Height of Shower Valve?

Height of Shower Valve?

You might be remodeling or you might be installing a new shower. So you are wondering: Height of Shower Valve? Shower valve/s placed to high or low will prove to be a huge ergonomic burden. Thus it is imperative to read this guide before making the call.

ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act)

Human length variation

Also consider with children using the shower, a valve placed too high, plus the playful nature of a child, will equal a head bumped on the valve. As some valves have relative sharp angled control knobs, there will be an extra shower … The tears of a crying child.

Page moved here from our other website “Shower Eden

Well if you are the owner of the shower, I suppose you can choose any height that may please you. But…

If you are considering other people who might also use the shower, you might want to use the ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act) Shower Valve Measurements Requirements.



Height of Shower Valve? – ADA Shower Valve Measurements Requirements.

If you are considering other people who might also use the shower, you might want to use the ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act) Shower Valve Measurements Requirements.

Height Above Floor.

Shower controls area minimum height above the floor is 38 inches above the floor. The maximum height above the floor is 48 inches.

Height of Shower Valve



Height of Shower Valve? – Human length variation

The tallest member of the household should not have to bend to take hold of the shower valve/s.

An older member might have difficulty standing in the shower because of weak feet or legs. This member might want to sit on some chair inside the shower. Thus he/she should still be able to reach the shower valve/s.

Also consider looking up your local building codes, as not all towns and cities have laws regulating the installation of shower valves.

If building codes don’t regulate the location of your valve, place it in a spot that is easy for everyone to access.

A good rule of thumb: for Height of Shower Valve:

Install the valve/s between 36 and 48 inches above the shower floor.

A height of 28 inches, or 2 feet 4 inches, is standard for valves in bathtub shower units.


Malignant Lymph Node Neoplasm

Malignant Lymph Node Neoplasm - Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in Lymph Node

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In this article we explain Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in Lymph Node as thoroughly as possible As well as many related titles and questions

Malignant Lymph Node Neoplasm

First of it is important to explain the words in this title

In very aggressive cases this title is commonly known as:
Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in Lymph Node

Now let us explain every word separately:

Metastatic (Metastasis) (in Malignant Lymph Node Neoplasm)

Metastasis is the spread of cancer cells to new areas of the body, often by way of the lymph system or bloodstream. A metastatic cancer, or metastatic tumor, is one that has spread from the primary site of origin, or where it started, into different areas of the body.

Metastasis means that cancer spreads to a different body part from where it started. When this happens, doctors say the cancer has “metastasized.” Your doctor may also call it “metastatic cancer,” “advanced cancer,” or “stage 4 cancer.” But these terms can have different meanings. For example, a cancer that is large but has not spread to another body part can also be called advanced cancer or locally advanced cancer. Ask your doctor to explain where the cancer has spread.

Here are some questions and answers about this word:

Is metastatic cancer curable?

In some situations, metastatic cancer can be cured, but most commonly, treatment does not cure the cancer. But doctors can treat it to slow its growth and reduce symptoms. It is possible to live for many months or years with certain types of cancer, even after the development of metastatic disease.

What stage is metastatic cancer?

Metastatic cancer is commonly called stage IV cancer or advanced cancer. It occurs when cancer cells break off from the original tumor, spread through the bloodstream or lymph vessels to another part of the body, and form new tumors. Nearby lymph nodes are the most common place for cancer to metastasize

What is the survival rate of metastatic cancer?

The five-year survival rate for people diagnosed with late-stage lung cancer that has spread (metastasized) to other areas of the body is 5 percent. Overall survival rates don’t specify whether cancer survivors are still undergoing treatment at five years or if they’ve become cancer-free (achieved remission).

Is metastatic cancer always Stage 4?

For many types of cancer, it is also called stage IV (four) cancer. The process by which cancer cells spread to other parts of the body is called metastasis. … It is treated as stage IV breast cancer, not as lung cancer. Sometimes when people are diagnosed with metastatic cancer, doctors cannot tell where it started.

Does anyone survive metastatic cancer?

In the past, many people did not live long with metastatic cancer. Even with today’s better treatments, recovery is not always possible. But doctors can often treat cancer even if they cannot cure it. A good quality of life is possible for months or even years.

What is the most common site of metastasis?

Metastatic tumors are very common in the late stages of cancer. The spread of metastasis may occur via the blood or the lymphatics or through both routes. The most common places for the metastases to occur are the lungs, liver, brain, and the bones.

Can chemo cure metastatic cancer?

Chemotherapy. … Chemo is used as the main treatment for many types of metastatic cancer. It can often help shrink tumors, which can reduce pain and help you feel better, but it doesn’t make them go away and stay away. It’s sometimes used with local treatments such as radiation.

How long do you live with Stage 4 metastatic cancer?

Between 20 and 30 percent of women with early stage breast cancer go on to develop metastatic disease. While treatable, metastatic breast cancer (MBC) cannot be cured. The five-year survival rate for stage 4 breast cancer is 22 percent; median survival is three years. Annually, the disease takes 40,000 lives.

How long can you live with bone metastases?

For example, if the 5-year relative survival rate for a specific type and stage of bone cancer is 80%, it means that people who have that cancer are, on average, about 80% as likely as people who don’t have that cancer to live for at least 5 years after being diagnosed.

Can metastatic cancer go into remission?

While metastatic breast cancer may not go away completely, treatment may control it for a number of years. If one treatment stops working, there usually is another you can try. The cancer can be active sometimes and then go into remission at other times.

Can you survive bone metastases?

Bone metastasis may not be curable, but treatment may help people live longer and feel better. The exact mechanism of how cancer cells metastasize to the bones isn’t fully known.

How does metastatic breast cancer kill you?

Metastatic breast cancer is terminal.
“One thing I didn’t know when I was first diagnosed is that breast cancer can only kill you if you have metastatic breast cancer,” says Rosen, who explains that if your cancer remains in the breast, the tumor can be removed, but metastatic means it has spread outside the breast.

Can you live 10 years with metastatic breast cancer?

More than 11% of women diagnosed between 2000-2004 younger than 64 lived for 10 years or more. … “These findings make clear that the majority of metastatic breast cancer patients, those who are diagnosed with non-metastatic cancer but progress to distant disease, have never been properly documented,” said Dr. Mariotto.

Why is metastasis dangerous?

Metastases are often more dangerous than the primary tumor that gives rise to them. … Created by cells released by the primary tumor that have been transported to other organs or body parts, metastases – secondary cancer growths that spread through the body – are often viewed as its ‘deadly offspring’.

How is metastatic cancer treated?

Typically, metastatic cancer requires systemic therapy, or medications given by mouth or injected into the bloodstream to reach cancer cells throughout the body, such as chemotherapy or hormone therapy. Other treatments may include immunotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, or a combination of these.

Is metastatic cancer hereditary?

Some people are born with a gene mutation that they inherited from their mother or father. This damaged gene puts them at higher risk for cancer than most people. When cancer occurs because of an inherited gene mutation, it is referred to as hereditary cancer .

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Malignant (Malignancy) (in Malignant Lymph Node Neoplasm)

Malignancy is most familiar as a characterization of cancer. A malignant tumor contrasts with a non-cancerous benign tumor in that a malignancy is not self-limited in its growth, is capable of invading into adjacent tissues, and may be capable of spreading to distant tissues.

Malignancy is a term for diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control and can invade nearby tissues. Malignant cells can also spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph systems. There are several main types of malignancy. Carcinoma is a malignancy that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs. Sarcoma is a malignancy that begins in bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue. Leukemia is a malignancy that starts in blood-forming tissue, such as the bone marrow, and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the blood. Lymphoma and multiple myeloma are malignancies that begin in the cells of the immune system. Central nervous system cancers are malignancies that begin in the tissues of the brain and spinal cord. Also called cancer.

Here are some questions and answers about this word:

Can malignancy be cured?

Fortunately, in over 90% of patients in whom a malignant tumor is discovered there is no visible evidence that the tumor has spread. … This is important because, if the tumor has already spread, the individual cannot be cured by simply removing the visible tumor at the primary site.

Does malignancy mean cancer?

Definition of Malignant Tumors: Cancerous

Malignant means that the tumor is made of cancer cells, and it can invade nearby tissues. Some cancer cells can move into the bloodstream or lymph nodes, where they can spread to other tissues within the body – this is called metastasis.

Is malignancy dangerous?

A malignant, or cancerous, tumor, on the other hand, is innately dangerous because its cells can divide uncontrollably and produce virtually immortal daughter cells.

What does known malignancy mean?

malignancy (muh-LIG-nun-see) A term for diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control and can invade nearby tissues. Malignant cells can also spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph systems. There are several main types of malignancy.

What is malignancy test?

Examples of blood tests used to diagnose cancer include: Complete blood count (CBC). … Blood cancers may be detected using this test if too many or too few of a type of blood cell or abnormal cells are found. A bone marrow biopsy may help confirm a diagnosis of a blood cancer.

What is positive malignancy?

This means that it is likely that cancerous cells are still in the body. Lymph nodes. … A lymph node is called “positive” when it contains cancer and “negative” when it does not. A tumor that has grown into blood or lymph vessels is more likely to have spread elsewhere.

Is malignancy always cancer?

Malignancy is most familiar as a characterization of cancer. A malignant tumor contrasts with a non-cancerous benign tumor in that a malignancy is not self-limited in its growth, is capable of invading into adjacent tissues, and may be capable of spreading to distant tissues.

Do malignant tumors grow?

Malignant tumors are cancerous. They develop when cells grow uncontrollably. … Malignant tumors can grow quickly and spread to other parts of the body in a process called metastasis. The cancer cells that move to other parts of the body are the same as the original ones, but they have the ability to invade other organs.

How fast do malignant tumors grow?

Scientists have found that for most breast and bowel cancers, the tumors begin to grow around ten years before they’re detected. And for prostate cancer, tumours can be many decades old. “They’ve estimated that one tumor was 40 years old.

What causes malignancy?

A number of forces can cause gene mutations, such as smoking, radiation, viruses, cancer-causing chemicals (carcinogens), obesity, hormones, chronic inflammation and a lack of exercise.

What stage is malignant cancer?

Stage I means the cancer is small and only in one area. This is also called early-stage cancer. Stage II and III mean the cancer is larger and has grown into nearby tissues or lymph nodes. Stage IV means the cancer has spread to other parts of your body.

What does negative for malignancy mean?

Cancers that spread are called invasive. … Positive: Cancer cells are found at the edge of the margin. This may mean that more surgery is needed. Negative: The margins don’t contain cancerous cells. Close: There are cancerous cells in the margin, but they don’t extend all the way to the edge.

What does suspicious for malignancy mean?

Suspicious abnormality: means that there are suspicious findings that could turn out to be cancer. … Highly suggestive of malignancy (cancer): means that there are findings that look like and probably are cancer. Requires biopsy.

Can a malignant tumor become benign?

A benign tumor is not a malignant tumor, which is cancer. It does not invade nearby tissue or spread to other parts of the body the way cancer can. In most cases, the outlook with benign tumors is very good. But benign tumors can be serious if they press on vital structures such as blood vessels or nerves.

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What makes a tumor malignant or benign?

Benign tumors are non-malignant/non-cancerous tumor. A benign tumor is usually localized, and does not spread to other parts of the body. … Malignant tumors are cancerous growths. They are often resistant to treatment, may spread to other parts of the body and they sometimes recur after they were removed.

Do malignant tumors hurt?

They can vary greatly from painful, hard, and immobile to soft, painless, and easily moveable. According to BreastCancer.org, lumps are most likely to be cancerous if they do not cause pain, are hard, unevenly shaped, and immobile.
Malignant Lymph Node Neoplasm Symptoms

Can malignant tumors be encapsulated?

Some malignant tumors remain localized and encapsulated, at least for a time; an example is carcinoma in situ in the ovary or breast. … They are usually less well differentiated than normal cells or benign tumor cells.

Why are malignant tumors dangerous?

A malignant tumor is more dangerous because it can grow quickly. It may grow into or spread to other parts of the brain or to the spinal cord. Malignant tumors are also sometimes called brain cancer. … Benign tumors can cause damage by growing and pressing on other parts of the brain.

What is advanced malignancy?

Advanced cancer is a term used to describe cancer that is unlikely to be cured. It may be primary or secondary cancer. … For example, bowel cancer that has spread to the liver is still called metastatic bowel cancer, even when the person has symptoms caused by cancer in the liver.

What is no malignancy?

The NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms features 8,572 terms related to cancer and medicine. nonmalignant (non-muh-LIG-nunt) Not cancerous. Nonmalignant tumors may grow larger but do not spread to other parts of the body. Also called benign.

How do malignant tumors spread?

Cancerous tumors are called malignant. Cancer cells form when DNA abnormalities cause a gene to behave differently than it should. They can grow into nearby tissue, spread through the bloodstream or lymph system, and spread through the body. Malignant tumors tend to grow faster than benign tumors.

Is malignant cancer curable?

There is currently no cure for cancer. However, successful treatment can result in cancer going into remission, which means that all signs of it have gone. The early detection and treatment of cancer can significantly improve the chances of remission and a person’s outlook.

Do malignant tumors shrink?

Not only can they stop tumors from growing by halting cell division, but they can also “spur the immune system to attack and shrink” them. Share on Pinterest The results of a new study have shown that a class of drugs commonly used to treat breast cancer can both halt and shrink tumors.

What if breast biopsy is malignant?

A breast biopsy is a test that removes tissue or sometimes fluid from the suspicious area. The removed cells are examined under a microscope and further tested to check for the presence of breast cancer. A biopsy is the only diagnostic procedure that can definitely determine if the suspicious area is cancerous.

What is atypia or malignancy?

The NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms features 8,572 terms related to cancer and medicine. atypia (ay-TIH-pee-uh) State of being not typical or normal. In medicine, atypia is an abnormality in cells in tissue.

What is the meaning of negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy?

Negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy
This category means that no signs of cancer, pre-cancer, or other significant abnormalities were found.

Does suspicious malignancy mean cancer?

Suspicious abnormality: means that there are suspicious findings that could turn out to be cancer. … Highly suggestive of malignancy (cancer): means that there are findings that look like and probably are cancer. Requires biopsy.

What is inside a malignant tumor?

Malignant tumours are made up of cancer cells. They: usually grow faster than benign tumours. spread into surrounding tissues and cause damage. may spread to other parts of the body in the bloodstream or through the lymph system to form secondary tumours.

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Lymph Node (in Malignant Lymph Node Neoplasm)

Lymph node (limf node) A small bean-shaped structure that is part of the body’s immune system. Lymph nodes filter substances that travel through the lymphatic fluid, and they contain lymphocytes (white blood cells) that help the body fight infection and disease.

A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system and the adaptive immune system. Lymph nodes are widely present throughout the body and are linked by the lymphatic vessels. They are major sites of B and T cells and other white blood cells. Lymph nodes are important for the proper functioning of the immune system, acting as filters for foreign particles and cancer cells, but they do not have a detoxification function.

In the lymphatic system a lymph node is a secondary lymphoid organ. A lymph node is enclosed in a fibrous capsule and is made up of an outer cortex and an inner medulla.

Lymph nodes become inflamed or enlarged in various diseases, which may range from trivial throat infections to life-threatening cancers. The condition of lymph nodes is very important in cancer staging, which decides the treatment to be used and determines the prognosis. Lymphadenopathy refers to glands that are enlarged or swollen. When inflamed or enlarged, lymph nodes can be firm or tender.

Here are some questions and answers about this word:

Where are your lymph nodes located?

Lymph nodes are located throughout your body, including your neck, armpits, groin, around your gut, and between your lungs. Lymph nodes drain lymph fluid from nearby organs or areas of your body.

What causes lymph nodes to swell?

A wide variety infections are the most common causes of swelling of the lymph nodes, for example, strep throat, ear infections, and mononucleosis. More serious medical problems such as HIV infection, lymphomas (non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma) or other cancers, or lupus may cause swollen lymph glands.

What are the signs that you have a cancerous lymph node?

  • Signs and symptoms of lymphoma may include:
  • Painless swelling of lymph nodes in your neck, armpits or groin.
  • Persistent fatigue.
  • Fever.
  • Night sweats.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Unexplained weight loss.
  • Itchy skin.

When should you worry about a swollen lymph node?

When to see a doctor
Some swollen lymph nodes return to normal when the underlying condition, such as a minor infection, gets better. See your doctor if you’re concerned or if your swollen lymph nodes: Have appeared for no apparent reason. Continue to enlarge or have been present for two to four weeks.

Do lymph nodes hurt?

Swollen lymph nodes can be painful to the touch, or they can hurt when you make certain movements. Swollen lymph nodes under the jaw or on either side of the neck may hurt when you turn your head in a certain way or when you’re chewing food. … Swollen lymph nodes in the groin may cause pain when walking or bending.

Are lymph nodes hard or soft?

Lymph nodes that are smooth and relatively soft, but slightly enlarged, may be normal and reveal only hyperplasia when biopsied. Enlarged lymph nodes that have an irregular shape and a rubbery, hard consistency may be infiltrated by malignant cells.

What can I drink for swollen lymph nodes?

Common home remedies to treat the symptoms of swollen lymph nodes include:

  • taking over-the-counter pain medicines, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen.
  • applying a warm wet compress to the affected area.
  • drinking plenty of fluids, such as water and fresh juices.
  • resting to help the body recover from the illness.

How long do swollen lymph nodes last?

How long will it last? Viral infections and minor skin infections and irritations can cause lymph nodes to double in size quickly over 2 or 3 days. They return slowly to normal size over the next 2 to 4 weeks. However, they won’t disappear completely.

How big is a swollen lymph node?

What causes enlarged lymph nodes? When lymph nodes are active in fighting infection, they may become swollen and painful. Usually, the pain is mild, and the lymph node does not get much bigger than 2 centimeters (slightly under 1 inch) in size.

Can you feel cancer in your lymph nodes?

You may not experience noticeable symptoms of cancer cells spreading to your lymph nodes, so a diagnosis from your doctor is important. They can determine if the cancer is isolated to one region or has metastasized further.

What is cancer in your lymph nodes?

Cancer in the lymph nodes
Pain or swelling in the lymph nodes is a common symptom of cancer that starts in the lymphatic system, such as non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancer that starts in another part of the body and spreads to the lymph nodes is called metastasis.

Can you have cancer in just one lymph node?

In most cases, only one area of nodes swells at a time. When more than one area of lymph nodes is swollen it’s called generalized lymphadenopathy. Some infections (such as strep throat and chicken pox), certain medicines, immune system diseases, and cancers like lymphoma and leukemia can cause this kind of swelling.

Does hard lymph node mean cancer?

Why Lymph Nodes Swell
Swollen lymph nodes are a sign that they’re working hard. More immune cells may be going there, and more waste could be building up. Swelling usually signals an infection of some kind, but it could also be from a condition like rheumatoid arthritis or lupus, or rarely, cancer.

Is lymph node cancer curable?

Hodgkin’s disease is considered one of the most treatable forms of cancer if found early. … Stage of disease– Stage I or II can offer good prognosis, though later stages may be highly treatable as well. No lymphoma outside of lymph nodes, or lymphoma in only one area outside of lymph nodes.

What does it mean when only one lymph node is swollen?

Lymph nodes often swell in one location when a problem such as an injury, infection, or tumor develops in or near the lymph node. Which lymph nodes are swollen can help identify the problem. The glands on either side of the neck, under the jaw, or behind the ears commonly swell when you have a cold or sore throat.

Can lymph nodes swell for no reason?

Usually, swollen lymph nodes aren’t a reason to worry. They’re simply a sign that your immune system is fighting an infection or illness. But if they’re enlarged with no obvious cause, see your doctor to rule out something more serious. Swollen lymph nodes can occur in your armpits as well as in your neck and groin.

What size are cancerous lymph nodes?

Lymph nodes measuring more than 1 cm in the short axis diameter are considered malignant. However, the size threshold does vary with anatomic site and underlying tumor type; e.g. in rectal cancer, lymph nodes larger than 5 mm are regarded as pathological.

How do you get your lymph nodes to drain?

If your swollen lymph nodes are tender or painful, you might get some relief by doing the following:
Apply a warm compress. Apply a warm, wet compress, such as a washcloth dipped in hot water and wrung out, to the affected area.
Take an over-the-counter pain reliever. …
Get adequate rest

What does a swollen lymph node look like?

Swollen lymph nodes will feel like soft, round bumps, and they may be the size of a pea or a grape. They might be tender to the touch, which indicates inflammation. In some cases, the lymph nodes will also look larger than usual. Lymph nodes appear in parallel on both sides of the body.

Malignant Lymph Node Neoplasm Back to Top 

How do lymph nodes feel?

How to Check Lymph Nodes in the Head and Neck
With your fingertips, in a gentle circular motion feel the lymph nodes shown.
Start with the nodes in front of the ear (1) then follow in order finishing just above the collar bone (10)
Always check your nodes in this order.
Check both sides for comparison.

What is the survival rate of lymph node cancer?

The one-year survival rate for all patients diagnosed with Hodgkin’s lymphoma is about 92 percent. The five-year survival rate is about 86 percent. For people with stage 4 Hodgkin’s lymphoma, the survival rate is lower. But even in stage 4 you can beat the disease.

Can lymph node cancer be cured?

Lymphoma most often spreads to the liver, bone marrow, or lungs. Stage III-IV lymphomas are common, still very treatable, and often curable, depending on the NHL subtype. Stage III and stage IV are now considered a single category because they have the same treatment and prognosis.

Is lymph node cancer deadly?

Hodgkin’s disease is considered one of the most treatable forms of cancer if found early. … Stage of disease– Stage I or II can offer good prognosis, though later stages may be highly treatable as well. No lymphoma outside of lymph nodes, or lymphoma in only one area outside of lymph nodes.

What happens when cancer gets in your lymph nodes?

However, as the condition progresses, cancerous cells can spread to other parts of the body and grow into new tumors. This is referred to as metastasis. Cancer cells can travel through the lymph system after breaking away from the initial tumor, leading them to the lymph nodes.

How long can you live with cancer in lymph nodes?

5-year relative survival rates for NHL

SEER Stage
5-Year Relative Survival Rate
All SEER stages combined

Can a CT scan detect cancer in lymph nodes?

A CT scan combines many x-rays to make detailed, cross-sectional images of your body. This scan can help tell if any lymph nodes or organs in your body are enlarged. CT scans are useful for looking for lymphoma in the abdomen, pelvis, chest, head, and neck.

How fast do cancerous lymph nodes grow?

Chemotherapy combinations cure about 50 percent of patients, meaning there are many who need other choices. This lymphoma is very rapidly growing, and lymph nodes double in size within a few days to a few weeks. While it is rapidly growing, it is curable in many patients when diagnosed early.

Do enlarged lymph nodes always mean cancer?

Swollen lymph nodes are a sign that they’re working hard. More immune cells may be going there, and more waste could be building up. Swelling usually signals an infection of some kind, but it could also be from a condition like rheumatoid arthritis or lupus, or rarely, cancer.

What happens if you have cancer in your lymph nodes?

When cancer cells break away from a tumor, they can travel to other areas of the body through either the bloodstream or the lymph system. Cancer cells can travel through the bloodstream to reach distant organs. … When cancer grows inside lymph nodes, it usually affects the lymph nodes near the tumor itself.

What is the survival rate of cancer in the lymph nodes?

If the cancer has spread to the regional lymph nodes, the 5-year survival rate is 85%. If the cancer has spread to a distant part of the body, the 5-year survival rate is 27%. About 6% of women have metastatic cancer when they are first diagnosed with breast cancer.

How do I check my lymph nodes?

People can check whether their lymph nodes are swollen by gently pressing around the area, such as the side of the neck. Swollen lymph nodes will feel like soft, round bumps, and they may be the size of a pea or a grape. They might be tender to the touch, which indicates inflammation.

Are cancerous lymph nodes hard or soft?

These characteristics can be useful in suggesting the cause of the lymph node swelling. For example, a hard, nontender, non-moveable lymph node may be more characteristic of a cancer spread to that node. On the other hand, a soft, tender, moveable lymph node could more likely represent an infection.

Can ultrasound tell if a lymph node is cancerous?

PET scan: A PET scan, which uses a small amount of radioactive material, can help show if an enlarged lymph node is cancerous and detect cancer cells throughout the body that may not be seen on a CT scan. … Ultrasound is also used to image the abdominal organs and kidneys, which may be affected by enlarged lymph nodes.

What color are cancerous lymph nodes?

Though its color may vary depending on the tattoo composition, the other differential diagnoses of dark colored lymph node are metastatic melanoma and a blue dye colored lymph node (used to identify the sentinel node).

Are nodules and lymph nodes the same?

The nodule differs from a lymph node in that it is much smaller and does not have a well-defined connective-tissue capsule as a boundary. It also does not function as a filter, because it is not located along a lymphatic vessel. … In the small intestine, collections of lymph nodules are called Peyer’s patches.

Do lymph nodes keep growing?

They continue to grow in size – In their swollen state during an infection, lymph nodes can enlarge to a size of half an inch in diameter. … Because the swollen lymph nodes are often painless, they can sometimes grow in size before a person even notices them.

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Neoplasm (in Malignant Lymph Node Neoplasm)

a New and abnormal growth of tissue in some part of the body, especially as a characteristic of cancer.
carcinoma of the cervix is a common neoplasm in women”

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A neoplasm (/ˈniːoʊplæzəm, ˈniə-/) is a type of abnormal and excessive growth, called neoplasia, of tissue. The growth of a neoplasm is uncoordinated with that of the normal surrounding tissue, and it persists growing abnormally, even if the original trigger is removed. This abnormal growth usually (but not always) forms a mass. When it forms a mass, it may be called a tumor.

ICD-10 classifies neoplasms into four main groups: benign neoplasms, in situ neoplasms, malignant neoplasms, and neoplasms of uncertain or unknown behavior. Malignant neoplasms are also simply known as cancers and are the focus of oncology.

Prior to the abnormal growth of tissue, as neoplasia, cells often undergo an abnormal pattern of growth, such as metaplasia or dysplasia. However, metaplasia or dysplasia does not always progress to neoplasia. The word is from Ancient Greek νέος- neo (“new”) and πλάσμα plasma (“formation”, “creation”).

Here are some questions and answers about this word:

Is neoplasm the same as cancer?

An abnormal mass of tissue that results when cells divide more than they should or do not die when they should. Neoplasms may be benign (not cancer), or malignant (cancer). Also called tumor.

Is neoplasm malignant or benign?

A neoplasm can be benign, potentially malignant, or malignant (cancer). Benign tumors include uterine fibroids, osteophytes and melanocytic nevi (skin moles). They are circumscribed and localized and do not transform into cancer. Potentially-malignant neoplasms include carcinoma in situ.

What causes neoplasm?

Causes of neoplastic disease
In general, cancerous tumor growth is triggered by DNA mutations within your cells. There are a number of contributing factors that can cause your genes to mutate and result in benign or malignant tumor growth. Some common factors include: genetics.

What does benign neoplasm mean?

A benign neoplasm is an abnormal but non-cancerous growth that may occur in different parts of the body. Neoplasms or tumors also go by the names “nodules” or “mass”, depending on their size. Nodules are neoplasms that are less than 20 mm in size, whereas a mass is at least 20 mm in diameter.

How do you treat neoplasm?

Chemotherapy — drug therapy — may be used before surgery to shrink the size of tumors, or after surgery to kill any remaining cancer cells that may have spread to other parts of the body. Radiation therapy may similarly be given to shrink tumors before surgery or to kill any remaining cancer cells after surgery.

Can malignant neoplasm be cured?

The sooner a malignant neoplasm is detected, the more effectively it can be treated, so early diagnosis is important. Many types of cancer can be cured. Treatment for other types can allow people to live for many years with cancer.

Is a cyst a neoplasm?

A cyst is a sac-like pocket of tissue, filled with fluid, air, tissue, or other material that can form anywhere in the body. Cysts can be tiny or very large, and most cysts are benign (not cancerous). … Tumors, also known as neoplasms, are generally solid masses of tissue that form from abnormal new growth of cells.

Does malignant neoplasm mean cancer?

Neoplasms can be benign growths, cancer, or pre-cancerous tumors. … Cancer is a neoplasm that can grow rapidly, spread, and cause damage to the body. A malignant neoplasm is cancerous, while a metastatic neoplasm is malignant cancer that has spread to nearby or distant areas of the body.

How do neoplasms spread?

For cancer cells to spread to other parts of the body, they have to go through many changes: They have to be able to break away from the original (primary) tumor and get into the bloodstream or lymph system, which can carry them to another part of the body.

What causes benign neoplasm?

The exact cause of a benign tumor is often unknown. It develops when cells in the body divide and grow at an excessive rate. Typically, the body is able to balance cell growth and division. When old or damaged cells die, they are automatically replaced with new, healthy cells.

What is primary neoplasm?

primary tumor (PRY-mayr-ee TOO-mer) A term used to describe the original, or first, tumor in the body. Cancer cells from a primary tumor may spread to other parts of the body and form new, or secondary, tumors. This is called metastasis. These secondary tumors are the same type of cancer as the primary tumor.

What does non neoplastic mean?

: not being or not caused by neoplasms non-neoplastic diseases.

What type of cancer is malignant neoplasm?

Malignant tumors are cancerous. They develop when cells grow uncontrollably. If the cells continue to grow and spread, the disease can become life threatening. Malignant tumors can grow quickly and spread to other parts of the body in a process called metastasis.

Malignant Lymph Node Neoplasm Back to Top 

Various related Malignant Lymph Node Neoplasm

Lymph Node Malignancy Radiology and Ultrasound

Although widely available and easy to use, US has inherent limitations for imaging the lymph node groups in mediastinum, retroperitoneum, and deep pelvis. However, it has proven to be useful in assessment of cervical lymph nodes in patients with various head and neck carcinomas.

Normal cervical nodes appear sonographically as somewhat flattened hypoechoic structures with varying amounts of hilar fat. They may show hilar vascularity but are usually hypovascular. Malignant infiltration alters the US features of the lymph nodes, resulting in enlarged nodes that are usually rounded and show peripheral or mixed vascularity.

Using these features, US has been shown to have an accuracy of 89%–94% in differentiating malignant from benign cervical lymph nodes. In patients with thyroid cancer, for example, preoperative US evaluation of the cervical lymph nodes is not only accurate for detection of lymph node metastases but also has been shown to alter the operative procedure in these patients, facilitating complete resection of disease and potentially minimizing locoregional recurrence.

Wunderbaldinger et al. evaluated cystic lymph node metastases in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma and found, in most cases, that metastatic lymph nodes had thickened outer wall, internal echoes, internal nodularity, and septations.

Endoscopic US (EUS) has also been used to assess regional lymphadenopathy in esophageal, pancreatic, and rectal carcinomas. In a recent study, Saltzman stated that EUS was the most accurate technique for the locoregional staging of esophageal cancer, and optimal staging strategies for esophageal cancer should use EUS fine-needle aspiration with either CT or PET scans.

Other radiology techniques:

  • Cross-sectional imaging.
  • PET scans.
  • Nanoparticle-Enhanced MRI

Lymph Nodes Malignancy Grading and Stages

What is a cancer grade?

A cancer’s grade describes how abnormal the cancer cells and tissue look under a microscope when compared to healthy cells. Cancer cells that look and organize most like healthy cells and tissue are low grade tumors. Doctors describe these cancers as being well differentiated. Lower grade cancers are typically less aggressive and have a better prognosis.

The more abnormal the cells look and organize themselves, the higher the cancer’s grade. Cancer cells with a high grades tend to be more aggressive. They are called poorly differentiated or undifferentiated.

Some cancers have their own system for grading tumors. Many others use a standard 1-4 grading scale.

  • Grade 1: Tumor cells and tissue looks most like healthy cells and tissue. These are called well-differentiated tumors and are considered low grade.
  • Grade 2: The cells and tissue are somewhat abnormal and are called moderately differentiated. These are intermediate grade tumors.
  • Grade 3: Cancer cells and tissue look very abnormal. These cancers are considered poorly differentiated, since they no longer have an architectural structure or pattern. Grade 3 tumors are considered high grade.
  • Grade 4: These undifferentiated cancers have the most abnormal looking cells. These are the highest grade and typically grow and spread faster than lower grade tumors.

What is a cancer stage?

While a grade describes the appearance of cancer cells and tissue, a cancer’s stage explains how large the primary tumor is and how far the cancer has spread in the patient’s body.

There are several different staging systems. Many of these have been created for specific kinds of cancers. Others can be used to describe several types of cancer.

Stage 0 to stage IV

One common system that many people are aware of puts cancer on a scale of 0 to IV.

  • Stage 0 is for abnormal cells that haven’t spread and are not considered cancer, though they could become cancerous in the future. This stage is also called “in-situ.”
  • Stage I through Stage III are for cancers that haven’t spread beyond the primary tumor site or have only spread to nearby tissue. The higher the stage number, the larger the tumor and the more it has spread.
  • Stage IV cancer has spread to distant areas of the body.

TNM staging

Another common staging tool is the TNM system, which stands for Tumor, Node, Metastasis. When a patient’s cancer is staged with TNM, a number will follow each letter. This number signifies the extent of the disease in each category. According to the National Cancer Institute and MD Anderson experts, the standard TNM system uses the following rules:

Primary tumor (T)
  • TX: Main tumor cannot be measured.
  • T0: Main tumor cannot be found.
  • T(is), or T in situ: The tumor is still within the confines of the normal glands and cannot metastasize.
  • T1, T2, T3, T4: Refers to the size and/or extent of the main tumor. The higher the number after the T, the larger the tumor or the more it has grown into nearby tissues. T’s may be further divided to provide more detail, such as T3a and T3b.
Regional lymph nodes (N)

Lymphatic fluid transports immune system cells throughout the body. Lymph nodes are small bean-shaped structures that help move this fluid. Cancer often first spreads to and through nearby lymph nodes.

  • NX: Cancer in nearby lymph nodes cannot be measured.
  • N0: There is no cancer in nearby lymph nodes.
  • N1, N2, N3: Refers to the number and location of lymph nodes that contain cancer. The higher the number after the N, the more lymph nodes that contain cancer.
Distant metastasis (M)

Metastasis is the spread of cancer to other parts of the body.

  • MX: Metastasis cannot be measured.
  • M0: Cancer has not spread to other parts of the body.
  • M1: Cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

Malignant Lymph Node Neoplasm Survival Rate

Hodgkin’s lymphoma is treatable, especially in its early stages. The one-year survival rate for all patients diagnosed with Hodgkin’s lymphoma is about 92 percent. The five-year survival rate is about 86 percent. For people with stage 4 Hodgkin’s lymphoma, the survival rate is lower. But even in stage 4 you can beat the disease.

If you have Hodgkin’s lymphoma that’s spread through one or more organs outside of your lymphatic system, you’ll be diagnosed with stage 4 of the condition. For example, the cancer might have spread to your liver, lungs, or bone marrow.

NHL accounts for about 4 percent of all cancers in the United States, reports the ACS. An estimated 72,580 people in the country will be diagnosed with it in 2016.

The many subtypes of NHL are categorized as either B cell type or T cell type NHL. The subtypes are further categorized as aggressive or indolent.

Aggressive NHL progresses quickly. According to the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society (LLS), about 60 percent of people with NHL have aggressive subtypes of the disease. Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common aggressive subtype. It affects about 30 percent of people with NHL in the United States.

Indolent NHL is slow growing. It accounts for about 30 percent of NHL cases in the United States, reports the LLS. Follicular lymphoma is the most common type of indolent NHL.

If you have NHL that’s spread outside of your lymphatic system to an organ that isn’t next to an affected lymph node, you’ve reached stage 4 of the disease. You also have stage 4 NHL if it’s spread to your bone marrow, liver, lungs, brain, or spinal cord.

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Breast Area related Malignant Lymph Node Neoplasm

Metastasis Lymph Nodes Breast Cancer

If you’re diagnosed with lymph node-positive breast cancer, it means cancer has spread from the original tumor to the nearest lymph nodes, which are under your arm. When breast cancer spreads to lymph nodes it has essentially declared its intent to metastasize. These cancers, if left alone, would likely spread throughout the body.

Cancer begins when healthy cells change and grow out of control, forming a mass or sheet of cells called a tumor. A tumor can be cancerous or benign. A cancerous tumor is malignant, meaning it can grow and spread to other parts of the body. A benign tumor means the tumor can grow but will not spread.

When breast cancer is limited to the breast and/or nearby lymph node regions, it is called early stage or locally advanced. Read about these stages in a different guide on Cancer.Net. When breast cancer spreads to an area farther from where it started, doctors say that the cancer has “metastasized.” They call the area of spread a “metastasis,” or “metastases” if the cancer has spread to more than 1 area. The disease is called metastatic breast cancer. Another name for metastatic breast cancer is “stage IV (4) breast cancer.”

Doctors may also call metastatic breast cancer “advanced breast cancer.” However, this term should not be confused with “locally advanced breast cancer,” which is breast cancer that has spread to nearby tissues or lymph nodes but not to other parts of the body.

Metastatic breast cancer may spread to any part of the body. It most often spreads to the bones, liver, lungs and brain. Even after cancer spreads, it is still named for the area where it began. This is called the “primary site” or “primary tumor.” For example, if breast cancer spreads to the lungs, doctors call it metastatic breast cancer, not lung cancer. This is because the cancer started in breast cells.

Metastatic breast cancer can develop when breast cancer cells break away from the primary tumor and enter the bloodstream or lymphatic system. These systems carry fluids around the body. The cancer cells are able to travel in the fluids far from the original tumor. The cells can then settle and grow in a different part of the body and form new tumors.

Most commonly, doctors diagnose metastatic breast cancer after a person previously received treatment for an earlier stage (non-metastatic) breast cancer. Doctors sometimes call this a “distant recurrence” or “metastatic recurrence.”

Sometimes, a person’s first diagnosis of breast cancer is when it has already spread. Doctors call this “de novo” metastatic breast cancer.

Metastases are responsible for 90% of breast cancer deaths, so swift, aggressive treatment is usually warranted.

Chemotherapy Lymph Nodes Breast Cancer

Neoadjuvant and adjuvant systemic therapy (chemo and other drugs)

Systemic therapy is recommended for some women with stage II breast cancer. Some systemic therapies are given before surgery (neoadjuvant therapy), and others are given after surgery (adjuvant therapy). Neoadjuvant treatments are often a good option for women with large tumors, because they can shrink the tumor before surgery, possibly enough to make BCS an option. But this doesn’t improve survival more than getting these treatments after surgery. In some cases, systemic therapy will be started before surgery and then continued after surgery.

To help decide which women with stage II hormone receptor-positive, Her2-negative breast cancer will benefit from chemotherapy, a gene panel test such as Oncotype DX may be done on the tumor sample.

The drugs used will depend on the woman’s age, as well as tumor test results, including hormone-receptor status and HER2 status. Treatment may include:

  • Chemotherapy: Chemo can be given before or after surgery.
  • HER2 targeted drugsFor people with HER2-positive cancers, some will be treated with adjuvant (after surgery) chemotherapy with trastuzumab with or without pertuzumab for up to 1 year. Many women with HER2-positive cancers will be treated first with trastuzumab (with or without pertuzumab) followed by surgery and then more trastuzumab (with or without pertuzumab) for up to a year. If after neoadjuvant therapy, there is any residual cancer found at the time of surgery, the trastuzumab may be changed to a different drug, called ado-trastuzumab emtansine, which is given every 3 weeks for 13 doses. For people with cancer that is hormone receptor-positive, found in the lymph nodes, and have completed 1 year of trastuzumab, your doctor might also recommend additional treatment with an oral drug called neratinib for 1 year.
  • Hormone therapy: If the cancer is hormone receptor-positive, hormone therapy (tamoxifen, an aromatase inhibitor, or one followed by the other) is typically used. It can be started before surgery, but because it continues for at least 5 years, it needs to be given after surgery as well.

Malignant Lymph Node Neoplasm Back to Top 

Groin Area related Malignant Lymph Node Neoplasm

Metastatic Cervical Lymph Node Neoplasm

Cervical lymph nodes are a common site of metastases for malignant tumors that originate at primary sites in the head and neck. These include squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract as well as metastases from salivary gland, thyroid, and skin cancers.

Cervical lymph node metastasis is the presenting symptom in almost 50% of all nasopharyngeal carcinomas, in 28% of carcinomas of the tonsils, in 23% of carcinomas of the base of the tongue, in 23% of thyroid carcinomas, and in 17% of carcinomas of the hypopharynx.

Metastasis Lymph Node Ovarian Cancer

Ovarian cancer is the second most common gynecologic cancer worldwide, and it is the leading cause of death associated with gynecologic malignancies in women. The life-long risk of developing epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is 1.3%, and about 70% of patients are already at an advanced disease stage at the time of initial diagnosis; only 30% of patients are diagnosed at an early stage (stages I, II).

EOC spreads primarily through exfoliation of the tumor cells into the peritoneal cavity, but lymphatic and hematogenous spread can also occur. According to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO), the presence of lymph node involvement in the early stages of ovarian cancer raises the disease stage to 3A1. Systematic lymphadenectomy is useful for accurate stage assessment of early-stage ovarian cancer and has a proven prognostic value. Accurate staging in very early-stage disease may prevent unnecessary postoperative chemotherapy. However, there is still a debate on the therapeutic role of lymphadenectomy. Lymphadenectomy is the major surgical procedure associated with other morbidities such as lymphedema, lymphocyst, ileus, blood loss, nerve or vascular injury, blood transfusion, prolonged length of hospital stay, and increased treatment costs.

In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the rate of lymph node involvement and factors affecting lymph node involvement in clinically early-stage (stages I, II) EOC.

Ovarian cancer is mostly diagnosed at an advanced stage with carcinomatosis in the peritoneal cavity and metastatic deposits in the lymph nodes, whereas distant metastases outside the abdomen occur less frequently. Ovarian cancer frequently leads to pelvic or para‐aortic lymph node metastases. Therefore, we will focus on the management of regional lymph nodes. Anatomic reports have shown that the para‐aortic region is the most frequent localization for lymph node metastasis. Although the reported rates of microscopic lymph node metastases in early ovarian cancer macroscopically confined to the ovary (clinical T1) are approximately 13% to 20%, the rate increases to more than 50% in patients with advanced stages of the disease. We have to differentiate patients in whom the tumor is macroscopically limited to the genital tract from those who present with distant tumor lesions.

The aim of staging surgery in patients with early ovarian cancer is not only to completely remove the tumor but also to define the stage of disease and confirm that there is no distant microscopic disease because this can influence the choice of chemotherapy (stage‐adapted systemic therapy). Although patients with stage I disease can be treated with single‐agent carboplatin therapy, the worldwide standard systemic therapy for patients with early‐stage disease after complete surgical staging is heterogeneous. According to Gynecologic Oncology Group trial 0157, a combination of carboplatin and paclitaxel is also an established standard option. In contrast, a combination with paclitaxel is always recommended for patients with advanced disease.

In advanced ovarian cancer, one has to differentiate between the use of lymphadenectomy in the case of bulky nodes to achieve a complete resection (lymphadenectomy is part of debulking surgery) and the staging of clinically negative nodes, but in contrast to early ovarian cancer, the knowledge of the histologic lymph node status does not influence the choice of systemic treatment.

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Metastatic Lymph Nodes Rectal Cancer

Colorectal cancer is cancer that begins in the colon or rectum. This type of cancer is staged from stage 0, which is very early cancer, to stage 4, which is metastatic colorectal cancer.

Metastatic colorectal cancer is cancer that has metastasized. This means it has spread to regional or distant sites, such as other organs or lymph nodes.

Though cancer can spread to any other part of the body, colorectal cancer most often spreads to the liver, lung, or peritoneum, according to the National Cancer InstituteTrusted Source.

Approximately 21 percent of people newly diagnosed with colorectal cancer have distant metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis.

Metastatic colorectal cancer to distant sites is rarely curable. Once cancer spreads, it can be difficult to control.

However, there are treatments available that can help stop or slow the growth of the cancer and manage symptoms.

Continuous developments in colorectal cancer treatments have improved survival ratesTrusted Source in people with metastatic colorectal cancer.

Metastatic Lymph Nodes Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignancy in men. In the United States, one out of six men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during their lifetime. Because of stage migration during the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) era, the vast majority of patients with newly diagnosed PCa have clinically localized disease, defined by the absence of nodal or distant metastases. In the Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor (CaPSURE) registry, out of 12,000 patients diagnosed between 1990 and 2004, only 2.4% presented with bony metastatic disease (M+) at their initial diagnosis. There are no recent data on initial presentation with radiographically evident lymph node–positive (LN+) disease in the absence of bony metastases. The current (7th) edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Cancer Staging Manual groups M+ and LN+ disease together as stage IV. Many physicians tend to view these two categories of patients as having similar outcomes, and approach their treatment with the same algorithm.

The goal of this article is to review the data on management of PCa with lymphatic involvement (LN+) and focus on the role of multimodality therapy, which combines systemic and local therapies in managing these patients. Patients with LN+ PCa can be broadly separated into two groups, largely based on the bulk of nodal disease. Patients who undergo staging scans prior to surgery and have no radiological evidence of pelvic lymphadenopathy but are then found to have involved pelvic lymph nodes at the time of pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) have pathologically node-positive (pN+) disease, and they are considered to be in the favorable category. This is in contrast to clinically node-positive (cN+) patients, who have pathologically enlarged lymph nodes on staging scans and in whom surgery is rarely even attempted. According to the 2013 National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines, patients with metastases to the lymph nodes by imaging studies (cN+) should be treated systemically with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) or radiation therapy (RT) with long-term ADT, and patients with involved lymph nodes detected at the time of radical prostatectomy (pN+) are offered observation, ADT, or RT with long-term ADT. While ADT is the common denominator, there is no consensus on the role of local therapies in management of patients with LN+ PCa.

Neck Area related Malignant Lymph Node Neoplasm

Metastatic Lymph Nodes Esophageal Cancer

Normally, cells in the body will grow and divide to replace old or damaged cells in the body. This growth is highly regulated, and once enough cells are produced to replace the old ones, normal cells stop dividing. Tumors occur when there is an error in this regulation and cells continue to grow in an uncontrolled way. Tumors can either be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer). Although benign tumors may grow in an uncontrolled fashion sometimes, they do not spread beyond the part of the body where they started and do not invade into surrounding tissues. Malignant tumors, however, will grow in such a way that they invade and damage other tissues around them. They also may spread to other parts of the body, which is called metastasis.

Cancers are described by the type of cells from which they arise.The vast majority of esophageal cancers develop from the inner lining (mucosa) of the esophagus. The lining of the esophagus is somewhat unique: it changes as it goes from the throat to the stomach. In the upper (proximal) esophagus, the lining of the esophagus resembles the lining of the throat, made up of squamous cells. Hence, when cancers develop in this region, they are usually squamous cell carcinomas. In the lower (distal) esophagus, the more common type of cancer is called adenocarcinoma, which is what the cancer is called when it develops from an area of the lining that contains glands.

In addition to invasive cancers, patients are sometimes diagnosed with precancerous lesions, called carcinoma-in-situ. These precancerous lesions can be seen prior to the development of either squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma. Carcinoma-in-situ occurs when the lining of the esophagus undergoes changes similar to cancerous changes without any invasion into the deeper tissues. Hence, while the cells themselves have cancer-like qualities, there has been no spread or invasion by the cancer cells. Another type of lesion that is considered to be a precursor to cancer itself is called Barrett’s esophagus, which is explained in depth below.

malignant neoplasm metastatic to lymph node of neck

Some patients with head and neck cancer first show up to a doctor’s office because they feel a “swollen gland” or lump in the neck. Lymph nodes can be enlarged for many reasons, including inflammation, infection or cancer. In general, swollen glands that get larger and then smaller, or those that go away, are not typically cancer. Also, enlarged lymph nodes that present for just one to two weeks are not typically cancer. Your doctor will have to put a number of pieces of your history and physical exam together to decide if additional tests are required.

This Section is about patients who have been diagnosed with metastatic lymph node(s) in the neck. The only way to make that diagnosis with certainty is after examination of some cells from the lymph node under a microscope.

Metastasis is the term used for spread of cancer cells outside of the primary tumor. Cancer spreads from the primary site in two ways: via lymphatics and via the bloodstream.

  • Lymphatic spread of cancer: Lymphatic spread of cancer is typical for most carcinomas. It occurs when tumor cells from the primary cancer site are transported to the lymph nodes through the lymphatic channels. This is often the first step in the spread of cancer, particularly for carcinomas. When invaded by tumor cells, the lymph nodes are usually enlarged. Read on to learn more about lymphatic spread of cancer.
  • Hematogenous spread of cancer: Another way cancers spread is through the blood (called hematogenous spread). This is more common for sarcomas and some carcinomas such as follicular thyroid carcinoma and some kidney cancers. Cancers that spread via the blood stream usually result in metastases to the lung or the liver.

Lymph nodes are tiny round or oval organs found all over your body, and they are connected through a complex system of lymphatic channels. They function to help the body fight infection via white blood cells. They act as filters of anything that should not be in the body, including cancer cells. Metastatic lymph nodes are those that have cancer cells within them (spread from a primary tumor somewhere else).

Lymphatic spread of cancer in the head and neck region results in enlarged lymph nodes in the face or neck (these are called regional lymph nodes because they are in the region of the head and neck).

For most (but not all) cancers of the head and neck, having cancer spread to the lymph nodes automatically puts your cancer into at least stage III. Positive lymph nodes decrease the probability of survival at five years by about 50 percent as compared with cancer that is limited to the primary site in early stage.

Also, spread of cancer cells outside the lymph node capsule, a higher number of lymph nodes with cancer and perhaps involved lymph nodes located lower in the neck might be associated with a worse prognosis and higher chance of spread to distant parts of the body. That said, doctors are still able to cure a significant number of patients with cancer that has spread to the neck with current treatment options.

Once a diagnosis of a metastatic cancerous lymph node in the neck has been made, the most important next step is to try to find a primary tumor if at all possible. If a primary site cannot be found after an exhaustive search (as discussed below), you will be given the diagnosis of cancer with an unknown primary (CUP).

Malignant Lymph Node Neoplasm Back to Top 

Related Articles by Strydom Conglomerate

How to tell if your Lymph Nodes are Swollen

Posterior Auricular Lymph Nodes

Breast Lymph Nodes Swollen

Lymph Nodes in Jaw

Preauricular Lymph Nodes Swollen

Quietest Livestock Guardian Dog

Quietest Livestock Guardian Dog

Read all about your best choices pertaining “Quietest Livestock Guardian Dog” here at Strydom Conglomerate Web Articles.

Quietest Livestock Guardian Dog

Alrighty then … Here is a quote from a person on the Homesteading Today Forum Link to article at bottom of page) :

our LGDs don’t bark much. They will bark at specific things and howl as well but it is language. They are marking their territory against predators, letting me know what is going on, calling each other in to deal with something, warning off people. Just watch out when they’re totally silent and walk out you with that stiff legged march, head down…

On the other hand, I’ve heard plenty of dogs, most who were not LGDs, who barked incessantly. Usually it is because they’re lonely. People tie or cage them up and fail to train them. Sad

So there you have it -> Normally LGD’s don’t bark excessively

Is the Quietest Livestock Guardian Dog a Good Thing

A quote from a person on the Homesteading Today Forum Link to article at bottom of page) :

As for barking, yes, it’s awfully noisy around here at night, but that’s the point. The coyotes around here are thick as thieves and my neighbor 1 mile south has had coyotes come right into his barn and kill full grown ewes, yet I have not lost a single goat to coyotes since getting the dogs. In fact, I haven’t seen a coyote on our land in years. The two boys loose in the yard at night are all the protection my chickens need, too. Their run is covered with netting but the pop door into the shed doesn’t even have a door on it.

Thus -> Having a too quiet LGD May not be very desirable

Whether livestock guardian dogs can be effective if they don’t bark depends on several factors, including:

  • The purpose they are serving for you
  • How large your ranch is
  • How spread out your livestock are
  • How high your predator load is
  • Other means of protection available for your livestock

If, for example, you’re looking for a livestock guardian dog to protect livestock primarily during the daytime (like chicken owners who lock up their flocks at night), your dogs can be trained to bark only when it is absolutely necessary. Their mere presence in the chicken yard, as well as their marking behavior, will be a powerful deterrent for most predators. See more on training below.

Which Livestock Guardian Dog Breeds Bark Less Than Others?

Some livestock guardian dog breeds do tend to bark less than others, but again, please remember that every dog is an individual, and there are never any guarantees that your dogs will bark more or less based on their breed.

If you’re looking for a much quieter livestock guardian dog, one of these two breeds might work for you:

  • Pyrenean Mastiff

  • Polish Tatra Sheepdog

If you’re concerned about excessive barking, and want a breed of LGD that’s more easily trained to only bark when absolutely necessary, consider one of these (click on the breed for more breed info):

  • Karakachan

  • Anatolian Shepherd – however, read this article for an example of the opposite, just another reminder that you never know what your new dog will be like

  • Maremma Sheepdog

  • Spanish Mastiff

These breeds tend to bark less than most other livestock guardian dog breeds on average. They don’t naturally “warning bark” as much – they typically bark when there is a predator very close by.

Why LGD’s Bark – Quietest Livestock Guardian Dog

The role of the livestock guardian dog is to deter predators from approaching livestock.  There are many ways this is accomplished.  One is by leaving scent or sign, by defecating and urinating around the perimeters of the dog’s patrol area.  By marking his “turf” an LGD sends a powerful message to any interlopers or intruders: “Be gone! And stay away from my flock!”  LGD breeds have been bred for generations to do this.

In Barking: The Sound of a Language, Rugaas writes: “In the scattered farms throughout Europe and other places with lots of space and few people, early settlers preferred dogs who (sic) barked when strangers were approaching, as a warning.  Today, if you get a dog like a Great Pyrenees, you will find out that they are still very good at barking in similar situations.  They are genetically dispositioned to do it and it would be cruel to punish them for it.”

Barking is part of how LGDs do their jobs. There are 3 main types of barking.

  • Patrol Barking: “Hey, any predators out there, I’m just letting you know I am here & on duty! So don’t even think about it!”
  • Alert Barking: “I think I see/hear/smell something amiss!”
  • Call To Arms Barking: “I need the cavalry on the south perimeter, STAT!”

Some LGDs will even bark to let you know there is something amiss with the stock, like a newborn calf in trouble, or perhaps a goat with its head stuck through the fence. As you get to know your dogs, you will learn to readily identify the sounds they make & why. Most of the time, if your LGD is barking, there is a good reason.

Warning & Guard Barking

Besides marking territory, another way of telling predators to “steer clear” is by barking.  warning bark is usually one sharp bark notifying you, the owner, that something is amiss.  Or there may be danger afoot and your LGD wants you to know about it.

By guard barking, the LGD ends a message to hungry coyotes, wolves, bears or other predators to not come any closer, because this is the LGD’s territory and it is protecting it.

A dog’s sense of smell and hearing are much more acute than that of a human.  Thus they typically smell and hear things we cannot.  This is why dogs often seem to be “barking at nothing” to the average observer, when in fact, they hear, smell or even see something that escapes human detection.  They are actually warning or guard barking.

It’s prudent therefore, for the LGD owner to first go outside and check what it is that his dog is barking at, rather than simply yelling at them to stop barking.

Can You Train Your Dog to Stop Barking at Night?

Training your livestock guardian dogs to not bark at night is essentially training them to go against their instincts. You can use the training techniques detailed above, but this will mean many late nights for you and that may not be practical.

If nighttime barking is your primary concern and you cannot put in the time and effort to train them, you may need to bring your dogs in at night and find another means to protect your livestock at night.

What to do when LGD barks a lot at people

To get the best out of your LGD, it is recommended that you invest time in training basic manners, such as come, stay, wait, and quiet. It is also important that you handle your LGD regularly, so that when a trip to the vet becomes necessary, it will not add further stress or possible injury to either you or the dog. Many people fear that by handling the LGD, it will become too ‘people friendly.’ However, in these days of urban expansion, including subdivisions on the outskirts of small towns, having a more ‘people tolerant’ LGD is not necessarily a bad thing. It is also helpful that your guardian dog does not chase away farm gate business!

Read some more interresting articles about dogs:

Guard dogs for sheep and goats

Livestock Guard Dogs Feeding

Can Dogs eat Smoked Salmon?

Is Xanthan Gum safe for dogs

Forum Source

Homesteading Today Forum

Anatolian Shepherd vs German Shepherd

Anatolian Shepherd vs German Shepherd

In this article I will compare to Shepherd dogs: Anatolian Shepherd vs German Shepherd.

“Find similarities and differences between Anatolian Shepherd Dog vs German Shepherd” Compare Anatolian Shepherd Dog and German Shepherd. Which is better: Anatolian Shepherd Dog or German Shepherd?

Anatolian Shepherd vs German Shepherd

Anatolian Shepherd is originated from Turkey but German Shepherd is originated from Germany. Anatolian Shepherd may grow 9 cm / 4 inches higher than German Shepherd. Anatolian Shepherd may weigh 24 kg / 53 pounds more than German Shepherd. Both Anatolian Shepherd and German Shepherd has almost same life span. Anatolian Shepherd may have less litter size than German Shepherd. Anatolian Shepherd requires Moderate maintenance. But German Shepherd requires Low maintenance

Youtube Video

Anatolian Shepherd History

Up in the mountains of central Turkey, in the region called Anatolia, a large, strong and rugged dog breed was born and is honored today on a postal stamp. This was the Anatolian Shepard – keeper of the flocks with strength, agility and speed. The Anatolian Shepard is able to pursue and catch any predator that threatens his livestock and they are his livestock. His keen sense of hearing and his excellent sight only add to his prowess as a protector.

The Anatolian is a giant dog, classified as a shepherd by the UKC – Kennel Club of the United Kingdom, while he is classified as a mountain dog or molossus by the Federation Cynologique International. When the breed was created, they were a gift to the farmers in the mountains to guard the livestock from cheetahs. This helped the cheetahs to stop attacking the livestock and prevented the farmers from wiping out the cheetah population by shooting them.

Anatolian Shepherd vs German Shepherd - Anatolian Shepherd

The Anatolian Shepard does have some controversy in his lineage as in some areas he is considered to be either the most closely related or the same breed as the Turkish Kangal Dog. The Anatolian is considered to have a blood line that goes back at least 6000 years.

They are direct descendants of mastiffs and mountain dogs. Yet they have the long legs, agility and aloofness of the sight hounds that are also in their bloodline. Originally called the “Coban Kopegi” or shepherd dog by their Turkish farmers, they were eventually separated into the breed called the Anatolian Shepard. When the breed was first brought into the United Kingdom the line of the Kangal dog was first. Then they were crossed with dogs called Anatolian Shepherds. Many breeders believe that the Anatolian Shepherd is a category that includes the Kangal, Coban Kopegi, Aksaray Malaklisi and the Akbash dog.

So as of January 2012, the Australian National Kennel Club no longer considers the Anatolian Shepard and the Kangal as separate breeds. The UK Kennel Club now recognizes the Kangal and the Anatolian as the same breed. For others they are still clearly separate and distinct breeds with the ASD being their own breed. In fact, the government of Turkey recognizes them as separate breeds and the Kangal Dog as the National Dog of Turkey.

The Anatolian Shepard was already in the United States in when the Anatolian Shepard Club of America came into being because of a young naval officer who had met the dogs in Turkey. They were allowed into the Miscellaneous Class of the American Kennel Club in 1996 after this naval officer had been breeding them in California for years. By 1998 they had moved to the Working Group where they reside today.

German Shepherd History

In 1882 german shepherd was introduced in a show at Hanover. They were created by the cross breeding of the rural sheep dogs by a man named Max. In 1906 they were first exported to America. After that the breed became very popular in UK.

Anatolian Shepherd vs German Shepherd - German Shepherd

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Comparison Tables For : Anatolian Shepherd vs German Shepherd

Anatolian Shepherd

German Shepherd
Breed Name Anatolian Shepherd Dog German Shepherd

General Details

Breed Type Purebred Purebred
Is Hypo­allergenic No No
Lifespan 11-13 yrs. 10-14 yrs.
Height 26-30 in. 22-26 in.
Weight 80-150 lb 75-95 lb
Intelligence High High

History – Anatolian Shepherd vs German Shepherd

Origin Country Turkey Germany
Origin Year 4000 BC 1899 AD

Temperament – Anatolian Shepherd vs German Shepherd

Overall Friendliness Below Average Good
Family Friendly Good Very Good
Kid Friendly Below Average Good
Pet Friendly Below Average Very Good
Stranger Friendly Poor Below Average

Personality – Anatolian Shepherd vs German Shepherd

  • Affectionate
  • Stubborn
  • Protective
  • Affectionate
  • Loving
  • Does Not Like Being Alone
  • Willing To Please

Living Environment

Apartment No Yes
Indoor Yes Yes
Small Yard No Yes
Medium Yard Yes Yes
Large Yard Yes Yes
Temperature Tolerance ¹ 30°F to 70°F 40°F to 85°F
Barks/Howls Below Average Very Often

Exercise Needs

Energy Level Medium High
Exercise Required Medium High
Top Running Speed 22 mph 30 mph
Strength Very High High

Grooming Needs

Coat Main­tenance Low Medium-High
Shedding High High
Dander Low High
Drool Amount Medium Medium

Instincts & Behavior Comparison – Anatolian Shepherd vs German Shepherd


Breed Name Anatolian Shepherd Dog German Shepherd

Breed Mentality

Dominant/Alpha Yes No
Family/Pack No Yes
Independent No No

Breed Focus

Distracted Easily No No
Average Yes No
Focused & Patient No Yes

Breed Instincts

Aggression Average Average
Burrow/Digging Average Below Average
Chasing Average Below Average
Follow Commands Average High
Fighting Average Below Average
Guarding High High
Herding High High
Hunting Average High
Protection High High
Remove Vermin Average Below Average
Sledding Average Below Average
Watch High High

Health Comparison – Anatolian Shepherd vs German Shepherd

Breed Name Anatolian Shepherd Dog German Shepherd


Lifespan 11-13 yrs. 10-14 yrs.

Common Health Issues

Allergies No Yes
Blindness No Yes
Bloat No Yes
Cancer No Yes
Cataracts No Yes
Cherry Eye No Yes
Chronic Diarrhea No Yes
Cruciate Ligament Rupture No Yes
Cushing’s Syndrome No Yes
Degenerative Myelopathy No Yes
Demodectic Mange No Yes
Diabetes No Yes
Digestive Problems No Yes
Elbow Dysplasia No Yes
Epilepsy No Yes
Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency No Yes
Heart Disease No Yes
Hemophilia A No Yes
Hemophilia B No Yes
Hip Dysplasia No Yes
Hypertrophic Osteodystrophy No Yes
Lens Luxation No Yes
Lupus No Yes
Megaesophagus No Yes
Myasthenia Gravis No Yes
Nail Bed Disease No Yes
Osteochondrosis No Yes
Pannus No Yes
Panosteitis No Yes
Paralysis No Yes
Perianal Fistula No Yes
Progressive Retinal Atrophy No Yes
Retinal Dysplasia No Yes
Seborrhea No Yes
Vitiligo No Yes
Von Willebrand’s Disease No Yes
Wobbler’s Syndrome No Yes

Appearance Comparison

Breed Name Anatolian Shepherd Dog German Shepherd


Hair Yes No
Fur No Yes

Coat Type

Double Coat Yes Yes
Smooth Coat Yes No

Coat Texture

Rough Yes No
Straight Yes Yes

Coat Length(s)

Short Yes Yes
Medium No Yes

Coat Color(s)

Black Yes Yes
Blue Fawn Yes No
Brindle Yes No
Fawn Yes No
Fawn&white Yes No
Gray Yes Yes
Liver Yes Yes
Red Fawn Yes No
White Yes Yes
Bi-color No Yes
Black & Tan No Yes
Black & Cream No Yes
Black & Red No Yes
Black & Silver No Yes
Blue No Yes
Sable No Yes

Seroprevalence of canine herpesvirus-1 in Anatolian Shepherd dogs and German Shepherd dogs.

What is the Best Breed of Dog for Coyote Hunting

What is the Best Breed of Dog for Coyote Hunting

What is the Best Breed of Dog for Coyote Hunting? What a great question. Look at the following facts about Coyotes and you will realize how important it is to make the right choice on which dog you will use to partner up with you.

They are also extremely bold predators. Attacks on pets often occur right in the presence of one or more humans. Dogs are snatched from the ends of their leashes, or dragged from their own yards over 6-foot privacy fences.

Holly Vaughn, wildlife communications coordinator for the Michigan Department of Natural Resources, says this behavior results from the coyotes’ belief that it is humans invading their territory, not the other way around.

Although coyotes only weigh about 20 to 50 pounds, they hunt with deadly precision. They carefully stalk their prey and run at speeds of 40 miles-per-hour, nipping at the legs of victims that attempt to escape.

When they attack, they immediately aim to kill, biting the neck and compressing the windpipe. Pets killed in coyote attacks typically die from a combination of suffocation and shock.

Coyotes are without a doubt the most versatile carnivores in America, maybe even worldwide,” animal behaviorist, Marc Bekoff told Smithsonian.com.

Is it a Good thing to hunt Coyotes?

Coyotes help control rodent populations and are an important part of the ecosystem, wildlife experts say. To protect livestock, however, the federal Agriculture Department’s Wildlife Services killed nearly 90,000 coyotes in 2008.

Catching them is tricky because they are cunning, skittish animals wary of anything unusual in their habitat, said Paul Curtis, a wildlife specialist at Cornell University.

The IDFG has never attempted to estimate coyote populations in the state of Idaho, but the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Wildlife Services (WS) program developed coyote population estimates in conjunction with the preparation of several different environmental assessments (USDA-ADC 1996a,b; USDAWS 2002).

What is the Best Breed of Dog for Coyote Hunting – Idaho’s coyote population was estimated in these analyses by considering the most relevant available scientific information on coyote densities, then extrapolat- ing a conservative density estimate to the total land area of Idaho. Density estimates ranged from a low 0.63/mi2 (Clark 1972) to a high of 5-6/mi2 (Knowlton 1972), and the lower end of this range was applied to the total area of Idaho to arrive at a conservative statewide coyote population estimate of about 50,000 animals.

Table 1. Estimated sheep (2005-2007) and cattle (2005) losses due to wolves, black bears, mountain lions, and coyotes in Idaho (NASS 2006, 2008).



Black Bears


Mountain Lions




2005 Sheep loss


2006 Sheep loss


2007 Sheep loss


2005 Cattle loss



NASS estimates of Idaho cattle losses to wolves in 2005 were combined into the “other predators” category, which included any losses attributable to wolves, grizzly bears, black bears, and vultures. What is the Best Breed of Dog for Coyote Hunting – Total losses reported in the “other predators” category in 2005 were 600 calves and 400 adult cattle, for a total of 1,000. The Idaho Wildlife Services program has received no reports of cattle or calf losses to vultures, and the combined 1,000 losses are believed to be primarily attributable to wolves and bears. The number of confirmed and probable calf losses documented by Idaho Wildlife Services as being bear-related was 3 animals in 2005, while the number of confirmed and probable calf losses attributed to wolves was 24 animals. The ratio of 3/27 was applied to the combined 1,000 wolf and bear losses to assign 111 of the losses to bears and 888 of the losses to wolves.

Table 2. Estimated average number of livestock killed per individual of each species most commonly implicated in livestock predation in Idaho in 2005.

Black Bears
Mountain Lions
2005 combined sheep and cattle losses due to each species


500 + 888    =


900 + 111    =


500 + 200 = 700
6,100 + 600 =


2005 estimated population of each species


Estimated number of sheep and cattle killed per individual present


Estimated number of just sheep killed per individual present


Estimated number of just cattle killed per individual present



Table 3. Estimated average number of sheep killed per individual of each species most commonly implicated in livestock predation in Idaho in 2005-2007.

Black Bears
Mountain Lions
2005 Sheep loss


2005 Estimated population of each species


Estimated number of sheep killed per individual present in 2005


2006 Sheep loss


2005 Estimated population of each species


Estimated number of sheep killed per individual present in 2006


2007 Sheep loss


2007 Estimated population of each species


Estimated number of sheep killed per individual present in 2007


3-year average number of sheep killed per individual predator present










So I suppose it depends on your specific circumstances.

Can a dog kill a coyote?

Yes a coyote can kill and eat a dog. And Yes a dog can and does kill coyotes. There are several hunters that use chase dogs to find coyotes and then they send Pitbull or other bully breed types in to kill the coyote. Coyotes are small and weak compared to most bully breeds and any bully breed will kill a coyote. My German Sheppard on the regular attacks coyotes in the neighborhood and has never lost. They all give him a huge wide berth now.

Pitbull Terrier used to kill coyotes after hunt

Several dogs in fact can kill a coyote. Most all the Eastern European and Western Asian Flock Guards can, as well as some of the larger Mastiff or Molosser breeds. Had you asked which dogs cam kill a European Wolf (Gray Wolf is a whole different matter), it would have dwindled the list some.

Some of the dogs which can easily kill a coyote include, Caucasian Ovcharka, Central Asian Shepherd, Kangal, Anatolian Shepherd, Sarplainic, Black Russian Terrior, Komodor, Neopolitan Mastiff, Cane Corso, American Bulldog, Rhodesian Ridgeback, Akita, Rottweiler, Presa De Canario, Dogo Argentino, etc.

All of these dogs can dispatch a coyote without too much ado. Again, if we are speaking of a North American Gray Wolf, then that is another conversation all together.

What is the Best Breed of Dog for Coyote Hunting – It depends on the dog’s Breed, Size, Fur, Age, and Fitness.

BREED: Breeds like a mastiff or kangal won’t even be looked at the wrong way by a coyote, but a pug, beagle or shiba will be seen as a snack, but a pitbull, english bulldog, or small-mid sized collie could be equal on the list and get attacked or not.

SIZE: i feel an average dog to be on equal terms with a coyote if the dog is 20-35% heavier, so a 40 lb coyote would be a match with a 48-54 lb dog, but that’s just an average dog, some breeds like a jack russel/labrador mix could be the same weight could give a coyote a run for its money, or a fit dog could weigh the same as the coyote and win.

FUR: yeah, you heard me! Fur is a deciding fight with another animal. One of the reasons coyotes and wolves have such thick fur is it acts as some padding for bites and makes it harder for teeth or claws to land a direct hit on their body. Dogs like Tibetan mastiffs, Newfoundlands, alaskan malamutes, and collies have very long and/or thick fur which can make it incredibly hard to bite through 3-12 inches of fur, but breeds like molosser breeds, labs, and most bully breeds have fur less than 3 inches thick, which can leave them easier to be damaged, however some breeds break the mold, like with the chinese shar pei which has short, prickly fur that can cause welts on people with thin skin that pet it wrong, shar peis also have extremely stretchy skin which can stretch so much that if a dog bit its shoulder, they would just get skin, and the shar pei could still turn around and bite the dog back.

AGE: age has a factor in a fight also. A dog that is 13 years old with bad hips isn’t going to do well fighting a coyote, because most dogs rhat age tend to be calm and peacful. And they are normally weak or tired at that age. Or how an 5 month old mastiff is bigger than a coyote, but it probably doesn’t have any instinct to fight yet, and die in a fight, which is sad because i love puppies. Most dog are at the prime of their life between 2 years old to 5 or 6 years old, excluding small and giant breeds. Dogs this age have all instincts developed and are physically developed.

FITNESS: Finally the last one, Jeez this is taking a while, i know, but that is why i divided the categories to make it easier, anyway back to the answer. Fitness is important for lots of things, especially when your fighting. A dog that is physically fit and active will have a better chance with a coyote. A dog that never goes outside of a small house and love off food scraps, treats, and your grandmas potroast will get tired within the first 15 second of fighting, not that it would happen since at that point your dog probably isn’t let out enough for coyote to notice him. But a dog that gets 6 hours of intense exercise every day and is fed raw venison and bones, with probably be as fit or more fit than a coyote, a police dog is a good example, if your dog gets good exercise, he or she will have better endurance, live years longer so you can your them more, and be stronger since they exercise those limbs.

What is the Best Breed of Dog for Coyote Hunting

1. American Staghound – What is the Best Breed of Dog for Coyote Hunting

This animal has been developed by cross-breeding Scottish deerhound, greyhound, and some other breeds. The American Staghound is well-known for its sharp eyesight and seemingly endless stamina. These dogs are especially suitable for coyote hunting because they have been exclusively developed for the purpose of hunting predators, specifically coyote and wolves. So in this breed, you have kind of ‘made to order’ hunting dog.

These dogs are runners – one look at their powerful body and long legs will tell you that. These features comprise of the greyhound part in them and are what make them so suitable for tracking down fast runners like coyotes.

American Staghound

What is the Best Breed of Dog for Coyote Hunting – The American Staghound is also a good house dog, but because of its predator hunting instinct, you should not trust it with non-canine pets. Otherwise, this dog is easy to maintain at home and is good with children. Extremely loyal and quick learners, you will be able to get the best out of this animal with the right kind of training. However, these dogs are not very suitable as guard dogs.

Not your typical dog, the American Staghound is a cross-breed between a greyhound and Scottish deerhound. Why are they so special when it comes to hunting coyotes? Well, they have the features that make them a perfect fit for hunting predators. They have an exceptional eyesight and a keen sense of smell. This makes them the perfect companion for any hunting trip especially when it comes to wolves and coyotes. These dogs have long legs and are fairly powerful, even though they may not look it. Which means they can run fast and have great stamina so they can easily keep up with coyotes.

This breed of dog makes a wonderful pet, however, if you plan on keeping it in a home with other animals, you should be aware. The American Staghound have the hunting instinct engraved into them, so they may cause a bit of havoc.

2. Plott Hound – What is the Best Breed of Dog for Coyote Hunting

What is the Best Breed of Dog for Coyote Hunting – The PlottHound is lean and muscular with large floppy ears rather like those of a Labrador or Dalmatian. Courage and loyalty go hand in hand with this breed. This kind is particularly well-known for its hunting skill in big animals like boar and coyotes. In fact, the dog is named after Johannes Plott along with his brother who introduced them to the US in 1750 for the purpose of boar hunting.

Plott Hound, What is the Best Breed of Dog for Coyote Hunting

Today the Plott Hound is predominantly found in the state of North Carolina and is the official State Dog of that state.

Plott Hounds are known for their hunting skills. Initially used to hunt boars, these dogs are wonderful for hunting predators like coyotes also. They are built for the hunt with a lean, muscular body which allows them to overpower smaller predators. They are also fairly quick, but may not have as much stamina as the American Staghound. In either case, this breed is quite loyal and doesn’t really back down from a fight. Making them a great option for your next coyote hunting trip.

3. Greyhound – What is the Best Breed of Dog for Coyote Hunting

The coyote is just about the smartest wild animal alive because they always have an escape route. I respect them. They can outsmart you. But greyhounds are smart, too. I think they’re the neatest dog ever made.

To subdue a coyote, the greyhounds often nip its back leg to sever a hamstring. Then they go for the kill by biting the neck. Hunters often leave coyote carcasses behind.

What is the Best Breed of Dog for Coyote Hunting – Originally, the Greyhound comes from Egypt but has been popularized the world over as a racing and running dog. Lean, hardy and built for speed with eagle-eye eyesight; these dogs are ideal for coyote hunting. Greyhounds are the fastest dogs in the world with a maximum recorded speed of 43 mph, guaranteeing that they could easily outrun the fastest coyote.

Greyhound, What is the Best Breed of Dog for Coyote Hunting

Here’s a greyhound racing video that gives you an idea of the sheer power, speed, and stamina of these magnificent animals. The Greyhound is a temperamental breed but docile and extremely gentle as a house dog. Due to its timid nature, this dog can best be used as a chaser to catch the prey in combination with another more aggressive breed to make the actual killing. These dogs also need access to a fenced area where they can get a good run on a regular basis, fenced because they are independent and have the tendency to wander off and not come back. Greyhounds are ideal for hunting coyotes as they have the innate hunting instinct to chase and seize fleeing creatures.

When it comes to hunting, you need a dog that is quick and can run for miles. A Greyhound does just that. Greyhounds are generally known as racing dogs but they can also be used as hunting dogs. They tend to be not quite skinny, but don’t let that fool you. They are muscular and strong, one of the reasons why they can run for so long. Not only are they fast but also have an eagle like eye-sight which allows them to spot coyotes from afar and go after them. Greyhounds max out at around 40 mph which means they can easily outrun coyotes and help you hunt them down.

4. Mountain View Cur – What is the Best Breed of Dog for Coyote Hunting

This breed was developed in 1987 in New York. The dominant gene of the Mountain View Cur is of the Mountain Cur, although they differ widely from the original mountain breed. Due to their crossbreeding, they are hardy, without any inherent genetic problems that are common to most pedigrees. This fact also explains their rather long average lifespan of 14 years.

Mountain View Cur

Mountain View Curs are also brilliant with a high level of self-control, making them ideal for training for hunting purposes and although they are well-suited to hunt coyote, they can also kill other animals like raccoons, pheasant, wild boar, and bobcat. Although this dog is in its element while out in the open on a hunt, it is equally comfortable at home with the occupants toward whom it is protective, making it a good house pet as well. Mountain View Curs are safe to have among children.

A crossbreed, the Mountain View Cur is generally a mountain breed, however, differs from other mountain breed dogs. This breed doesn’t come with the instinct for hunting like the American Staghound but they are quite clever and have a high level of self-control. This allows you to train it to be a great hunting dog. Even though the dog doesn’t grow to be that big, they are known to hunt raccoons and wild boars amongst other wild animals. You may need to spend a little extra time training the Mountain View Cur to hunt, but we guarantee that it will be worth it.

5. Black Mouth Cur – What is the Best Breed of Dog for Coyote Hunting

On your hunt, you probably want a dog that is full of energy and can easily track and hunt coyotes. What is the Best Breed of Dog for Coyote Hunting – The Black Mouth Cur fits that description well. These dogs are probably the best built in the sense that they are muscular and have a lean body as compared to the other dogs mentioned. They are great for hunting rodents like raccoons. You can just as easily train it to help you on your hunt for coyotes. This breed has high stamina levels and enjoys running around in the wild. Which means that when you take it out on your hunt, you can expect it to be restless until it catches something.

Black Mouth Cur

Dogs are known as “man’s best friend” for a reason. They are not only loyal but also make a wonderful hunting partner. So why not take one of these dogs with you on your next coyote hunting trip. It would certainly save you time, you won’t have to spend time on a trap as the dog will help you track a coyote down. If not for you to hunt, the dog will do it on its own, which makes these dogs a wonderful option in farms to protect it from coyote attacks.

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How to make Slime Activator with Salt

How to make Slime Activator with Salt

How to make Slime Activator with Salt – This is our number one favorite on the slime activator list because it makes an awesome stretchy slime. It’s also more easily available for UK, Australian and Canadian residents.

How to make Slime Activator with Salt : SALINE SOLUTION 

This slime activator is also commonly used as a contact solution, but I highly recommend picking up the lesser expensive saline solution instead.

Also, on our slime activators list is salt. So how to make slime activator with salt. You have to make a saline solution first by mixing salt with water. To make this saline solution use one cup of water and half a teaspoon of salt and place this in a pan. Boil this for approximately fifteen minutes and keep the pan lid on to avoid evaporation. You will then need to allow the pan to cool until it is at room temperature. Finally, carefully pour this solution into a bottle and jar which has a lid. You are now ready to start combining it with the glue to make some gooey fun stuff!

How to make Slime Activator with Salt – Salt is a good option as an activator for slime as it is readily available and it is also cheap to purchase. The volume of salt that you can purchase can produce a large quantity of slime which is useful if you need to make a large amount or if you plan to make it on a few occasions.



  • 1/2 cup Clear or White PVA School Glue
  • 1 tablespoon Saline Solution (must contain boric acid and sodium borate)
  • 1/2 cup of Water
  • 1/4-1/2 tsp Baking Soda
  • Food coloring, confetti, glitter, and other fun mix-ins (CHANGE FOR RECIPE)

How to make Slime Activator with Salt


STEP 1:  In a bowl mix 1/2 cup water and 1/2 cup of glue well to combine completely.

How to make Slime Activator with Salt

STEP 2: Now’s the time to add (color, glitter, or confetti)! Remember when you add color to white glue, the color will be lighter. Use clear glue for jewel toned colors!


STEP 3: Stir in 1/4- 1/2 tsp baking soda.

Baking soda helps to firm and form the slime. You can play around with how much you add but we prefer between 1/4 and 1/2 tsp per batch. I get asked all the time why do you need baking soda for slime. Baking soda helps to improve the firmness of the slime. You can experiment with your own ratios!

This slime recipe is also called BAKING SODA SLIME!

STEP 4: Mix in 1 tbsp saline solution and stir until slime forms and pulls away from sides of the bowl.   This is exactly how much you will need with the Target Sensitive Eyes brand, but other brands may differ slightly!

If your slime still feels too sticky, you may need a few more drops of saline solution. As I mentioned above, start by squirting a few drops of the solution onto your hands and kneading your slime longer. You can always add but you can’t take away.  Saline solution is preferred over contact solution.

STEP 5:  Start kneading your slime! It will appear stringy at first but just work it around with your hands and you will notice the consistency changes. You can also put it in a clean container and set it aside for 3 minutes, and you will also notice the change in consistency!


SLIME TIP:   We always recommend kneading your slime well after mixing. Kneading the slime really helps to improve its consistency. The trick with this slime is to put a few drops of the saline soluti9n onto your hands before picking up the slime.

You can knead the slime in the bowl before you pick it up as well. This slime is stretchy but can be stickier. However, keep in mind that although adding more activator (saline solution) reduces the stickiness, and it will eventually create a stiffer slime.


You will love how easy and stretchy this saline slime is to make, and play with too!  Once you have your desired slime consistency, time to have fun!  How big of a stretch can you get without the slime breaking?

SLIME TIPS AND TRICKS on How to make Slime Activator with Salt

  • Baking soda helps to firm and form the slime.  You can experiment with your own ratios!
  • BAKING SODA SLIME TIP: Clear glue slime usually doesn’t need quite as much baking soda as white glue slime!
  • The saline solution is the slime activator and helps the slime to get its rubbery texture! Be careful, adding too much saline solution can make for a slime that’s too stiff and not stretchy!
  • Give this slime a fast stir to activate the mixture. You will notice the thickness change as you stir it.  You will also notice the volume of your mixture changes as you whip it up.
  • Slime is awesome for tactile sensory play, but make sure to wash hands and surfaces after making and playing with slime.
  • Make a few batches in different colors and swirl them together as shown in the cover photo or below! Think of what other color combinations your kids would enjoy. Slime making is only limited by the imagination of the hands creating it!

More info at : Little Bins Little Hands

Livestock Guard Dogs Feeding

Livestock Guard Dogs Feeding

Livestock Guard Dogs Feeding – Livestock guardian dog (LGD) breeds and food, this is a really touchy subject.  And for this reason, I’ve been putting off writing this article for a long time.  There is just too much opposing science and too many differing (all well-argued) opinions to know for sure who’s right on this one.  But, here goes…

Livestock Guard Dogs Feeding

What should you feed your livestock guardian dog breed?  Livestock guardian dog breeds should be fed high quality commercial food or a carefully balanced raw food diet. Be aware that LGDs have historically lived on marginal diets, and modern-day owners need to take care not to overfeed their dogs as this leads to shortened lifespans and numerous health problems. 

Whether you’ve got a large Great Pyrenees or a smaller (but, yes, still large) Sarplaninac, livestock guardian dogs of all origins were traditionally bred to live on marginal diets.  Yes, they are large dog breeds, and for that fact alone, they will require a lot of food, but you don’t want to overfeed these dogs.

Livestock Guard dogs Feeding

Feeding routines are important. Feed the pup near the livestock (not at your house) preferably at the same time every day. Secure the pup’s food so it can eat in peace, without competition from the livestock. Allowing livestock to eat the dog’s food creates unnecessary conflict that can escalate as the dog grows in size.

What to Feed Livestock Guard Dogs: Commercial or Raw Food

The very general basis of raw food diets is that wolves eat raw food diets, and because dogs are closely related to wolves (and originally developed from wolves or a wolf-life ancestor), an optimal diet for them should also be one of raw foods.

Others have argued that domesticated dogs actually have a digestive system that’s different enough from that of wolves that we can’t assume they should be eating the same diet.  Dogs digestive systems are tailored toward a more varied diet, they say.

Many livestock guardian dog owners swear by raw food diets.  The Hoof and Fang Spanish Mastiff breeders worked with their vet to develop a raw food diet for their dogs.  They have an excellent “Raw Food Cheat Sheet” I highly recommended if you’re interested in this approach.  You can check it out at their website here.  They also provide a list of helpful websites and books if you’re interested in learning more about raw food diets.

When it comes to commercial dog food, you get what you pay for.  And yes, that truly is unfortunate because high quality dog food can be pricey.

Negri hypothesized the culprit causing these fights may have been a cheap brand of food.  She recommended the girls be given a high-quality food.  The client followed through and the fighting stopped pretty much immediately.  The girls’ weren’t getting the nutrition they needed out of the cheaper food, and so they were aggressive around the food bowl, trying to digest as much as possible to get the nutrients their bodies were starved for. With the more expensive food, they were getting what they needed and didn’t need to fight for resources.

Livestock Guard Dogs Feeding – How Often To Feed

I recommend feeding adults twice a day and puppies three times a day, although I’ve seen some sources that say four times for puppies up to three months.  I think your best bet is to check with both your dog’s breeder (if he’s not a rescue) and your vet.

I do not recommend free feeding if you can avoid it.  Some ranchers have so many livestock guardian dogs that feeding them twice a day is a major undertaking, so they free feed with food available all the time.  If you are in this position, you need to really keep an eye on your dogs’ weights to make sure that none of them are gaining too much weight.

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How Much To Feed LGD’s?

The amount you feed your dog will depend on your dog’s weight and how active she is.  You can use the recommendation given on your dog food bag and double check with your vet.

Keep in mind that dogs in the latter half of pregnancy and lactating dogs will need more food.  Sick and older dogs often have different food requirements.  Be sure to check with your vet to get it right.

What human food can I feed my diabetic dog

What human food can I feed my diabetic dog

What human food can I feed my diabetic dog – Many people are in the view that dogs can eat all of the human food but this is not the case, here is a wise list of human foods that you can serve to your diabetic dog.

What human food can I feed my diabetic dog

Winter Squash

A number of human food squash are good for diabetic dogs like pumpkin, butternut squash, and acorn squash because these squashes are high in fiber content. However, before serving winter squash should be cooked.

Alpha Sprouts

It is a high fiber food that is also safe for dogs and very supportive to cure diabetes in dogs. For a diabetic-friendly dinner mix it with the rice, oats and low-fat meat.

Is Xanthan Gum safe for dogs

Final Stages of Dog Diabetes

dog diabetes life expectancy


Dogs love to eat this human food, according to many of studies naturally occurring sugar like sugar from carrots do not affect the insulin level in the body of dogs. Either you served it in the raw or cooked form, Its beneficial in both ways. To be safely swallowed pulp the carrots, that becomes easy to digest too.


This leafy green vegetable is low in sugar and high in fiber, Its an ideal human food for diabetic dogs.


For diabetic support, you can add garlic in any of good that you cook at home or paste of garlic can be added in commercial food. It’s just an ingredient do not feed as a stand-alone vegetable. A high quantity of garlic may cause anemia in dogs. Consider to serve small dosage of garlic with other foods as a remedy and on the safe side do not cross the limit of three cloves on a daily basis.

Broccoli and Cauliflower

Both are known as low glycemic index human food. These green vegetables contain few sugars and very high in fiber. Both should be well pulped to make these digestions friendly and to get maximum benefits. The nutritional makeup of both vegetables is same and ideal for diabetic dogs.

Green Beans

You can choose this human food to provide fiber to your pooch, it contains a lot of fiber but not good in carbohydrates. You can serve it in raw form, pulped or cooked with other vegetables. It is a must-have vegetable for a diabetic dog because it supports the dog to stay energetic.

Leafy Salad Greens

Kale, collard greens, turnip greens, mustard greens, lettuce and all of your typical green salads are beneficial for diabetic dogs. Avoid spinach and Swiss chard.


To get the maximum benefits of human food you need to feed entire pea in the pod. According to studies, this combination makes them balanced food for carbohydrate and fiber.

Can Dogs eat Smoked Salmon?

Insulin resistance in dogs


When you are cooking a multi-ingredient food for your dog, you can include beets
to make your dog’s food colorful. This human food is high in sugar but good for
moderation. You may add some beet green instead of red to balance the sugar level
in food.

What human food can I feed my diabetic dog

What human food can I feed my diabetic dog – What grains

When your dog is suffering from diabetes, switching to a grain-free food is not a good choice at all. To stay healthy and active in daily activities dogs need vitamins, minerals, and fiber. So instead of starchy food, you should choose while grains from the human foods for your pooch. Because whole grains are rich in fiber, minerals, and vitamins. Processed foods may contain added sugar and other toxic ingredients but in the pure form, these whole grains provide energy as well as supportive towards curing diabetes. You must look for under-listed human food whole grains to include in your dog’s diet.

  • Bulgur (cracked wheat)
  • Brown rice
  • Triticale
  • Whole wheat flour
  • Wild rice
  • Buckwheat
  • Whole oats/oatmeal
  • Whole grain corn
  • Brown rice
  • Triticale
  • Millet
  • Whole rye
  • Whole grain barley
  • Whole farro
  • Quinoa
  • Sorghum
  • Whole rye
  • Whole grain barley
  • Whole farro
  • Wild rice
  • Buckwheat

What human food can I feed my diabetic dog – Some time when your dog has difficulty in digestion along with diabetes eliminating the whole grains can be a solution to keep him regular. But when he returns to the normal health you can include these grains in food.

Many studies conclude that easy to digest starches are a reason to trigger spikes in the blood sugar level right after a meal, it also can lead to weight gain. You can add human food whole grain in your dog’s diet to reach the blood sugar goals.

If you are already feeding a diet that contains whole grains then prefer to feed the same, but prefer to feed only whole grain diets because it also helps your dog in weight management.

There three most important in the list:

  • 1. Quinoa (related to spinach)
  • 2. Buckwheat (related to spinach)
  • 3. Amaranth (related to rhubarb)

These three are not truly grains but these are the best gain like human foods that you can feed to your diabetic dog. All of these foods contain fiber, protein and other important nutrient and the specialty is these will not increase the sugar level as much as true grains.

The list of these three What human food can I feed my diabetic dog may seem strange or new to you but humans are eating them from hundred of years.

What human food can I feed my diabetic dog

Other Foods for Diabetic dog

What human food can I feed my diabetic dog – Protein

High-quality proteins are very essential when managing diabetes in your dog. Meat sources like lamb and beef have the L-Carnitine amino acid which can help enhance fat metabolism and assist in maintaining lean body mass. Other great sources of proteins for a diabetic canine include chicken, fish, and turkey.
Since we’re trying to avoid body fat from adding up, aim for the low-fat foods like lean red meats or chicken breast.

What human food can I feed my diabetic dog – Carbohydrates

When it comes to carbs, you truly have to be careful not to cause a blood sugar spike in your dog. The body usually digests carbs faster than proteins or fats. As you choose the right meal for your pet, you have to avoid simple carbs which are characterized by high glycemic index (GI). High GI food can make the glucose spike very fast, therefore you should stick with wholesome or low GI carb. Some of these foods include whole grains, legumes, brown rice, potatoes, and honey.

Some of the high-glycemic food that you ought to avoid include, white bread, white rice, etc.

What human food can I feed my diabetic dog – Fiber

As of now, fiber has come to prove to be the best meal in a dog living with diabetes. The food helps a lot in digestion and also slows down the emptying of gastric and the digestion of carbs. This, in turn, minimizes the release of glucose and prevent the blood sugar levels from spiking.

Some of the best fiber human fiber foods that you can use to control diabetes in your dog include spinach, broccoli, and cauliflower. Also, fruits like blueberries, raspberries, and pears can be used but in small portions, since they contain high natural sugars.

What human food can I feed my diabetic dog – Fats

As I have suggested earlier, a dog with diabetes requires a low-fat diet to ensure optimal functioning of the insulin. Foods that are rich in omega-3 fatty acids can assist a lot in decreasing blood lipid levels and even regulation of the immune system. So far, fish and fish oils are the best in this role.

Can Dogs eat Smoked Salmon?

Can Dogs eat Smoked Salmon

Can Dogs eat Smoked Salmon? Well, as pet parents, we know that food which is good for us is not always good for our pets.

Salmon is an exceptionally nutritious food for humans as it is low in fat and high in protein. As well as containing essential vitamins and minerals that are vital for good health.

Obviously, we would love our dogs to benefit from this healthy and tasty fish as well!

But can dogs eat salmon?

The good news is, yes! You can feed salmon to dogs if it is properly cooked and prepared.

However, raw and uncooked salmon is extremely poisonous to dogs and can be deadly.

Can Dogs eat Smoked Salmon

Can dogs eat salmon?

Dogs can safely eat salmon so long as it is fresh, boneless, well-cooked and fed in small portions.

Salmon is often the main ingredient in many high quality dry and wet dog food products.

Like many human foods, you should limit giving salmon to your dog no more than once a week.

But, is salmon bad for dogs in any way?

Yes, it can be if not fed correctly.

You should never let dogs eat salmon if it is raw or under-cooked as it contains bacteria and parasites which are harmful to dogs, possibly leading to salmon poisoning disease (SPD) which can be fatal.

So, before you consider feeding salmon to your dog, there are some essential points you need to be aware of to keep your pet safe.

Can Dogs eat Smoked Salmon

Can dogs eat smoked salmon?

Can Dogs eat Smoked Salmon? – So, if cooked salmon is okay, can dogs eat salmon when it’s smoked? No!

You should never give smoked salmon to your dog.

The reason for this is that smoked salmon is cured so contains an excessive amount of salt that is dangerous for dogs.

There is also a small chance that smoked salmon contains parasites which can result in a fatal condition in canines.

Can Dogs eat Smoked Salmon

Is salmon good for dogs?

Salmon is an excellent source of Omega 3 fatty acids, which helps promote a healthy skin and coat for your dog.

As well as being useful for his heart and immune system.

Older dogs and those who have arthritis can benefit from salmon as it assists in the reduction of inflammation and stiffness in the joints.

Feeding salmon to young puppies helps develop their brains as well as assisting older dogs to concentrate better. Especially those that are a little senile.

Salmon is also high in amino acids, essential for keeping your dog healthy and active.

As well as being an excellent food for those dogs with skin irritations and allergies.

Is Xanthan Gum safe for dogs

Final Stages of Dog Diabetes

dog diabetes life expectancy

What human food can I feed my diabetic dog

Potential hazards in smoke-flavored fish

Salmon dog food

There are many commercial brands available producing salmon dog food.

Some products contain only salmon as a meat protein source whereas others have salmon as the primary protein but include additional meat.

So, why would you feed salmon dog food to your pet?

If your dog appears to be healthy and passes his annual vet checks with flying colors, then there is no need to change his feed.

However, if he has the occasional digestive upset, has itchy, flaky skin or his coat appears dull, then it may be an idea to change his diet onto salmon dog food.

It is also a good choice of food if your dog is a picky eater as many cannot resist the taste of salmon!

Can Dogs eat Smoked Salmon? – Your vet can always advise if you are unsure.

If your dog has allergy issues caused by traditional meats such as beef and chicken, then it is vital that you check the ingredients to ensure the food only contains salmon.

But dogs cannot live on salmon alone as it does not fulfill a dog’s essential carbohydrate and vitamin requirements.

Therefore, it is crucial when using a salmon dog food product that you check it is made with real salmon, high-quality ingredients and offers 100% balanced nutrition, consisting of all the necessary vitamins and minerals.

The label should reveal the food is “complete and balanced” and approved by the AAFCO (Association of American Feed Control Officials) or other.

Salmon poisoning in dogs

Salmon poisoning in dogs is potentially fatal if it is left untreated.

Can Dogs eat Smoked Salmon? – The problem is that it can take up to a week before a dog displays any clinical signs, so you and your vet may not even consider salmon poisoning.

As a result, this can make diagnosis and treatment difficult, which is not good news for your dog.

Also, it is possible for dogs with salmon poisoning to spread the infection to other dogs via their feces.

The most common dog salmon poisoning symptoms include:

  • Diarrhea
  • Vomiting
  • Lack of appetite
  • Rapid weight loss
  • Lethargy
  • Fever
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Dehydration

What do to if you think your dog has salmon poisoning

Take your dog immediately to your veterinarian if he displays any of these symptoms.

Inform your vet if you know, or suspect that your dog has eaten raw salmon.

A fecal sample, detecting the parasite’s eggs within the feces, or a needle sample from a swollen lymph node reveals the diagnosis for salmon poisoning.

Treatment for salmon poisoning is quite straightforward if detected in time.

Your veterinarian will most likely prescribe an antibiotic to kill the rickettsial organisms that caused the poisoning and a wormer to kill the parasite.

If your dog is dehydrated, then your veterinarian will give him intravenous fluid.

The good news is, that once treatment has started, dogs usually show rapid improvement within a couple of days.

Is Xanthan Gum safe for dogs

Is Xanthan Gum safe for dogs

In this article we will answer the question: “Is Xanthan Gum safe for dogs?”

Is Xanthan Gum safe for dogs

Xanthan gum is something humans should try to avoid in their own food and their pet’s food as well.

Xanthan gum is a “Generally Recognized as Safe” (GRAS) food additive in the US, Canada, Europe, and many other countries.

Yet it is known to be potentially as irritating as gluten for some with Celiac disease, causing gas, bloat and diarrhea; and for causing flare-ups for those with Crohn’s disease or Ulcerative Colitis (inflammatory bowel disease).

Is Xanthan Gum safe for dogs

In fact, “the rapid increase in the incidence and prevalence of IBD in recent decades strongly suggests an environmental trigger for IBD, one of which may be dietary patterns. There are several pathways where diet may influence intestinal inflammation, such as direct dietary antigens, altering the gut microbiome, and affecting gastrointestinal permeability.

A review article, “Evidence-based dietary advice for patients with inflammatory bowel disease” indicates that emulsifiers in processed foods have been indicated in Crohn’s disease.

What is Xanthan Gum?

Xanthan gum is a polysaccharide (sugar like compound) produced by bacterial fermentation of a sugar-containing medium.  Nutritionally speaking, it is a carbohydrate with about seven grams of fiber per tablespoon.

Xanthan gum is a powdery, sugar like substance that is used as a thickening or stabilizing additive in foods, toothpastes and medicine. It can be used to treat lower blood sugar and cholesterol in people with diabetes. While it is FDA approved as a food additive, it is created in a laboratory and is a soluble fiber adding no nutritional value to any sort.

It helps ingredients blend together and to stay blended. Think of canned pet food with chunks of carrots throughout.

Xanthan gum is a laboratory creation. It is a product:

– fermented on potential allergens
– when fermented on corn or soy (as it often is), GMO concerns exist
– cannot be manufactured without the use of toxic carcinogens

Is Xanthan Gum safe for dogs – Why it is in pet food?

Xanthan gum is gaining in popularity with pet food manufacturers because it has a low glycemic index and food containing it can be marketed as ‘gluten free’ which is certainly a buzz word in the nutrition business these days. It is used almost exclusively in wet food.

Xanthan gum is used as a thickening and suspending agent in wet or canned dog foods. It has little nutritional value.

What is Xanthan Gum substitute

Final Stages of Dog Diabetes

Are there any risks to feeding your pet xanthan gum?

Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) is the voluntary association of local, state, and federal agencies that oversees pet food and they have issued preliminary approvals for the use of xanthan gum in canned cat and dog food. That being said, it is not a natural substance and how your pet reacts should always be monitored.

Is Xanthan Gum safe for dogs – Benefits or risks

Several studies have shown that xanthan gum is  ‘safe’ in normal doses, for humans and pets.  That said, xanthan gum requires a ‘medium’ to grow and often the medium of choice is a carbohydrate like corn, soy, dairy, or wheat, all of which are potentially allergenic substances, especially if fed over long periods of time.

Xanthan gum: Safety evaluation by two-year feeding studies in rats and dogs and a three-generation reproduction study in rats

Miscellaneous facts about Xanthan Gum

Xanthan gum is used to stabilize and bind cosmetic products.

In human foods, xanthan gum is most often found in salad dressings and sauces because it helps to prevent oil separation.

Xanthan Gum was “discovered” by a team of USDA researchers in the 1960’s. In 1968 it was approved for use as a food additive in the US and Europe.

Some common foods that contain xanthan gum are salad dressings, sauces, beverages, syrups, baked goods, cookies, candy and low fat spreads.

Xanthan gum can also be found in lipsticks, lotions, toothpaste and some medicines.

Is Xanthan Gum safe for dogs – Common names

The most commonly used name is xanthan.  Other names include xantham gum, corn sugar gum and bacterial polysaccharide.

How to calculate leap year

How to calculate leap year

This article will explain how to calculate leap year as well as some other interesting facts about leap years.

How to calculate leap year

Very simple to see if a specific year is a leap year or not. To calculate if a specific year is a leap year:

Take the year and divide it by 4.

If the answer of division is equal to a whole number, the year is a leap year.

If the answer to the division is not equal to a whole number, the year is not a leap year.

Example One:

Year : 1983 :

1983/4 = 495.75

495.75 is not a whole numbers as .75 is a fraction.

Thus 1983 is not a leap year.

How to calculate leap year - Example One

Example Two:

Year : 2004 :

2004/4 = 501

501 is a whole number

Thus 2004 is a leap year.

How to calculate leap year - Example Two

What is Affiliate Marketing?

Leap year rules and calendar accuracy

How to calculate leap year Formula:

How to calculate leap year Formula

What Is a Leap Year?

Leap years are years where an extra, or intercalary, day is added to the end of the shortest month, February. The intercalary day, February 29, is commonly referred to as leap day.

Leap years have 366 days instead of the usual 365 days and occur almost every four years.

Why do we need leap years?

The Gregorian calendar, which now serves as the standard calendar for civil use throughout the world, has both common years and leap years. A common year has 365 days and a leap year 366 days, with the extra–or intercalary–day designated as February 29. A leap year occurs every four years to help synchronize the calendar year with the solar year, or the length of time it takes the earth to complete its orbit around the sun, which is about 365¼ days.

The length of the solar year, however, is slightly less than 365¼ days-by about 11 minutes. To compensate for this discrepancy, the leap year is omitted three times every four hundred years.

In other words, a century year cannot be a leap year unless it is divisible by 400. Thus 1700, 1800, and 1900 were not leap years, but 1600, 2000, and 2400 are leap years.

How to calculate leap year: Divide by 4: Whole number is leap years: Fractions is not leap years

What are your chances of being born on leap day?

About 1 in 1,500.

How to calculate leap year – When is the birthday party?

If you are born on a Leap Year, can you get your driver’s license as early as February 28th? Well, each state decides whether or not February 28 or March 1 will be the day you are eligible to get your license. Most states, however, consider March 1st the official day. For instance, the Michigan Vehicle Code states that people born on February 29th “are deemed to have been born on March 1st.” Another fun fact: Leap year babies yet their driver’s licenses when they are officially four years old (16)! There are no rules on when you have a party, however, so really in day in February or March is fair game to celebrate a leap year birthday.

How many people were born on leap day?

There are about 187,000 people in the US and 4 million people in the world who were born on Leap Day.

The rules for determining a leap year

Most years that can be divided evenly by 4 are leap years.

Exception: Century years are NOT leap years UNLESS they can be evenly divided by 400.

How to calculate leap year – When did leap year originate?

The Gregorian calendar is closely based on the Julian calendar, which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 45 BC. The Julian calendar featured a 12-month, 365-day year, with an intercalary day inserted every fourth year at the end of February to make an average year of 365.25 days. But because the length of the solar year is actually 365.242216 days, the Julian year was too long by .0078 days (11 minutes 14 seconds).

This may not seem like a lot, but over the course of centuries it added up. Until in the 16th century, the vernal equinox was falling around March 11 instead of March 21. In 1582, Pope Gregory XIII adjusted the calendar by moving the date ahead by 11 days and by instituting the exception to the rule for leap years. This new rule, whereby a century year is a leap year only if divisible by 400, is the sole feature that distinguishes the Gregorian calendar from the Julian calendar.

Following the Gregorian reform, the average length of the year was 365.2425 days, an even closer approximation to the solar year. At this rate, it will take more than 3,000 years for the Gregorian calendar to gain one extra day in error.

How to calculate leap year: Divide by 4: Whole number is leap years: Fractions is not leap years

How to calculate leap year – A Quick History Lesson

The Egyptians were the first to come up with the idea of adding a leap day once every four years to keep the calendar in sync with the solar year. Later, the Romans adopted this solution for their calendar, and they became the first to designate February 29 as the leap day.

But Wait! It’s Not Quite that Simple!

The math seems to work out beautifully when you add an extra day to the calendar every four years to compensate for the extra quarter of a day in the solar year. As we said earlier, however, the solar year is just about 365 ¼ days long, but not exactly! The exact length of a solar year is actually 11 minutes and 14 seconds less than 365 ¼ days. That means that even if you add a leap day every four years, the calendar would still overshoot the solar year by a little bit—11 minutes and 14 seconds per year. These minutes and seconds really start to add up: after 128 years, the calendar would gain an entire extra day. So, the leap year rule, “add a leap year every four years” was a good rule, but not good enough!

Calendar Correction, Part II

To rectify the situation, the creators of our calendar (the Gregorian calendar, introduced in 1582) decided to omit leap years three times every four hundred years. This would shorten the calendar every so often and rid it of the annual excess of 11 minutes and 14 seconds. So in addition to the rule that a leap year occurs every four years, a new rule was added: a century year is not a leap year unless it is evenly divisible by 400. This rule manages to eliminate three leap years every few hundred years.

It’s Smooth Sailing for the Next 3,300 Years

This ingenious correction worked beautifully in bringing the calendar and the solar year in harmony, pretty much eliminating those pesky extra 11 minutes and 14 seconds. Now the calendar year and the solar year are just about a half a minute off. At that rate, it takes 3,300 years for the calendar year and solar year to diverge by a day.

How to make bath bombs harder?

how to make bath bombs harder

How to make bath bombs harder?

How to make bath bombs harder? – Why is my bath bomb crumbly or cracking?
If you find that your bath bomb is crumbly, the mixture may be too dry. Adding more witch hazel or oils will give the mixture a more moist texture, which will be less likely to crumble and crack once removed from the mold. If your fizzy is cracking after it’s been in the mold, it’s possible that it was too wet and the mixture is expanding as it sits in the mold.

how to make bath bombs harder

How to make bath bombs harder? – Why is my bath bomb soft?
If your bath bomb is soft, the mixture may have too much moisture. If you add too much witch hazel or oil during the mixing process, add more dry ingredients to balance the texture. If you live in a humid, wet climate, the moisture in the air can prevent the bath bombs from becoming hard. Adding a small amount of clay (like kaolin clay) or cornstarch can help the bath bombs harden. They also make the bath bombs a bit more sturdy.

how to make bath bombs harder 2

Why does my bath bomb have lumps, warts or bumps on the surface?
A bumpy texture on your bath bomb is usually a result of clumps in the dry ingredients or not fully mixing the fragrance oil. Baking soda in particular tends to clump together. Before adding oil, color, fragrance or other additives, break up large clumps with your hands. To remove and break up smaller clumps, pour the dry ingredients through a fine mesh sifter. This extra step gives a smooth texture. Bath bomb warts can also occur when the fizzy contains too much moisture. Usually the culprit is fragrance or essential oil so mix extra well to ensure the wet is fully incorporated into the dry.

how to make bath bombs harder

How long should bath bombs stay in the mold?
I recommend leaving your bath bomb in the mold for at least several hours, up to overnight. If you try to remove the bath bomb while it’s still soft, it can crumble. Allowing the bath bomb to dry thoroughly in the mold will make it easier to remove and handle.

Why are my bath bombs not sticking together in stainless steel bath bomb mold?
Sometimes it can be a little tricky to get the two halves of the bath bombs to stick together. Instead, the bath bomb mixture tends to stick to the mold. To help, add 5-10 drops of cyclomethicone in both sides of the mold and swirl it around. Then, let the molds drain on a paper towel. It makes removing the mold extremely easy! The texture of your fizzies is also important. For the stainless steel molds, you want the bath bomb mixture to be a bit more wet so the mixture holds its shape.

How to make bath bombs harder? – How To Dry Bath Bombs (Quickly!)

When we first started making bath bombs, one of our biggest challenges was getting the darned things to dry! Most of the time we simply had to leave them on the counter overnight, and hope they’d be ready by morning. But once we started getting busier, we needed a way to make the bath bombs dry FAST. Below are a few different approaches you can take to help your bath bombs dry.

Air Drying

Ah, the old standard, Air Drying. This is typically the first method every bath bomber uses when starting out. It’s easy, free, and reliable. This works particularly well if you’re using clam shell molds for your bath bombs, as you can just leave them in the mold over night and in the morning have a nice round dry bath bomb. This is ideal for new bath bombers who only have a handful of bombs they need to make at a time, though it can become prohibitive once your sales start to increase as you’ll have to buy more and more molds to hold bath bombs, and  even the cheap little plastic clam shells started to get really expensive once your sales pick up. Additionally, because most e-commerce sites penalize you if your ship times are too long, it can become troublesome having to wait 24 hours before you can ship your bath bombs once your business starts to grow.

Which brings us to option 2.

Oven Drying Your Bath Bombs

The next method we moved on to when we were starting out was drying our bath bombs in the oven. This is a great option for you bath bombers out there that only need a few oven’s worth of bath bombs at a time. It’s effective, easy, and doesn’t cost anything (aside from electricity). To dry your bath bombs in the oven,  simply turn the oven to the ‘warm’ setting, let it come up to temp, and then leave them in there to dry for 1-4 hours.

This is a great solution for when you have a specific type you need to make in the morning and need to be able to ship it later that day. If it’s an absolute emergency, you can usually get away with only drying it for about an hour, but remember, the longer you leave it in there the better the odds of it showing up to your customer in one piece!

Another benefit is that when we baked our bath bombs they would come out and almost have something of a ‘shell’ on the exterior. It felt very hard, and made a satisfying clicking sound when you tap your fingernail against it.

The main drawback with oven baking is that for it to be effective, the bath bombs should be removed from their molds and placed onto an oven rack. This can be challenging if you’re using clam shell molds and your bath bombs are fragile right after you’ve made them. That was one of our biggest challenges when we first started making our own bath bombs. This is mainly due to your baking soda and the citric acid mix being too dry, so if this is a problem you encounter, the best course of action is to continue to experiment with your recipe until your bath bombs come out perfect and durable every time.

And one of the best ways to achieve that result is…

How to make bath bombs harder? – Kaolin Clay

At the end of the day, if you’re going to grow your bath bomb business, you should really consider adding Kaolin Clay to your recipe. When we first started using it, it proved to be a real game changer for us. Our bath bombs became instantly more durable when removed from the mold, and were dry enough to ship within 3 hours if needed. We could make our bath bombs in the morning, and know that they’d be ready to ship by the afternoon whenever we needed them.

The only real drawback to adding the kaolin clay was the added upfront cost, though when I worked out the numbers at the end of the month it turned out that what we spent on the Kaolin clay was offset by the amount of product we didn’t lose to crumbled bath bombs. So for us it was a no brainer, and we’ve been using it in every bath bomb we’ve made since. how to make bath bombs harder – One (very important) caveat, is that the Kaolin Clay comes in powdered form, so as with all powdered ingredients you want to make sure you’re always wearing a dust mask or a respirator when handling it so that you don’t breathe the powder into your lungs.

How does a Bath Bomb Work

Bath Bombs and UTI


How does a Bath Bomb Work

How does a Bath Bomb Work – The part that makes them fizz is the same as an Alka Seltzer or soluble aspirin tablet: sodium bicarbonate and citric acid. These chemicals are inert when they are dry powders, but in water they dissolve and the citric acid reacts with the sodium bicarbonate to form sodium citrate and carbon dioxide.

The sodium citrate stays in solution and you don’t really notice it, but the carbon dioxide bubbles out as a gas that helps the bath bomb break up. This lets the detergents, perfumes and oils that make up the rest of the bath bomb mix with the bathwater.

How does a Bath Bomb Work – Bath bombs are awesome balls of fizzy goodness, with some interesting science behind them! They were invented in 1989 by Mo Constantine, one of Lush’s founders. Bath bombs contain the chemical sodium bicarbonate, also known as baking soda, as their key ingredient

Bath bombs are awesome balls of fizzy goodness, with some interesting science behind them! They were invented in 1989 by Mo Constantine, one of Lush’s founders. Bath bombs contain the chemical sodium bicarbonate, also known as baking soda, as their key ingredient.

How does a Bath Bomb Work

Some of you might remember that baking soda isn’t good for your skin because it’s a base, with a high pH. High pH (alkaline or basic) products disturb the skin’s acid mantle, which protects your living tissue from the environment, particularly bacteria, like acne-causing Propionibacterium acnes.

But don’t fret! The second key ingredient in a bath bomb is a solid acid, such as citric acid or tartaric acid (cream of tartar). This lowers the pH by reacting with the baking soda when water is added to the mixture. Unless the maker of the bath bombs has really messed up their proportions, the final pH should be reasonably neutral. Until the water dissolves the acid and baking soda and allows them to mix at a microscopic level, nothing happens.

Aside from neutralisation, the acid + base reaction with sodium carbonate also produces tiny bubbles of carbon dioxide gas, which is what causes the fizzing:

How does a Bath Bomb Work – The Chemical Reaction

Citric acid + sodium bicarbonate → sodium citrate + water + carbon dioxide

C6H8O7(s) + 2NaHCO3(s) → Na2C6H6O7(aq) + 2H2O(l) + 2CO2(g)

How does a Bath Bomb Work – This is almost the same reaction as the one commonly used in volcano science projects to create foaming “lava” (they usually use vinegar as the acid). Of course, in bath bombs, there’s also fragrance and colours and glitter – the fizzing helps the bath bomb disperse faster, and combined with heat from the hot water, spreads the scent faster and makes the whole bathroom smell amazing.

How do bath bombs work

Bath bombs can slowly absorb water from the air, using up the acid and sodium carbonate and releasing carbon dioxide prematurely – this is why bath bombs get less fizzy as they get old! Make sure you keep your bath bombs in a dry place until you’re ready to use them.

How does a Bath Bomb Work – When the weather outside is frightful, soaking in a hot bath can sound especially appealing. And adding a bath bomb to the water can elevate the experience. But what exactly is in these scented spheres, and what makes them so fizzy?

Bath bombs are usually made from three key ingredients: baking soda, citric acid and cornstarch, said Frankie Wood-Black, an instructor in chemistry at Northern Oklahoma College and an experienced bath-bomb maker. Often, bath bombs also include dyes and perfumes, and sometimes they have epsom salt.

How does a Bath Bomb Work – The fizziness of bath bombs comes from the chemical reactions that happen when the baking soda and citric acid come into contact with water, Wood-Black told Live Science. Baking soda, or sodium bicarbonate, has the chemical formula NaHCO3. In water, baking soda quickly dissolves, and the positively charged sodium (Na+) breaks apart from negatively charged bicarbonate (HCO3-).

Meanwhile, the citric acid also dissolves, with a single hydrogen ion (H+) separating from the rest of the molecule, Wood-Black said. Then, that positively charged hydrogen from the citric acid and the negatively charged bicarbonate from the baking soda mingle, very quickly undergoing a series of reactions. One of the end products is carbon dioxide (CO2). Because carbon dioxide is a gas, it forms small bubbles in the bath water, creating a delightful fizz.

If there are perfumes or scented oils in the bath bomb, they are released into the air with the carbon dioxide bubbles, Wood-Black said. The sodium from the baking soda and the rest of the citric acid molecule (minus the hydrogen that it lost when it dissolved) simply remain in the water.

The cornstarch in a bath bomb has just one job: It slows down the reaction.

By binding to the baking soda as well as the citric acid, the cornstarch slows down the rate at which both of them dissolve. The effect is that the fizziness may last 3 or 4 minutes, instead of only seconds, Wood-Black said.

Making bath bombs is not difficult, she said. She mixes 1 cup of baking soda, one-half cup of citric acid and one-half cup of cornstarch together in a bowl. All three items can be found at grocery stores. Citric acid is found in soda and candy and can also be used to make cheese, Wood-Black noted. After mixing the three ingredients, she adds about 1 teaspoon of water, which is enough to just barely moisten the ingredient mixture so that the powder sticks together. She then scoops the mixture into a mold (such as a Santa or a star candy mold) to form a shape and lets the shapes dry overnight.

But you can also just mix together the three key ingredients and skip the water. Leave the mixture in a jar, and then scoop it into your bath, she said.

Food coloring can be used to dye bath bombs, she said. But she doesn’t dye the ones she makes. “I opt not [to do that],” she said. “I’m a chemist by profession, but with food coloring, I just get it all over the place.”

How to make bath bombs harder?

Bath Bombs and UTI


Which Ethnic Group has the highest IQ

Which Ethnic Group has the highest IQ

Which Ethnic Group has the highest IQ – The 20th century witnessed a dramatic increase in IQ, as much as 3 points per decade . The fact that IQ scores increased so much in such a short amount of time has raised many issues about the nature of intelligence, and what intelligence tests are measuring. For instance, while an individual’s IQ test performance within a particular generation tends to be relatively stable and is determined by a complex mix of nature and nurture, such dramatic increases across generations demonstrates the potent influence of the environment on the development of cognitive abilities.Multiple researchers have proposed theories to explain the Flynn effect. One of the most elaborate is Dickens and Flynn’s ‘social multiplier effect’. Their proposed effect takes into account the importance of culture in influencing what particular forms of intelligence it educates, spotlights, and nurtures.

Which Ethnic Group has the highest IQ : World IQ Figures

Including Additional Material
on high Jewish, Chinese and Indian IQs

Which Ethnic Group has the highest IQ

1      Afghanistan     83
2      Albania     90
3      Algeria     84
4      Angola     69
5      Antigua & Barbuda     75
6      Argentina     96
7      Armenia     93
8      Australia     98
9     Austria     102
10   Azerbaijan     87
11     Bahamas     78
12     Bahrain     83
13     Bangladesh     81
14     Barbados     78
15     Belarus     96
16     Belgium     100
17     Belize     83
18     Benin     69
19     Bhutan     78
20     Bolivia     85
21     Botswana     72
22     Brazil     87
23     Brunei     92
24     Bulgaria     93
25     Burkina Faso     66
26     Burma (Myanmar)     86
27     Burundi     70
28     Cambodia     89
29     Cameroon     70
30    Canada     97
31     Cape Verde     78
32     Central African Rep.     68
33     Chad     72
34     Chile     93
35     China     100
36     Colombia     88
37     Comoros     79
38     Congo (Braz)   73
39     Congo (Zaire)  65
40     Costa Rica     91
41     Côte d’Ivoire
42     Croatia     90
43     Cuba     85
44     Cyprus     92
45     Czech Republic     97
46     Denmark     98
47     Djibouti     68
48     Dominica     75
49     Dominican Republic     84
50     Ecuador     80
51     Egypt     83
52     El Salvador     84
53     Equatorial Guinea     59
54     Eritrea     68
55     Estonia     97
56     Ethiopia     63
57     Fiji     84
58     Finland     97
59     France     98
60     Gabon     66
61     Gambia     64
62     Georgia     93
63     Germany     102
64     Ghana     71
65     Greece     92
66     Grenada     75
67     Guatemala     79
68     Guinea     63
69     Guinea-Bissau     63
70     Guyana     84
71     Haiti     72
72     Honduras     84
73     Hong Kong     107
74     Hungary     99
75     Iceland     98
76     India     81
77     Indonesia     89
78     Iran     84
79     Iraq     87
80     Ireland     93
81     Israel     94
82     Italy     102
83     Jamaica     72
84     Japan     105
85     Jordan     87
86     Kazakhstan     93
87     Kenya     72
88     Kiribati     84
89     Korea, North     105
90     Korea, South     106
91     Kuwait     83
92     Kyrgyzstan     87
93     Laos     89
94     Latvia     97
95     Lebanon     86
96     Lesotho     72
97     Liberia     64
98     Libya     84
99     Lithuania     97*
100    Luxembourg     101
101     Macedonia     93
102     Madagascar     79
103     Malawi     71
104     Malaysia     92
105     Maldives     81
106     Mali     68
107     Malta     95
108     Marshall Islands     84
109     Mauritania     73
110     Mauritius     81
111     Mexico     87
112     Micronesia     84
113     Moldova     95
114     Mongolia     98
115     Morocco     85
116     Mosambique     72
117     Namibia     72
118     Nepal     78
119     Netherlands     102
120     New Zealand     100
121     Nicaragua     84
122     Niger     67
123     Nigeria     67
124     Norway     98
125     Oman     83
126     Pakistan     81
127     Panama     84
128     Papua New Guinea     84
129     Paraguay     85
130     Peru     90
131     Philippines     86
132     Poland     99
133     Portugal     95
134     Puerto Rico     84
135     Qatar     78
136     Romania     94
137     Russia     96
138     Rwanda     70
139     Samoa (Western)     87
140     Sao Tome/Principe     59
141     Saudi Arabia     83
142     Senegal     64
143     Seychelles     81
144     Sierra Leone     64
145     Singapore     100
146     Slovakia     96
147     Slovenia     95
148     Solomon Islands     84
149     Somalia     68
150     South Africa     72
151     Spain     99
152     Sri Lanka     81
153     St. Kitts & Nevis     75
154     St. Lucia     75
155     St.Vincent/Grenadines     75
156     Sudan     72
157     Suriname     89
158     Swaziland     72
159     Sweden     101
160     Switzerland     101
161     Syria     87
162     Taiwan     104
163     Tajikistan     87
164     Tanzania     72
165     Thailand     91
166     Togo     69
167     Tonga     87
168     Trinidad & Tobago     80
169     Tunisia     84
170     Turkey     90
171     Turkmenistan     87
172     Uganda     73
173     Ukraine     96
174     United Arab Emirates     83
175     United Kingdom     100
176     United States     98
177     Uruguay     96
178     Uzbekistan     87
179     Vanuatu     84
180    Venezuela     88
181     Vietnam     96
182     Yemen     83
183     Yugoslavia     93
184     Zambia     77
185     Zimbabwe   66

With the single exception of Ashkanazi Jews (see Endnote), the “yellow races” enjoy the highest IQs in the world, with the Hong Kong Chinese scoring most (107), South Koreans (106), North Koreans (105), Japanese (105). In comparison, the average Caucasian has an IQ of 100 or less.

Which Ethnic Group has the highest IQ – Notes  on Jewish IQ:

ASHKENAZI  JEWS: Unlike the “average” Jew in Israel whose IQ is given above as 94, the Ashkenazi Jew is said to have an average IQ of 110-115, sometimes as high as 117. This is 10 points above the Hong Kong Chinese (107), 20 points above the Canadians (97), 30 points above the Mexicans (87), and 50 points above the Nigerians (67).

“The 2005 paper “Natural History of Ashkenazi Intelligence” by Cochran, Hardy, and Harpending, argued on the basis of inherited diseases and the peculiar economic situation of Ashkenazi Jews in medieval Europe, that Ashkenazi Jews as a group now inherit a cognitive profile that includes higher verbal and mathematical intelligence than other ethnic groups, along with lower spatial intelligence.

One observational basis for inferring that Ashkenazi Jews have high intelligence is their prevalance in intellectually demanding fields. From 1901–2010, 21.5% of Nobel prize winners were Jewish, while Jews make up a much smaller fraction of the population of the countries represented. For example, 36% of Nobel prize winners from the United States have been Jewish, while Jews make up 2.1% of the U.S. population.

G. Cochran, J. Hardy and H. Harpending additionally cite the disproportionately high percentage of Ashkenazi Chess Grandmasters and Fields Medalists in mathematics, as well as winners of the Turing Award in computer science.

Their median IQ is calculated at 117 in From Chance to Choice: Genetics and Justice (2000), published by Cambridge University Press. This is 10 points higher than the generally-accepted IQ of their closest rivals—Northeast Asians—and almost 20% higher than the global average.”

“Other researchers who study the Ashkenazim have asserted an IQ number a bit lower than 117, but all have agreed that these children of Abraham are on top of the IQ chart. Plus, contemplate this astounding tidbit: Ashkenazi “visual-spatial” test scores are typically lower than the norm; this means their abilities in the other two categories, language and math, are absolutely astounding.

Nobel Prizes: Since 1950, 29% of the awards have gone to Ashkenazim, even though they represent only 0.25% of humanity. Ashkenazi achievement in this arena is 117 times greater than their population.

Hungary in the 1930s: Ashkenazim were 6% of the population, but they comprised 55.7% of physicians, 49.2% of attorneys, 30.4% of engineers, and 59.4% of bank officers; plus, they owned 49.4% of the metallurgy industry, 41.6% of machine manufacturing, 72.8% of clothing manufacturing, and, as housing owners, they received 45.1% of Budapest rental income. Jews were similarly successful in nearby nations, like Poland and Germany.

USA (today): Ashkenazi Jews comprise 2.2% of the USA population, but they represent 30% of faculty at elite colleges, 21% of Ivy League students, 25% of the Turing Award winners, 23% of the wealthiest Americans, and 38% of the Oscar-winning film directors.

Israel: In 1922, this swamp and desert land was inhabited by a impoverished population of 752,000. Today there are 7,746,000 residents, with an Ashkenazi majority that have elevated it into a high-tech entrepreneurial nation with the highest per capita income in the region.”

Which Ethnic Group has the highest IQ – The simplest explanation for the huge IQ difference between the fair-skinned Ashkenazi Jews and swarthier Jews of Semitic appearance (e.g., Sephardic Jews) is a so-called conspiracy theory known as the “Khazarian thesis”.

Popularized by Arthur Koestler in The Thirtheenth Tribe and accepted by notable Jewish scholars themselves (e.g. Prof. Shlomo Sand), this basically states that the Ashkenazi Jews are “false Jews” or aliens of an entirely different race masquerading as Semitic Jews. Originating in a region known as “Khazaria”, these Turko-Tartaric tribes converted to Judaism in the 8th century. So they were “Jews” only by religious conversion, not by blood. As such, being essentially “false Jews”, they have no historic link to the Holy Land and no Biblical claim whatever to Palestine.


Descended from the Khazars, a Turkic race originally from Central Asia and related to the Hun, Uigur and Magyar tribes, the ancestors of the Ashkenazi “Jews” had settled in Khazaria in the Black Sea/Caspian Sea area at some point in the Dark Ages. Of wholly Asiatic origin, they became “Jews” later only by religious conversion in the 8th century. This is controversial.  Because, if true, it means that Ahhkenazi Jews have no ancestral links with the Holy Land. Abraham and Moses were NOT their ancestors. Any claim made to Palestine on Biblical grounds by Ashkenazi Jews—who comprise the bulk of Israel’s population today—would therefore be a spurious claim.

Which Ethnic Group has the highest IQ – The Khazarian thesis of Koestler has been rejected by other notable scholars. Prof. Kevin MacDonald is one of these. He states categorically: “Modern population genetic studies show conclusively that Jews are indeed an ethnic entity and that widely dispersed Jewish groups are more similar to each other than to the peoples they have lived among for hundreds or thousands of years.” (See here).

There are two significant weaknesses with this anti-Khazarian thesis, i.e., with the idea that Ashkenazi Jews and other Jews are pretty much the same and originate from the same “Semitic” race that produced Abraham and Moses.

(1) Studies that show “genetic similarities” between Ashkenazi Jews and other widely dispersed Jewish groups do not necessarily disprove the Khazarian thesis. This is because intermarriage between the Ashkenazis and the non-Askenazi or “Semitic” Jews was frequent in Khazaria from the 8th century onward, and indeed anywhere else in the world where the fair-skinned Khazarian “Jews” (= Jews by conversion) mingled with and married the darker Semitic Jews.

(2)  The huge gap of 23 points between the IQ levels of Israeli Jews (94) and Ashkenazi Jews (117) cannot be satisfactorily explained if we believe, as MacDonald states, “that Jews are indeed an ethnic entity and that widely dispersed Jewish groups are more similar to each other than to the peoples they have lived among for hundreds or thousands of years.”

If we examine the IQs of the Northeast Asians, for example, we note that these genetically related races all have very similar IQs: Hong Kong Chinese (107), South Koreans (106), North Koreans (105), Japanese (105), Taiwanese (104), Mainland Chinese (100). None of these genetically related races is 23 points higher than any of the others, though taken as a whole they are 23 points higher than most of the African races. The conclusion is obvious: the fact that the Northeast Asians and the Africans have such a huge difference in their IQs is a proof, if any were needed, that these races are genetically unrelated.

If we take the European or Caucasian races, we note exactly the same thing: a striking similarity of IQs: Germany (102), Austria (102), Italy (102), Netherlands (102), Sweden (101), Switzerland (101), Belgium (100), UK (100), Spain (99), Hungary (99), Poland (99), France (98), Denmark (98), Norway (98).

Note that not one of these European races is 23 points higher in IQ than any of the others, though taken as a whole they are 23 pints higher than the African nations. The conclusion is again obvious: the fact that the Europeans and the Africans have such a huge difference in their IQs is a proof, if any were needed, that Europeans and Africans are genetically unrelated.

Which Ethnic Group has the highest IQ – From this we arrive at the indisputable conclusion that a huge differences in IQ between one group and another group essentially means that the groups belong to different races. If, for example, every Caucasian nation mentioned above had similar IQs of around 100, but ONE European nation—”Ruritania”, let’s say— had an average IQ of 130, one would have to conclude that the “Ruritarians” did not, and could not, belong to the same Caucasian race as all the others.

It is this that gives credence to Koestler’s Khazarian thesis: that the Ashkenazi “Jews” are not really Jews, and that they are Jews only by conversion to Judaism.

Conclusion: The 23 point difference in IQs between Ashkenazis and non-Ashkenazis would seem to demonstrate conclusively that these people belong to entirely different races. If they belonged to the same “Semitic” race, they would follow the general rule of having similar IQs.

Speaking of anti-Semitism, Koestler was to write that it was based  “on a misapprehension shared by both the killers and their victims.”

The story of the Khazar Empire, he went on to add, gave an entirely new twist to “the distorted view that all Jews were genetically related and belonged to the same Semitic race.”

This began to look, he concluded controversially, “like the most cruel hoax which history has ever perpetrated.”

UPDATE  ON  JEWISH  IQ – Which Ethnic Group has the highest IQ

Which Ethnic Group has the highest IQ – A correspondent writes: “If we look at the Israeli national avg. for IQ, it is only 94. Prof. Lynn in Ireland is the ultimate authority on IQ differences. In a semi-private conversation at an AR conference (Feb. 2001), he said that the Jewish IQ outside of Israel is 103-104 (somewhat expected to graduate from higher education). Prof. Lynn stated: “I don’t understand why there is this push to say 110-115, by my colleagues, when there is no scientific study that proves that.”


Following are the various human groups and their average IQs :

Highest : East Asians (Chinese, Koreans, Japanese) – average IQ 105

High : Europeans – average IQ 100.

Mediocre : American Indians, Mestizos, American Blacks (are for 20% mixed with White genes), Arabs, Turks, Iranians, Indians, South East Asians – average IQ 85.

Low : African (full blood) Negroes – average IQ 70.

Lower : Australian Aborigines – average IQ 62

Lowest : Bushmen and Pygmies – average IQ 54.

— Supplied by Franklin Ryckaert

Which Ethnic Group has the highest IQ Note. It is not clear where Jews should be placed on this list, but they are definitely in the higher-than-average category, although Israeli Jews are given a “mediocre” IQ of only 94.  Conventionally, Ashkenazi Jews are allotted the highest IQs in the world at 110-115, but Professor Lynn ascribes them a lower average IQ of 103-104. (See above, ‘Update on Jewish IQ’). If correct, this would mean that Jews are slightly less intelligent on the whole than the clever East Asians, i.e., the Chinese, Japanese and Koreans. (LD)

UPDATE ON INDIAN and Chinese IQ ***

Which Ethnic Group has the highest IQ – It would appear that the “mediocre” IQ in India of 81, though applicable en masse to the population of the subcontinent as a whole, is not applicable to the closely inbred brahminical classes of Bengal and Tamil Nadu (and other such areas) which have been practicing their own highly idiosyncratic form of eugenics for centuries  These high-caste Indians  are reported to have the world’s highest IQs in the 115-120 range.

Franklin Ryckaert offers this comment:

Besides the Ashkenazi Jews with their high average IQ, another interesting group is Indian Brahmins, who have an ancient culture of learning and are strictly endogamic, which would tend to breed for intellect. There is an interesting article touching on this subject on Steve Sailer’s blog. Here the average IQ of North Indian Brahmins is estimated at 115 and that of South Indian Brahmins at 120. If that is true, they would surpass even the Ashkenazis.

LD: If the above details are correct, it would not be unreasonable to apply the same tentative logic to China, leading us to speculate that the IQ of the highly bred  Chinese scholar classes or mandarinate — the equivalent of India’s brahminical caste — may be far higher than the average Chinese IQ of 105.

Which Ethnic Group has the highest IQ – Another point worth noting, in regard to Indian IQ, is that it is hard to believe that the average IQ of Indian immigrants to Western countries is as low as 81. The average IQ of of Indian immigrants certainly equals, and often exceeds by a wide margin, the average IQ (100) of the local white population. Some of the most gifted children in British schools today have highly educated Indian parents. Moreover, even in India itself, the children of the educated classes who attend expensive boarding schools have higher-than average IQs, often going on to Oxford and Cambridge for further education.

Intelligence and the Wealth and Poverty of Nations by Richard Lynn

How long does it take to become a Lawyer

How long does it take to become a Lawyer

How long does it take to become a Lawyer : Generally, to become a lawyer, you have to take a four-year baccalaureate degree and three years of Law School are required to earn a degree in Law. Then you have to obtain a license by gaining admittance to the Bar in the jurisdiction in which you wish to practice.

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How long does it take to become a Lawyer

Four years to earn an undergraduate degree, the major can be almost anything but most students choose Criminal Justice or Political Science; some institutions offer a Bachelor’s Degree in pre-law. Before being accepted to law school you must take the LSAT which is a test for admittance. If the law student carries a full credit load they can conceivably finish in three years.
After graduating from law school the person will have a Juris Doctor (a doctorate of law) and may then take the bar exam in the state where they choose to be licensed. This usually occurs a few months after graduation. Most states offer the Bar exam in February and July, about two months after most schools graduate their classes. Results can take many months before they are announced. (July exam results are typically published in November!)
In the U.S., it takes about 7 years to become a lawyer; the times vary from state to state due to various bar rules and regulations. You need a Bachelor’s degree before attending law school for 3 years. A Bachelor’s degree takes about 4 years to complete, and you apply to lots of law schools a year before you plan to attend. In order to be considered for admission to law school, you must first write and pass the Law School Admissions Test (LSAT).
Once you have your Bachelor’s degree and have completed law school, you need to write your state’s bar exam for admittance. Usually, law school finishes in May or June and you take the summer to study for the Bar exam. There are courses that specifically teach you how to write the exam. In some states, you can be practicing law as soon as October of the same year.
How long does it take to become a Lawyer
In Canada, you aren’t admitted to the Provincial Bar until approximately 2 years after completion of your law degree. One year is spent articling; working for a law firm as a student lawyer and provincial bar have a limited amount of sittings per year. In addition, the individual provinces have their own formal education to be admitted to the bar.
For either country, it is a long haul. For people with law degrees from a foreign country, there is a whole set of criteria that must be met before practicing law is allowed; criteria vary according to which country your degree comes from.

How long does it take to become a Lawyer

Most people who pursue a career as a lawyer generally take the traditional path of earning a bachelor’s degree followed by three years of law school. The amount of time this actually will take you depends on whether you attend school full-time and pass the bar exam on the first try. However, not every state imposes the same requirements, so choosing to practice in one state over another can significantly affect the time it takes to become a lawyer.

Getting an Undergraduate Degree

Getting an Undergraduate Degree

The initial step to becoming a lawyer generally is four years of study as an undergraduate at a college or university. It isn’t necessary to focus your undergraduate studies in a legal field or in any particular major for that matter – just as long as you earn a bachelor’s degree. Most law schools that are accredited by the American Bar Association, or ABA, require you to complete a bachelor’s degree to be admitted. In California, however, you’re eligible to enter law school with just two years of undergraduate coursework or by passing an equivalency exam. Though you might be able to enter law school more quickly, you may have a hard time getting admitted into a top law school this way.

How long does it take to become a Lawyer – Taking the LSAT

A majority of the law schools in the United States require applicants to take the Law School Admission test, or LSAT, as it’s more commonly referred to. Your score on the LSAT is a significant part of your law school applications and you’ll need to spend time preparing for it. However, students who are pursuing an undergraduate degree usually complete the test while in college – so preparing for the LSAT doesn’t normally require additional time. If you’re unhappy with your initial score or you already completed your bachelor’s degree, retaking the test or finding time to study for it can increase the amount of time it takes you to become a lawyer.

How long does it take to be lawyer – Going to Law School

If you’re able to enroll in law school as a full-time student, you can expect to complete the program in three years. Attending law school on a part-time basis is an option at many law schools, but it does mean you’ll be studying for four rather than three years. Some states, such as Colorado, don’t even require that you attend law school. However, the majority of states, such as New Jersey, require attendance at an ABA-accredited law school.

Writing the State Bar Exam

Writing the State Bar Exam

Soon after graduating from, law school, you’ll need to sit for the bar exam in your state, or in the state where you want to practice law. Studying for the bar exam will likely consume two to three months of your time and will take an additional few months to get the results. But even if you pass, you still can’t hold yourself out as a lawyer until you’re officially admitted to the bar. To be admitted, you must pass a character and fitness review by your state’s bar association. This process includes a thorough background check of your financial, criminal, residence and employment history. The amount of time this takes will depend on how clean your background is, but you can generally expect it to take a number of months.

How to become a Lawyer?

How to become a Lawyer?

All lawyers must be academically qualified and licensed to perform their professional role. Academic qualifications are a pre-requisite to taking a state’s bar examination.

The most typical route to becoming a lawyer entails completing an undergraduate degree in any major (those interested in intellectual property law should have a strong background in sciences), taking the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) and completing the juris doctor (J.D.) degree, before sitting for the state’s bar examination.

Before selecting a law school, applicants must make sure of the accreditation by the American Bar Association (ABA). There are non-accredited law schools as well, which may be imparting quality education, however, their graduates may not be able to sit for the state’s bar examination.

How long does it take to get a lawyer degree

SO How long does it take to become a Lawyer? Individuals interested in law careers typically ask a common question, “How long does it take to complete a law degree?” The answer is that the time can vary depending on the individual’s career goals and the type of legal degree they pursue. Becoming a lawyer can take a few years while pursuing a career as a scholar or a consultant may require a different amount of studies. Here is some information on law degrees and how long they can take to complete.

Types of Law Degrees

Determining the length of time to complete law degrees first requires knowing the type of degree the individual wishes to pursue. Here are the most common law degrees:

  • Juris Doctor – Referred to as the original of law degrees, this is for students who want to work as licensed lawyers.
  • Master of Legal Studies – This is for individuals who want a solid understanding of the law but don’t wish to become a licensed lawyer.
  • Master of Dispute Resolution – This non-JD degree program for individuals who want to work for various businesses and deal with negotiations and resolutions.
  • Master of Laws – This degree is for individuals who already have a law degree but want to specialize in a certain area of law, such as intellectual property, family law or immigration to name a few.
  • Doctor of Judicial Science – This high-level degree is for individuals who have already earned the Juris Doctor and the Master of Laws and wish to pursue careers in research, academia or as a legal scholar.

How Long to Complete Law Degrees

How Long to Complete Law Degrees

CLICK THE IMAGE TO ENLARGE IN A NEW WINDOWWhen determining the time it takes to earn a law degree, keep in mind that most law degrees require that the student first has a bachelor’s degree, which takes four years to complete. Beyond the bachelor’s degree, the law student can expect the following time periods.

  • Juris Doctor – This program requires three years to complete.
  • Master of Legal Studies – This program can be completed in 16 months of full-time study or 28 months of part-time study.
  • Master of Dispute Resolution – Students can complete this program in 16 to 28 months depending on the level of commitment.
  • Master of Laws – This program can be completed in one to two years.
  • Doctor of Judicial Science – This full-time program can be completed in two years.

Curriculum for Law Degrees

Students earning a law degree complete a curriculum that includes course work, seminars, internships, fellowships and extensive research. They can choose from several programs of study including law and history; criminal justice; international and comparative law; law and government; law and social change, and law, science and technology. Courses can vary depending on the field of law a student may choose. Course topics might include:

  • Administrative law
  • Bankruptcy
  • Capital punishment
  • Constitutional law
  • Cyber laws
  • Evidence
  • Legal research and writing

Related Resource: Top 30 Most Affordable Law Degree Programs Online

Career Outlook for Lawyers

Lawyers continue to be in demand as individuals and businesses are in need of legal services in many areas. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts job growth of eight percent during the 2016-2026 decade. As of May 2017, lawyers earned wages ranging from $57,430 to $178,480 with the average annual wage at $141,890. Legal students who have the highest degree levels generally earn the highest wages.

A legal career can involve a lot of education, training and externships and it’s also a big commitment. Despite how long it can take to complete a law degree, working as an attorney can be exciting, challenging and very rewarding.

What does OBGYN stand for?

OBGYN meaning - What does OBGYN stand for

What does OBGYN stand for? – OB/GYN:  Is a common abbreviation. OB is the abbreviation for obstetrics or obstetrician – a Doctor who delivers babies. GYN is the abbreviation for gynecology or gynecologist, a Doctor specializing in  female reproductive organs diseases treatment.

OBGYN meaning - What does OBGYN stand for

OB/GYN means – actually means Obstetric/Gynaecology, rumoured to mean “Oh Boy-Got You Naked”

What does OBGYN stand for – Gynecologist


A gynecologist provides more generalized care, and deals with women’s overall reproductive health. A gynecologist is especially focused on the health of the reproductive tract. There are a few procedures your doctor might suggest to remove the reproductive tract if certain diseases or conditions develop. The word “gynecology” comes from the Greek gyno, gynaikos meaning woman + logia meaning study, so gynecology literally is the study of women.

OBGYN Somerset NJ

Hill Country OB/GYN

Gulf Coast OB/GYN

What does OBGYN stand for – Obstetrician


An obstetrician also deals with the reproductive system, but specializes more specifically in pregnancy and childbirth. Obstetricians care for women during pregnancy and handle the delivery of the baby when the time is right. If there are any special needs during pregnancy – a Cesarean section or a need to turn the baby inside the womb, for instance – an obstetrician handles these.

An obstetrician/gynecologist (OB/GYN) is therefore a physician who both delivers babies and treats diseases of the female reproductive organs.

What does OBGYN stand for in medical terms?

What does OBGYN stand for in medical terms

OBGYN means – Gynecologist (OBstetrics and GYNecology)An obstetrician-gynecologist, or OBGYN, has expertise in female reproductive health, pregnancy, and childbirth. Some OBGYN offer a wide range of general health services similar to your primary care doctor. Others focus on the medical care of the female reproductive system.

OBGYN also provide routine medical services and preventive screenings. This type of doctor has studied obstetrics and gynecology.

The term “OBGYN” can refer to the doctor, an obstetrician-gynecologist, or to the sciences that the doctor specializes in, which are obstetrics and gynecology.

Obstetrics and gynaecology

What does an OB/GYN do?

What does an OB/GYN do

As an OB/GYN, you specialize in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases and disorders that affect women, such as breast cancer, cervical cancer and menopause. Additionally, you work with expecting mothers throughout their pregnancies, during childbirth and into postpartum. As a doctor, your responsibilities also include performing annual examinations, collecting and documenting patient medical histories and providing counseling on diet, hygiene, sexual health and disease prevention.

What happens at your first OB/GYN appointment?

What happens at your first OB/GYN appointment

What to expect at first OB/GYN appointment:

  •  Complete medical history. Your doctor will ask about your health, details of any past pregnancies, your partner’s health, and the health of your family and your partner’s family.
  •  Physical exam. Your height, weight, and blood pressure will be measured and recorded. Your doctor will discuss any chronic health problems you may have and how they will affect or be affected by your pregnancy. She will perform a complete physical exam that includes checking your thyroid and breasts and listening to your heart and lungs. She will also perform an internal exam, checking your cervix, ovaries, vagina, and uterus.
  •  Calculation of your due date. Your due date is based on the date of the start of your last period. An average pregnancy is 40 weeks (280 days) from the first day of your last normal menstrual period (LNMP). (Keep in mind that 40 weeks is average. A normal pregnancy can last anywhere from 37 weeks to 42 weeks.) If your periods are irregular or you don’t know your LNMP, then your due date will be based on your earliest ultrasound.
  •  Laboratory tests. See “Common Prenatal Lab Tests” (above) for the kinds of tests your doctor may perform. Most are performed by analyzing blood or urine samples.
  •  A discussion about genetic testing. Depending on your medical history and ethnic background, your doctor may talk with you about doing tests for cystic fibrosis; Tay-Sachs and Canavan disease (if you’re an Ashkenazi Jew); and sickle-cell anemia if you’re black.
  •  A schedule for future appointments. Ask your provider about upcoming tests and when you should schedule your regular appointments.
  •  Prenatal vitamins. Ask your provider for a prescription, if you aren’t already taking them. Or head to a local drugstore to buy prenatal vitamins over the counter. Ask the pharmacist if you aren’t sure which kind to buy.
  •  Healthy-pregnancy information. Your doctor may give you advice or a handout sheet about diet, exercise, weight, and over-the-counter medications that are safe during pregnancy. You may also get contact information for when your doctor’s office is closed.

What is an OB/GYN nurse?

An OBGYN nurse is an RN who specializes in women’s health and reproduction, providing care for women during all stages of pregnancy, during labor and birth, and during post-partum, providing support to women as they transition into the role of motherhood.

During childbirth, OBGYN nurses assist physicians and participate as a labor coach. The OBGYN nurse is prepared to respond quickly to emergency situations. Following birth of the newborn, the OBGYN nurse provides initial assessment and care for the newborn, most importantly, ensuring the infant’s ability to breathe independently.

In the clinic or private practice office, the OBGYN nurse will participate in routine wellness care, prenatal screening, and procedures such as the performance of ultrasounds. As nurse educators, OBGYN nurses provide teaching related to physical and sexual health, birth control, fertility treatment options, and preventative care such as mammogram screening and HPV vaccination.

They provide pre-pregnancy counseling, helping women prepare mentally and physically for pregnancy. OBGYN nurses provide care related to women’s reproductive health across the lifespan, from puberty through menopause. Above all, a desire to help and provide care for women and newborn infants is a critical component for the role of an OBGYN nurse.

what does an OBGYN nurse do?

  • What You Will Do: Provide care for women during pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum.
  • Where Will You Work: Most OBGYN nurses work in the hospital birth center or private obstetrics and gynecology practice venues.
  • Employment Projections: Nursing is expected to be the fastest-growing professions, with growth projected at 16% – 23%.
  • How Much Will I Earn: The average annual salary for professional nurses is $68,450; factors such as level of degree, specialty certification, geographical location and level of experience will affect salary.
  • Requirements to Become One: Become a registered nurse; complete an associate or bachelor’s degree in nursing, then obtain licensure as a professional registered nurse by passing the NCLEX-RN examination.