year – When is the birthday party?

If you are born on a Leap Year, can you get your driver’s license as early as February 28th? Well, each state decides whether or not February 28 or March 1 will be the day you are eligible to get your license. Most states, however, consider March 1st the official day. For instance, the Michigan Vehicle Code states that people born on February 29th “are deemed to have been born on March 1st.” Another fun fact: Leap year babies yet their driver’s licenses when they are officially four years old (16)! There are no rules on when you have a party, however, so really in day in February or March is fair game to celebrate a leap year birthday.

How many people were born on leap day?

There are about 187,000 people in the US and 4 million people in the world who were born on Leap Day.

The rules for determining a leap year

Most years that can be divided evenly by 4 are leap years.

Exception: Century years are NOT leap years UNLESS they can be evenly divided by 400.

How to calculate leap year – When did leap year originate?

The Gregorian calendar is closely based on the Julian calendar, which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 45 BC. The Julian calendar featured a 12-month, 365-day year, with an intercalary day inserted every fourth year at the end of February to make an average year of 365.25 days. But because the length of the solar year is actually 365.242216 days, the Julian year was too long by .0078 days (11 minutes 14 seconds).

This may not seem like a lot, but over the course of centuries it added up. Until in the 16th century, the vernal equinox was falling around March 11 instead of March 21. In 1582, Pope Gregory XIII adjusted the calendar by moving the date ahead by 11 days and by instituting the exception to the rule for leap years. This new rule, whereby a century year is a leap year only if divisible by 400, is the sole feature that distinguishes the Gregorian calendar from the Julian calendar.

Following the Gregorian reform, the average length of the year was 365.2425 days, an even closer approximation to the solar year. At this rate, it will take more than 3,000 years for the Gregorian calendar to gain one extra day in error.

How to calculate leap year: Divide by 4: Whole number is leap years: Fractions is not leap years

How to calculate leap year – A Quick History Lesson

The Egyptians were the first to come up with the idea of adding a leap day once every four years to keep the calendar in sync with the solar year. Later, the Romans adopted this solution for their calendar, and they became the first to designate February 29 as the leap day.

But Wait! It’s Not Quite that Simple!

The math seems to work out beautifully when you add an extra day to the calendar every four years to compensate for the extra quarter of a day in the solar year. As we said earlier, however, the solar year is just about 365 ¼ days long, but not exactly! The exact length of a solar year is actually 11 minutes and 14 seconds less than 365 ¼ days. That means that even if you add a leap day every four years, the calendar would still overshoot the solar year by a little bit—11 minutes and 14 seconds per year. These minutes and seconds really start to add up: after 128 years, the calendar would gain an entire extra day. So, the leap year rule, “add a leap year every four years” was a good rule, but not good enough!

Calendar Correction, Part II

To rectify the situation, the creators of our calendar (the Gregorian calendar, introduced in 1582) decided to omit leap years three times every four hundred years. This would shorten the calendar every so often and rid it of the annual excess of 11 minutes and 14 seconds. So in addition to the rule that a leap year occurs every four years, a new rule was added: a century year is not a leap year unless it is evenly divisible by 400. This rule manages to eliminate three leap years every few hundred years.

It’s Smooth Sailing for the Next 3,300 Years

This ingenious correction worked beautifully in bringing the calendar and the solar year in harmony, pretty much eliminating those pesky extra 11 minutes and 14 seconds. Now the calendar year and the solar year are just about a half a minute off. At that rate, it takes 3,300 years for the calendar year and solar year to diverge by a day.

How to make bath bombs harder?

how to make bath bombs harder

How to make bath bombs harder?

How to make bath bombs harder? – Why is my bath bomb crumbly or cracking?
If you find that your bath bomb is crumbly, the mixture may be too dry. Adding more witch hazel or oils will give the mixture a more moist texture, which will be less likely to crumble and crack once removed from the mold. If your fizzy is cracking after it’s been in the mold, it’s possible that it was too wet and the mixture is expanding as it sits in the mold.

how to make bath bombs harder

How to make bath bombs harder? – Why is my bath bomb soft?
If your bath bomb is soft, the mixture may have too much moisture. If you add too much witch hazel or oil during the mixing process, add more dry ingredients to balance the texture. If you live in a humid, wet climate, the moisture in the air can prevent the bath bombs from becoming hard. Adding a small amount of clay (like kaolin clay) or cornstarch can help the bath bombs harden. They also make the bath bombs a bit more sturdy.

how to make bath bombs harder 2

Why does my bath bomb have lumps, warts or bumps on the surface?
A bumpy texture on your bath bomb is usually a result of clumps in the dry ingredients or not fully mixing the fragrance oil. Baking soda in particular tends to clump together. Before adding oil, color, fragrance or other additives, break up large clumps with your hands. To remove and break up smaller clumps, pour the dry ingredients through a fine mesh sifter. This extra step gives a smooth texture. Bath bomb warts can also occur when the fizzy contains too much moisture. Usually the culprit is fragrance or essential oil so mix extra well to ensure the wet is fully incorporated into the dry.

how to make bath bombs harder

How long should bath bombs stay in the mold?
I recommend leaving your bath bomb in the mold for at least several hours, up to overnight. If you try to remove the bath bomb while it’s still soft, it can crumble. Allowing the bath bomb to dry thoroughly in the mold will make it easier to remove and handle.

Why are my bath bombs not sticking together in stainless steel bath bomb mold?
Sometimes it can be a little tricky to get the two halves of the bath bombs to stick together. Instead, the bath bomb mixture tends to stick to the mold. To help, add 5-10 drops of cyclomethicone in both sides of the mold and swirl it around. Then, let the molds drain on a paper towel. It makes removing the mold extremely easy! The texture of your fizzies is also important. For the stainless steel molds, you want the bath bomb mixture to be a bit more wet so the mixture holds its shape.

How to make bath bombs harder? – How To Dry Bath Bombs (Quickly!)

When we first started making bath bombs, one of our biggest challenges was getting the darned things to dry! Most of the time we simply had to leave them on the counter overnight, and hope they’d be ready by morning. But once we started getting busier, we needed a way to make the bath bombs dry FAST. Below are a few different approaches you can take to help your bath bombs dry.

Air Drying

Ah, the old standard, Air Drying. This is typically the first method every bath bomber uses when starting out. It’s easy, free, and reliable. This works particularly well if you’re using clam shell molds for your bath bombs, as you can just leave them in the mold over night and in the morning have a nice round dry bath bomb. This is ideal for new bath bombers who only have a handful of bombs they need to make at a time, though it can become prohibitive once your sales start to increase as you’ll have to buy more and more molds to hold bath bombs, and  even the cheap little plastic clam shells started to get really expensive once your sales pick up. Additionally, because most e-commerce sites penalize you if your ship times are too long, it can become troublesome having to wait 24 hours before you can ship your bath bombs once your business starts to grow.

Which brings us to option 2.

Oven Drying Your Bath Bombs

The next method we moved on to when we were starting out was drying our bath bombs in the oven. This is a great option for you bath bombers out there that only need a few oven’s worth of bath bombs at a time. It’s effective, easy, and doesn’t cost anything (aside from electricity). To dry your bath bombs in the oven,  simply turn the oven to the ‘warm’ setting, let it come up to temp, and then leave them in there to dry for 1-4 hours.

This is a great solution for when you have a specific type you need to make in the morning and need to be able to ship it later that day. If it’s an absolute emergency, you can usually get away with only drying it for about an hour, but remember, the longer you leave it in there the better the odds of it showing up to your customer in one piece!

Another benefit is that when we baked our bath bombs they would come out and almost have something of a ‘shell’ on the exterior. It felt very hard, and made a satisfying clicking sound when you tap your fingernail against it.

The main drawback with oven baking is that for it to be effective, the bath bombs should be removed from their molds and placed onto an oven rack. This can be challenging if you’re using clam shell molds and your bath bombs are fragile right after you’ve made them. That was one of our biggest challenges when we first started making our own bath bombs. This is mainly due to your baking soda and the citric acid mix being too dry, so if this is a problem you encounter, the best course of action is to continue to experiment with your recipe until your bath bombs come out perfect and durable every time.

And one of the best ways to achieve that result is…

How to make bath bombs harder? – Kaolin Clay

At the end of the day, if you’re going to grow your bath bomb business, you should really consider adding Kaolin Clay to your recipe. When we first started using it, it proved to be a real game changer for us. Our bath bombs became instantly more durable when removed from the mold, and were dry enough to ship within 3 hours if needed. We could make our bath bombs in the morning, and know that they’d be ready to ship by the afternoon whenever we needed them.

The only real drawback to adding the kaolin clay was the added upfront cost, though when I worked out the numbers at the end of the month it turned out that what we spent on the Kaolin clay was offset by the amount of product we didn’t lose to crumbled bath bombs. So for us it was a no brainer, and we’ve been using it in every bath bomb we’ve made since. how to make bath bombs harder – One (very important) caveat, is that the Kaolin Clay comes in powdered form, so as with all powdered ingredients you want to make sure you’re always wearing a dust mask or a respirator when handling it so that you don’t breathe the powder into your lungs.

How does a Bath Bomb Work

Bath Bombs and UTI

Wikipedia

How does a Bath Bomb Work

How does a Bath Bomb Work – The part that makes them fizz is the same as an Alka Seltzer or soluble aspirin tablet: sodium bicarbonate and citric acid. These chemicals are inert when they are dry powders, but in water they dissolve and the citric acid reacts with the sodium bicarbonate to form sodium citrate and carbon dioxide.

The sodium citrate stays in solution and you don’t really notice it, but the carbon dioxide bubbles out as a gas that helps the bath bomb break up. This lets the detergents, perfumes and oils that make up the rest of the bath bomb mix with the bathwater.

How does a Bath Bomb Work – Bath bombs are awesome balls of fizzy goodness, with some interesting science behind them! They were invented in 1989 by Mo Constantine, one of Lush’s founders. Bath bombs contain the chemical sodium bicarbonate, also known as baking soda, as their key ingredient

Bath bombs are awesome balls of fizzy goodness, with some interesting science behind them! They were invented in 1989 by Mo Constantine, one of Lush’s founders. Bath bombs contain the chemical sodium bicarbonate, also known as baking soda, as their key ingredient.

How does a Bath Bomb Work

Some of you might remember that baking soda isn’t good for your skin because it’s a base, with a high pH. High pH (alkaline or basic) products disturb the skin’s acid mantle, which protects your living tissue from the environment, particularly bacteria, like acne-causing Propionibacterium acnes.

But don’t fret! The second key ingredient in a bath bomb is a solid acid, such as citric acid or tartaric acid (cream of tartar). This lowers the pH by reacting with the baking soda when water is added to the mixture. Unless the maker of the bath bombs has really messed up their proportions, the final pH should be reasonably neutral. Until the water dissolves the acid and baking soda and allows them to mix at a microscopic level, nothing happens.

Aside from neutralisation, the acid + base reaction with sodium carbonate also produces tiny bubbles of carbon dioxide gas, which is what causes the fizzing:

How does a Bath Bomb Work – The Chemical Reaction

Citric acid + sodium bicarbonate → sodium citrate + water + carbon dioxide

C6H8O7(s) + 2NaHCO3(s) → Na2C6H6O7(aq) + 2H2O(l) + 2CO2(g)

How does a Bath Bomb Work – This is almost the same reaction as the one commonly used in volcano science projects to create foaming “lava” (they usually use vinegar as the acid). Of course, in bath bombs, there’s also fragrance and colours and glitter – the fizzing helps the bath bomb disperse faster, and combined with heat from the hot water, spreads the scent faster and makes the whole bathroom smell amazing.

How do bath bombs work

Bath bombs can slowly absorb water from the air, using up the acid and sodium carbonate and releasing carbon dioxide prematurely – this is why bath bombs get less fizzy as they get old! Make sure you keep your bath bombs in a dry place until you’re ready to use them.

How does a Bath Bomb Work – When the weather outside is frightful, soaking in a hot bath can sound especially appealing. And adding a bath bomb to the water can elevate the experience. But what exactly is in these scented spheres, and what makes them so fizzy?

Bath bombs are usually made from three key ingredients: baking soda, citric acid and cornstarch, said Frankie Wood-Black, an instructor in chemistry at Northern Oklahoma College and an experienced bath-bomb maker. Often, bath bombs also include dyes and perfumes, and sometimes they have epsom salt.

How does a Bath Bomb Work – The fizziness of bath bombs comes from the chemical reactions that happen when the baking soda and citric acid come into contact with water, Wood-Black told Live Science. Baking soda, or sodium bicarbonate, has the chemical formula NaHCO3. In water, baking soda quickly dissolves, and the positively charged sodium (Na+) breaks apart from negatively charged bicarbonate (HCO3-).

Meanwhile, the citric acid also dissolves, with a single hydrogen ion (H+) separating from the rest of the molecule, Wood-Black said. Then, that positively charged hydrogen from the citric acid and the negatively charged bicarbonate from the baking soda mingle, very quickly undergoing a series of reactions. One of the end products is carbon dioxide (CO2). Because carbon dioxide is a gas, it forms small bubbles in the bath water, creating a delightful fizz.

If there are perfumes or scented oils in the bath bomb, they are released into the air with the carbon dioxide bubbles, Wood-Black said. The sodium from the baking soda and the rest of the citric acid molecule (minus the hydrogen that it lost when it dissolved) simply remain in the water.

The cornstarch in a bath bomb has just one job: It slows down the reaction.

By binding to the baking soda as well as the citric acid, the cornstarch slows down the rate at which both of them dissolve. The effect is that the fizziness may last 3 or 4 minutes, instead of only seconds, Wood-Black said.

Making bath bombs is not difficult, she said. She mixes 1 cup of baking soda, one-half cup of citric acid and one-half cup of cornstarch together in a bowl. All three items can be found at grocery stores. Citric acid is found in soda and candy and can also be used to make cheese, Wood-Black noted. After mixing the three ingredients, she adds about 1 teaspoon of water, which is enough to just barely moisten the ingredient mixture so that the powder sticks together. She then scoops the mixture into a mold (such as a Santa or a star candy mold) to form a shape and lets the shapes dry overnight.

But you can also just mix together the three key ingredients and skip the water. Leave the mixture in a jar, and then scoop it into your bath, she said.

Food coloring can be used to dye bath bombs, she said. But she doesn’t dye the ones she makes. “I opt not [to do that],” she said. “I’m a chemist by profession, but with food coloring, I just get it all over the place.”

How to make bath bombs harder?

Bath Bombs and UTI

Wikipedia

Which Ethnic Group has the highest IQ

Which Ethnic Group has the highest IQ

Which Ethnic Group has the highest IQ – The 20th century witnessed a dramatic increase in IQ, as much as 3 points per decade . The fact that IQ scores increased so much in such a short amount of time has raised many issues about the nature of intelligence, and what intelligence tests are measuring. For instance, while an individual’s IQ test performance within a particular generation tends to be relatively stable and is determined by a complex mix of nature and nurture, such dramatic increases across generations demonstrates the potent influence of the environment on the development of cognitive abilities.Multiple researchers have proposed theories to explain the Flynn effect. One of the most elaborate is Dickens and Flynn’s ‘social multiplier effect’. Their proposed effect takes into account the importance of culture in influencing what particular forms of intelligence it educates, spotlights, and nurtures.

Which Ethnic Group has the highest IQ : World IQ Figures

Including Additional Material
on high Jewish, Chinese and Indian IQs

Which Ethnic Group has the highest IQ

1      Afghanistan     83
2      Albania     90
3      Algeria     84
4      Angola     69
5      Antigua & Barbuda     75
6      Argentina     96
7      Armenia     93
8      Australia     98
9     Austria     102
10   Azerbaijan     87
11     Bahamas     78
12     Bahrain     83
13     Bangladesh     81
14     Barbados     78
15     Belarus     96
16     Belgium     100
17     Belize     83
18     Benin     69
19     Bhutan     78
20     Bolivia     85
21     Botswana     72
22     Brazil     87
23     Brunei     92
24     Bulgaria     93
25     Burkina Faso     66
26     Burma (Myanmar)     86
27     Burundi     70
28     Cambodia     89
29     Cameroon     70
30    Canada     97
31     Cape Verde     78
32     Central African Rep.     68
33     Chad     72
34     Chile     93
35     China     100
36     Colombia     88
37     Comoros     79
38     Congo (Braz)   73
39     Congo (Zaire)  65
40     Costa Rica     91
41     Côte d’Ivoire
42     Croatia     90
43     Cuba     85
44     Cyprus     92
45     Czech Republic     97
46     Denmark     98
47     Djibouti     68
48     Dominica     75
49     Dominican Republic     84
50     Ecuador     80
51     Egypt     83
52     El Salvador     84
53     Equatorial Guinea     59
54     Eritrea     68
55     Estonia     97
56     Ethiopia     63
57     Fiji     84
58     Finland     97
59     France     98
60     Gabon     66
61     Gambia     64
62     Georgia     93
63     Germany     102
64     Ghana     71
65     Greece     92
66     Grenada     75
67     Guatemala     79
68     Guinea     63
69     Guinea-Bissau     63
70     Guyana     84
71     Haiti     72
72     Honduras     84
73     Hong Kong     107
74     Hungary     99
75     Iceland     98
76     India     81
77     Indonesia     89
78     Iran     84
79     Iraq     87
80     Ireland     93
81     Israel     94
82     Italy     102
83     Jamaica     72
84     Japan     105
85     Jordan     87
86     Kazakhstan     93
87     Kenya     72
88     Kiribati     84
89     Korea, North     105
90     Korea, South     106
91     Kuwait     83
92     Kyrgyzstan     87
93     Laos     89
94     Latvia     97
95     Lebanon     86
96     Lesotho     72
97     Liberia     64
98     Libya     84
99     Lithuania     97*
100    Luxembourg     101
101     Macedonia     93
102     Madagascar     79
103     Malawi     71
104     Malaysia     92
105     Maldives     81
106     Mali     68
107     Malta     95
108     Marshall Islands     84
109     Mauritania     73
110     Mauritius     81
111     Mexico     87
112     Micronesia     84
113     Moldova     95
114     Mongolia     98
115     Morocco     85
116     Mosambique     72
117     Namibia     72
118     Nepal     78
119     Netherlands     102
120     New Zealand     100
121     Nicaragua     84
122     Niger     67
123     Nigeria     67
124     Norway     98
125     Oman     83
126     Pakistan     81
127     Panama     84
128     Papua New Guinea     84
129     Paraguay     85
130     Peru     90
131     Philippines     86
132     Poland     99
133     Portugal     95
134     Puerto Rico     84
135     Qatar     78
136     Romania     94
137     Russia     96
138     Rwanda     70
139     Samoa (Western)     87
140     Sao Tome/Principe     59
141     Saudi Arabia     83
142     Senegal     64
143     Seychelles     81
144     Sierra Leone     64
145     Singapore     100
146     Slovakia     96
147     Slovenia     95
148     Solomon Islands     84
149     Somalia     68
150     South Africa     72
151     Spain     99
152     Sri Lanka     81
153     St. Kitts & Nevis     75
154     St. Lucia     75
155     St.Vincent/Grenadines     75
156     Sudan     72
157     Suriname     89
158     Swaziland     72
159     Sweden     101
160     Switzerland     101
161     Syria     87
162     Taiwan     104
163     Tajikistan     87
164     Tanzania     72
165     Thailand     91
166     Togo     69
167     Tonga     87
168     Trinidad & Tobago     80
169     Tunisia     84
170     Turkey     90
171     Turkmenistan     87
172     Uganda     73
173     Ukraine     96
174     United Arab Emirates     83
175     United Kingdom     100
176     United States     98
177     Uruguay     96
178     Uzbekistan     87
179     Vanuatu     84
180    Venezuela     88
181     Vietnam     96
182     Yemen     83
183     Yugoslavia     93
184     Zambia     77
185     Zimbabwe   66

With the single exception of Ashkanazi Jews (see Endnote), the “yellow races” enjoy the highest IQs in the world, with the Hong Kong Chinese scoring most (107), South Koreans (106), North Koreans (105), Japanese (105). In comparison, the average Caucasian has an IQ of 100 or less.

Which Ethnic Group has the highest IQ – Notes  on Jewish IQ:

ASHKENAZI  JEWS: Unlike the “average” Jew in Israel whose IQ is given above as 94, the Ashkenazi Jew is said to have an average IQ of 110-115, sometimes as high as 117. This is 10 points above the Hong Kong Chinese (107), 20 points above the Canadians (97), 30 points above the Mexicans (87), and 50 points above the Nigerians (67).

“The 2005 paper “Natural History of Ashkenazi Intelligence” by Cochran, Hardy, and Harpending, argued on the basis of inherited diseases and the peculiar economic situation of Ashkenazi Jews in medieval Europe, that Ashkenazi Jews as a group now inherit a cognitive profile that includes higher verbal and mathematical intelligence than other ethnic groups, along with lower spatial intelligence.

One observational basis for inferring that Ashkenazi Jews have high intelligence is their prevalance in intellectually demanding fields. From 1901–2010, 21.5% of Nobel prize winners were Jewish, while Jews make up a much smaller fraction of the population of the countries represented. For example, 36% of Nobel prize winners from the United States have been Jewish, while Jews make up 2.1% of the U.S. population.

G. Cochran, J. Hardy and H. Harpending additionally cite the disproportionately high percentage of Ashkenazi Chess Grandmasters and Fields Medalists in mathematics, as well as winners of the Turing Award in computer science.

Their median IQ is calculated at 117 in From Chance to Choice: Genetics and Justice (2000), published by Cambridge University Press. This is 10 points higher than the generally-accepted IQ of their closest rivals—Northeast Asians—and almost 20% higher than the global average.”

“Other researchers who study the Ashkenazim have asserted an IQ number a bit lower than 117, but all have agreed that these children of Abraham are on top of the IQ chart. Plus, contemplate this astounding tidbit: Ashkenazi “visual-spatial” test scores are typically lower than the norm; this means their abilities in the other two categories, language and math, are absolutely astounding.

Nobel Prizes: Since 1950, 29% of the awards have gone to Ashkenazim, even though they represent only 0.25% of humanity. Ashkenazi achievement in this arena is 117 times greater than their population.

Hungary in the 1930s: Ashkenazim were 6% of the population, but they comprised 55.7% of physicians, 49.2% of attorneys, 30.4% of engineers, and 59.4% of bank officers; plus, they owned 49.4% of the metallurgy industry, 41.6% of machine manufacturing, 72.8% of clothing manufacturing, and, as housing owners, they received 45.1% of Budapest rental income. Jews were similarly successful in nearby nations, like Poland and Germany.

USA (today): Ashkenazi Jews comprise 2.2% of the USA population, but they represent 30% of faculty at elite colleges, 21% of Ivy League students, 25% of the Turing Award winners, 23% of the wealthiest Americans, and 38% of the Oscar-winning film directors.

Israel: In 1922, this swamp and desert land was inhabited by a impoverished population of 752,000. Today there are 7,746,000 residents, with an Ashkenazi majority that have elevated it into a high-tech entrepreneurial nation with the highest per capita income in the region.”

Which Ethnic Group has the highest IQ – The simplest explanation for the huge IQ difference between the fair-skinned Ashkenazi Jews and swarthier Jews of Semitic appearance (e.g., Sephardic Jews) is a so-called conspiracy theory known as the “Khazarian thesis”.

Popularized by Arthur Koestler in The Thirtheenth Tribe and accepted by notable Jewish scholars themselves (e.g. Prof. Shlomo Sand), this basically states that the Ashkenazi Jews are “false Jews” or aliens of an entirely different race masquerading as Semitic Jews. Originating in a region known as “Khazaria”, these Turko-Tartaric tribes converted to Judaism in the 8th century. So they were “Jews” only by religious conversion, not by blood. As such, being essentially “false Jews”, they have no historic link to the Holy Land and no Biblical claim whatever to Palestine.

KHAZARIA: ORIGINAL HOMELAND OF THE ASHKENAZI JEWS

Descended from the Khazars, a Turkic race originally from Central Asia and related to the Hun, Uigur and Magyar tribes, the ancestors of the Ashkenazi “Jews” had settled in Khazaria in the Black Sea/Caspian Sea area at some point in the Dark Ages. Of wholly Asiatic origin, they became “Jews” later only by religious conversion in the 8th century. This is controversial.  Because, if true, it means that Ahhkenazi Jews have no ancestral links with the Holy Land. Abraham and Moses were NOT their ancestors. Any claim made to Palestine on Biblical grounds by Ashkenazi Jews—who comprise the bulk of Israel’s population today—would therefore be a spurious claim.

Which Ethnic Group has the highest IQ – The Khazarian thesis of Koestler has been rejected by other notable scholars. Prof. Kevin MacDonald is one of these. He states categorically: “Modern population genetic studies show conclusively that Jews are indeed an ethnic entity and that widely dispersed Jewish groups are more similar to each other than to the peoples they have lived among for hundreds or thousands of years.” (See here).

There are two significant weaknesses with this anti-Khazarian thesis, i.e., with the idea that Ashkenazi Jews and other Jews are pretty much the same and originate from the same “Semitic” race that produced Abraham and Moses.

(1) Studies that show “genetic similarities” between Ashkenazi Jews and other widely dispersed Jewish groups do not necessarily disprove the Khazarian thesis. This is because intermarriage between the Ashkenazis and the non-Askenazi or “Semitic” Jews was frequent in Khazaria from the 8th century onward, and indeed anywhere else in the world where the fair-skinned Khazarian “Jews” (= Jews by conversion) mingled with and married the darker Semitic Jews.

(2)  The huge gap of 23 points between the IQ levels of Israeli Jews (94) and Ashkenazi Jews (117) cannot be satisfactorily explained if we believe, as MacDonald states, “that Jews are indeed an ethnic entity and that widely dispersed Jewish groups are more similar to each other than to the peoples they have lived among for hundreds or thousands of years.”

If we examine the IQs of the Northeast Asians, for example, we note that these genetically related races all have very similar IQs: Hong Kong Chinese (107), South Koreans (106), North Koreans (105), Japanese (105), Taiwanese (104), Mainland Chinese (100). None of these genetically related races is 23 points higher than any of the others, though taken as a whole they are 23 points higher than most of the African races. The conclusion is obvious: the fact that the Northeast Asians and the Africans have such a huge difference in their IQs is a proof, if any were needed, that these races are genetically unrelated.

If we take the European or Caucasian races, we note exactly the same thing: a striking similarity of IQs: Germany (102), Austria (102), Italy (102), Netherlands (102), Sweden (101), Switzerland (101), Belgium (100), UK (100), Spain (99), Hungary (99), Poland (99), France (98), Denmark (98), Norway (98).

Note that not one of these European races is 23 points higher in IQ than any of the others, though taken as a whole they are 23 pints higher than the African nations. The conclusion is again obvious: the fact that the Europeans and the Africans have such a huge difference in their IQs is a proof, if any were needed, that Europeans and Africans are genetically unrelated.

Which Ethnic Group has the highest IQ – From this we arrive at the indisputable conclusion that a huge differences in IQ between one group and another group essentially means that the groups belong to different races. If, for example, every Caucasian nation mentioned above had similar IQs of around 100, but ONE European nation—”Ruritania”, let’s say— had an average IQ of 130, one would have to conclude that the “Ruritarians” did not, and could not, belong to the same Caucasian race as all the others.

It is this that gives credence to Koestler’s Khazarian thesis: that the Ashkenazi “Jews” are not really Jews, and that they are Jews only by conversion to Judaism.

Conclusion: The 23 point difference in IQs between Ashkenazis and non-Ashkenazis would seem to demonstrate conclusively that these people belong to entirely different races. If they belonged to the same “Semitic” race, they would follow the general rule of having similar IQs.

Speaking of anti-Semitism, Koestler was to write that it was based  “on a misapprehension shared by both the killers and their victims.”

The story of the Khazar Empire, he went on to add, gave an entirely new twist to “the distorted view that all Jews were genetically related and belonged to the same Semitic race.”

This began to look, he concluded controversially, “like the most cruel hoax which history has ever perpetrated.”

UPDATE  ON  JEWISH  IQ

Which Ethnic Group has the highest IQ – A correspondent writes: “If we look at the Israeli national avg. for IQ, it is only 94. Prof. Lynn in Ireland is the ultimate authority on IQ differences. In a semi-private conversation at an AR conference (Feb. 2001), he said that the Jewish IQ outside of Israel is 103-104 (somewhat expected to graduate from higher education). Prof. Lynn stated: “I don’t understand why there is this push to say 110-115, by my colleagues, when there is no scientific study that proves that.”

SUMMARY

Following are the various human groups and their average IQs :

Highest : East Asians (Chinese, Koreans, Japanese) – average IQ 105

High : Europeans – average IQ 100.

Mediocre : American Indians, Mestizos, American Blacks (are for 20% mixed with White genes), Arabs, Turks, Iranians, Indians, South East Asians – average IQ 85.

Low : African (full blood) Negroes – average IQ 70.

Lower : Australian Aborigines – average IQ 62

Lowest : Bushmen and Pygmies – average IQ 54.

— Supplied by Franklin Ryckaert

Note. It is not clear where Jews should be placed on this list, but they are definitely in the higher-than-average category, although Israeli Jews are given a “mediocre” IQ of only 94.  Conventionally, Ashkenazi Jews are allotted the highest IQs in the world at 110-115, but Professor Lynn ascribes them a lower average IQ of 103-104. (See above, ‘Update on Jewish IQ’). If correct, this would mean that Jews are slightly less intelligent on the whole than the clever East Asians, i.e., the Chinese, Japanese and Koreans. (LD)

UPDATE ON INDIAN and Chinese IQ ***

Which Ethnic Group has the highest IQ – It would appear that the “mediocre” IQ in India of 81, though applicable en masse to the population of the subcontinent as a whole, is not applicable to the closely inbred brahminical classes of Bengal and Tamil Nadu (and other such areas) which have been practicing their own highly idiosyncratic form of eugenics for centuries  These high-caste Indians  are reported to have the world’s highest IQs in the 115-120 range.

Franklin Ryckaert offers this comment:

Besides the Ashkenazi Jews with their high average IQ, another interesting group is Indian Brahmins, who have an ancient culture of learning and are strictly endogamic, which would tend to breed for intellect. There is an interesting article touching on this subject on Steve Sailer’s blog. Here the average IQ of North Indian Brahmins is estimated at 115 and that of South Indian Brahmins at 120. If that is true, they would surpass even the Ashkenazis.

LD: If the above details are correct, it would not be unreasonable to apply the same tentative logic to China, leading us to speculate that the IQ of the highly bred  Chinese scholar classes or mandarinate — the equivalent of India’s brahminical caste — may be far higher than the average Chinese IQ of 105.

Which Ethnic Group has the highest IQ – Another point worth noting, in regard to Indian IQ, is that it is hard to believe that the average IQ of Indian immigrants to Western countries is as low as 81. The average IQ of of Indian immigrants certainly equals, and often exceeds by a wide margin, the average IQ (100) of the local white population. Some of the most gifted children in British schools today have highly educated Indian parents. Moreover, even in India itself, the children of the educated classes who attend expensive boarding schools have higher-than average IQs, often going on to Oxford and Cambridge for further education.


SOURCE OF STATISTICS:
Intelligence and the Wealth and Poverty of Nations by Richard Lynn

How long does it take to become a Lawyer

How long does it take to become a Lawyer

How long does it take to become a Lawyer : Generally, to become a lawyer, you have to take a four-year baccalaureate degree and three years of Law School are required to earn a degree in Law. Then you have to obtain a license by gaining admittance to the Bar in the jurisdiction in which you wish to practice.

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How long does it take to become a Lawyer

Four years to earn an undergraduate degree, the major can be almost anything but most students choose Criminal Justice or Political Science; some institutions offer a Bachelor’s Degree in pre-law. Before being accepted to law school you must take the LSAT which is a test for admittance. If the law student carries a full credit load they can conceivably finish in three years.
After graduating from law school the person will have a Juris Doctor (a doctorate of law) and may then take the bar exam in the state where they choose to be licensed. This usually occurs a few months after graduation. Most states offer the Bar exam in February and July, about two months after most schools graduate their classes. Results can take many months before they are announced. (July exam results are typically published in November!)
In the U.S., it takes about 7 years to become a lawyer; the times vary from state to state due to various bar rules and regulations. You need a Bachelor’s degree before attending law school for 3 years. A Bachelor’s degree takes about 4 years to complete, and you apply to lots of law schools a year before you plan to attend. In order to be considered for admission to law school, you must first write and pass the Law School Admissions Test (LSAT).
Once you have your Bachelor’s degree and have completed law school, you need to write your state’s bar exam for admittance. Usually, law school finishes in May or June and you take the summer to study for the Bar exam. There are courses that specifically teach you how to write the exam. In some states, you can be practicing law as soon as October of the same year.
How long does it take to become a Lawyer
In Canada, you aren’t admitted to the Provincial Bar until approximately 2 years after completion of your law degree. One year is spent articling; working for a law firm as a student lawyer and provincial bar have a limited amount of sittings per year. In addition, the individual provinces have their own formal education to be admitted to the bar.
For either country, it is a long haul. For people with law degrees from a foreign country, there is a whole set of criteria that must be met before practicing law is allowed; criteria vary according to which country your degree comes from.

How long does it take to become a Lawyer

Most people who pursue a career as a lawyer generally take the traditional path of earning a bachelor’s degree followed by three years of law school. The amount of time this actually will take you depends on whether you attend school full-time and pass the bar exam on the first try. However, not every state imposes the same requirements, so choosing to practice in one state over another can significantly affect the time it takes to become a lawyer.

Getting an Undergraduate Degree

Getting an Undergraduate Degree

The initial step to becoming a lawyer generally is four years of study as an undergraduate at a college or university. It isn’t necessary to focus your undergraduate studies in a legal field or in any particular major for that matter – just as long as you earn a bachelor’s degree. Most law schools that are accredited by the American Bar Association, or ABA, require you to complete a bachelor’s degree to be admitted. In California, however, you’re eligible to enter law school with just two years of undergraduate coursework or by passing an equivalency exam. Though you might be able to enter law school more quickly, you may have a hard time getting admitted into a top law school this way.

How long does it take to become a Lawyer – Taking the LSAT

A majority of the law schools in the United States require applicants to take the Law School Admission test, or LSAT, as it’s more commonly referred to. Your score on the LSAT is a significant part of your law school applications and you’ll need to spend time preparing for it. However, students who are pursuing an undergraduate degree usually complete the test while in college – so preparing for the LSAT doesn’t normally require additional time. If you’re unhappy with your initial score or you already completed your bachelor’s degree, retaking the test or finding time to study for it can increase the amount of time it takes you to become a lawyer.

How long does it take to be lawyer – Going to Law School

If you’re able to enroll in law school as a full-time student, you can expect to complete the program in three years. Attending law school on a part-time basis is an option at many law schools, but it does mean you’ll be studying for four rather than three years. Some states, such as Colorado, don’t even require that you attend law school. However, the majority of states, such as New Jersey, require attendance at an ABA-accredited law school.

Writing the State Bar Exam

Writing the State Bar Exam

Soon after graduating from, law school, you’ll need to sit for the bar exam in your state, or in the state where you want to practice law. Studying for the bar exam will likely consume two to three months of your time and will take an additional few months to get the results. But even if you pass, you still can’t hold yourself out as a lawyer until you’re officially admitted to the bar. To be admitted, you must pass a character and fitness review by your state’s bar association. This process includes a thorough background check of your financial, criminal, residence and employment history. The amount of time this takes will depend on how clean your background is, but you can generally expect it to take a number of months.

How to become a Lawyer?

How to become a Lawyer?

All lawyers must be academically qualified and licensed to perform their professional role. Academic qualifications are a pre-requisite to taking a state’s bar examination.

The most typical route to becoming a lawyer entails completing an undergraduate degree in any major (those interested in intellectual property law should have a strong background in sciences), taking the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) and completing the juris doctor (J.D.) degree, before sitting for the state’s bar examination.

Before selecting a law school, applicants must make sure of the accreditation by the American Bar Association (ABA). There are non-accredited law schools as well, which may be imparting quality education, however, their graduates may not be able to sit for the state’s bar examination.

How long does it take to get a lawyer degree

SO How long does it take to become a Lawyer? Individuals interested in law careers typically ask a common question, “How long does it take to complete a law degree?” The answer is that the time can vary depending on the individual’s career goals and the type of legal degree they pursue. Becoming a lawyer can take a few years while pursuing a career as a scholar or a consultant may require a different amount of studies. Here is some information on law degrees and how long they can take to complete.

Types of Law Degrees

Determining the length of time to complete law degrees first requires knowing the type of degree the individual wishes to pursue. Here are the most common law degrees:

  • Juris Doctor – Referred to as the original of law degrees, this is for students who want to work as licensed lawyers.
  • Master of Legal Studies – This is for individuals who want a solid understanding of the law but don’t wish to become a licensed lawyer.
  • Master of Dispute Resolution – This non-JD degree program for individuals who want to work for various businesses and deal with negotiations and resolutions.
  • Master of Laws – This degree is for individuals who already have a law degree but want to specialize in a certain area of law, such as intellectual property, family law or immigration to name a few.
  • Doctor of Judicial Science – This high-level degree is for individuals who have already earned the Juris Doctor and the Master of Laws and wish to pursue careers in research, academia or as a legal scholar.

How Long to Complete Law Degrees

How Long to Complete Law Degrees

CLICK THE IMAGE TO ENLARGE IN A NEW WINDOWWhen determining the time it takes to earn a law degree, keep in mind that most law degrees require that the student first has a bachelor’s degree, which takes four years to complete. Beyond the bachelor’s degree, the law student can expect the following time periods.

  • Juris Doctor – This program requires three years to complete.
  • Master of Legal Studies – This program can be completed in 16 months of full-time study or 28 months of part-time study.
  • Master of Dispute Resolution – Students can complete this program in 16 to 28 months depending on the level of commitment.
  • Master of Laws – This program can be completed in one to two years.
  • Doctor of Judicial Science – This full-time program can be completed in two years.

Curriculum for Law Degrees

Students earning a law degree complete a curriculum that includes course work, seminars, internships, fellowships and extensive research. They can choose from several programs of study including law and history; criminal justice; international and comparative law; law and government; law and social change, and law, science and technology. Courses can vary depending on the field of law a student may choose. Course topics might include:

  • Administrative law
  • Bankruptcy
  • Capital punishment
  • Constitutional law
  • Cyber laws
  • Evidence
  • Legal research and writing

Related Resource: Top 30 Most Affordable Law Degree Programs Online

Career Outlook for Lawyers

Lawyers continue to be in demand as individuals and businesses are in need of legal services in many areas. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts job growth of eight percent during the 2016-2026 decade. As of May 2017, lawyers earned wages ranging from $57,430 to $178,480 with the average annual wage at $141,890. Legal students who have the highest degree levels generally earn the highest wages.

A legal career can involve a lot of education, training and externships and it’s also a big commitment. Despite how long it can take to complete a law degree, working as an attorney can be exciting, challenging and very rewarding.

What does OBGYN stand for?

OBGYN meaning - What does OBGYN stand for

What does OBGYN stand for? – OB/GYN:  Is a common abbreviation. OB is the abbreviation for obstetrics or obstetrician – a Doctor who delivers babies. GYN is the abbreviation for gynecology or gynecologist, a Doctor specializing in  female reproductive organs diseases treatment.

OBGYN meaning - What does OBGYN stand for

OB/GYN means – actually means Obstetric/Gynaecology, rumoured to mean “Oh Boy-Got You Naked”

What does OBGYN stand for – Gynecologist

Gynecologist

A gynecologist provides more generalized care, and deals with women’s overall reproductive health. A gynecologist is especially focused on the health of the reproductive tract. There are a few procedures your doctor might suggest to remove the reproductive tract if certain diseases or conditions develop. The word “gynecology” comes from the Greek gyno, gynaikos meaning woman + logia meaning study, so gynecology literally is the study of women.

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What does OBGYN stand for – Obstetrician

Obstetrician

An obstetrician also deals with the reproductive system, but specializes more specifically in pregnancy and childbirth. Obstetricians care for women during pregnancy and handle the delivery of the baby when the time is right. If there are any special needs during pregnancy – a Cesarean section or a need to turn the baby inside the womb, for instance – an obstetrician handles these.

An obstetrician/gynecologist (OB/GYN) is therefore a physician who both delivers babies and treats diseases of the female reproductive organs.

What does OBGYN stand for in medical terms?

What does OBGYN stand for in medical terms

OBGYN means – Gynecologist (OBstetrics and GYNecology)An obstetrician-gynecologist, or OBGYN, has expertise in female reproductive health, pregnancy, and childbirth. Some OBGYN offer a wide range of general health services similar to your primary care doctor. Others focus on the medical care of the female reproductive system.

OBGYN also provide routine medical services and preventive screenings. This type of doctor has studied obstetrics and gynecology.

The term “OBGYN” can refer to the doctor, an obstetrician-gynecologist, or to the sciences that the doctor specializes in, which are obstetrics and gynecology.

Obstetrics and gynaecology

What does an OB/GYN do?

What does an OB/GYN do

As an OB/GYN, you specialize in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases and disorders that affect women, such as breast cancer, cervical cancer and menopause. Additionally, you work with expecting mothers throughout their pregnancies, during childbirth and into postpartum. As a doctor, your responsibilities also include performing annual examinations, collecting and documenting patient medical histories and providing counseling on diet, hygiene, sexual health and disease prevention.

What happens at your first OB/GYN appointment?

What happens at your first OB/GYN appointment

What to expect at first OB/GYN appointment:

  •  Complete medical history. Your doctor will ask about your health, details of any past pregnancies, your partner’s health, and the health of your family and your partner’s family.
  •  Physical exam. Your height, weight, and blood pressure will be measured and recorded. Your doctor will discuss any chronic health problems you may have and how they will affect or be affected by your pregnancy. She will perform a complete physical exam that includes checking your thyroid and breasts and listening to your heart and lungs. She will also perform an internal exam, checking your cervix, ovaries, vagina, and uterus.
  •  Calculation of your due date. Your due date is based on the date of the start of your last period. An average pregnancy is 40 weeks (280 days) from the first day of your last normal menstrual period (LNMP). (Keep in mind that 40 weeks is average. A normal pregnancy can last anywhere from 37 weeks to 42 weeks.) If your periods are irregular or you don’t know your LNMP, then your due date will be based on your earliest ultrasound.
  •  Laboratory tests. See “Common Prenatal Lab Tests” (above) for the kinds of tests your doctor may perform. Most are performed by analyzing blood or urine samples.
  •  A discussion about genetic testing. Depending on your medical history and ethnic background, your doctor may talk with you about doing tests for cystic fibrosis; Tay-Sachs and Canavan disease (if you’re an Ashkenazi Jew); and sickle-cell anemia if you’re black.
  •  A schedule for future appointments. Ask your provider about upcoming tests and when you should schedule your regular appointments.
  •  Prenatal vitamins. Ask your provider for a prescription, if you aren’t already taking them. Or head to a local drugstore to buy prenatal vitamins over the counter. Ask the pharmacist if you aren’t sure which kind to buy.
  •  Healthy-pregnancy information. Your doctor may give you advice or a handout sheet about diet, exercise, weight, and over-the-counter medications that are safe during pregnancy. You may also get contact information for when your doctor’s office is closed.

What is an OB/GYN nurse?

An OBGYN nurse is an RN who specializes in women’s health and reproduction, providing care for women during all stages of pregnancy, during labor and birth, and during post-partum, providing support to women as they transition into the role of motherhood.

During childbirth, OBGYN nurses assist physicians and participate as a labor coach. The OBGYN nurse is prepared to respond quickly to emergency situations. Following birth of the newborn, the OBGYN nurse provides initial assessment and care for the newborn, most importantly, ensuring the infant’s ability to breathe independently.

In the clinic or private practice office, the OBGYN nurse will participate in routine wellness care, prenatal screening, and procedures such as the performance of ultrasounds. As nurse educators, OBGYN nurses provide teaching related to physical and sexual health, birth control, fertility treatment options, and preventative care such as mammogram screening and HPV vaccination.

They provide pre-pregnancy counseling, helping women prepare mentally and physically for pregnancy. OBGYN nurses provide care related to women’s reproductive health across the lifespan, from puberty through menopause. Above all, a desire to help and provide care for women and newborn infants is a critical component for the role of an OBGYN nurse.

what does an OBGYN nurse do?

  • What You Will Do: Provide care for women during pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum.
  • Where Will You Work: Most OBGYN nurses work in the hospital birth center or private obstetrics and gynecology practice venues.
  • Employment Projections: Nursing is expected to be the fastest-growing professions, with growth projected at 16% – 23%.
  • How Much Will I Earn: The average annual salary for professional nurses is $68,450; factors such as level of degree, specialty certification, geographical location and level of experience will affect salary.
  • Requirements to Become One: Become a registered nurse; complete an associate or bachelor’s degree in nursing, then obtain licensure as a professional registered nurse by passing the NCLEX-RN examination.