How to build a Database Driven Website using PHP & MySQL

How to build a Database Driven Website using PHP & MySQL

In this article Strydom Web Development will lay out the steps needed and explain How to build a Database Driven Website using PHP & MySQL.

How to build a Database Driven Website using PHP & MySQL

What Is PHP?

PHP (recursive acronym for PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor) is a widely-used open source general-purpose scripting language that is especially suited for web development and can be embedded into HTML.

Instead of lots of commands to output HTML (as seen in C or Perl), PHP pages contain HTML with embedded code that does “something” (in this case, output “Hi, I’m a PHP script!”). The PHP code is enclosed in special start and end processing instructions that allow you to jump into and out of “PHP mode.”

What distinguishes PHP from something like client-side JavaScript is that the code is executed on the server, generating HTML which is then sent to the client. The client would receive the results of running that script, but would not know what the underlying code was. You can even configure your web server to process all your HTML files with PHP, and then there’s really no way that users can tell what you have up your sleeve.

The best things in using PHP are that it is extremely simple for a newcomer, but offers many advanced features for a professional programmer. Don’t be afraid reading the long list of PHP’s features. You can jump in, in a short time, and start writing simple scripts in a few hours.

Although PHP’s development is focused on server-side scripting, you can do much more with it. Read on, and see more in the What can PHP do? section, or go right to the introductory tutorial if you are only interested in web programming.

What Is MySQL in How to build a Database Driven Website

What is MySQL?
MySQL is a freely available open source Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) that uses Structured Query Language (SQL).

SQL is the most popular language for adding, accessing and managing content in a database. It is most noted for its quick processing, proven reliability, ease and flexibility of use.

MySQL is an essential part of almost every open source PHP application. Good examples for PHP & MySQL-based scripts are WordPress, Joomla, Magento and Drupal.

One of the most important things about using MySQL is to have a MySQL specialized host. Here are some of the things SiteGround can offer:

We have long experience in providing technical support for MySQL-based web sites. Thanks to it our servers are perfectly optimized to offer the best overall performance for most MySQL applications.

We offer a lot of free MySQL tools including CMS systems, forums, galleries, blogs, shopping carts and more.

We support MySQL 5 and we provide unlimited MySQL databases on all our hosting plans.

Why PHP in How to build a Database Driven Website

The distinguishing feature of PHP is that the scripting code is executed on the server, which generates HTML that is sent back to the client. The client receives the result of executing the script without knowing the underlying code. Developers can configure the web server to process all the HTML files (containing the PHP script).

PHP course is easy to learn for any newcomer, but also offers advanced programming features.

Using PHP with a database system

PHP, as a scripting language, is popular among web developers because of its ability to interact with database systems including Oracle and MySQL.

This article discusses the use of PHP scripting language with the MySQL database. Any website can require a variety of data or information to display and to retrieve them from the database. This can include display of a simple list to the running of the website based on data stored in the database.

Listed below are some examples where PHP and MySQL can be used together:

• Digital Ad banners, where the PHP script can be used to retrieve a digital banner from the database, which then selects a random banner from its table records and sends it back to the calling script. The PHP script can also maintain a count of banner views and clicks from the website.

• Internet forums or digital boards, which use PHP and MySQL to store and retrieve user messages.

• Website designing, where the design of an entire website can be changed using a couple of PHP scripts, instead of changing and uploading each web page. The PHP script can access the MySQL database to retrieve all information about the web page.

Critical Role Of using PHP And MySQL How to build a Database Driven Website

In static websites, you create your site with HTML, CSS and Java which requires you to upload your website building files to another location. Whether it is a web hosting service, an ISP or a web server set by your business, this changes when it comes to using PHP. PHP is a server-side scripting language which serves as a plugin for your web server to enable it run PHP scripts. Basically, you will have to download PHP and install it for it to be able to carry out this function.

Downloading PHP On Own Web Server

Whether you are using Linux, Mac OS or Windows, you will need PHP and MySQL which is your database for your website. If you are lucky then your web host’s server already has PHP and MySQL, which means you will not have to install.

Installing PHP And MySQL Together On Windows

One way to handle this double-prong installation is to do it together as follows. You need:

Windows, Apache, MySQL, and PHP (WampServer), a one-in-all installation program to make your work easy. This program contains the current versions of this software.

Once you have it, follow the easy installation procedure by identifying the location, most preferably the default installation directory in your machine.

Choose your default browser and if you are not using Firefox, just choose an executable file where your browser is located.

APACHE HTTP, a popular web server for PHP development, will appear and Windows will issue an alert as WampServer installs.

Type in your ISP’s SMTP server address and your email when prompted.

Fire up WampServer when installation is complete and try it out on your localhost menu item at the top of the box.

If you are a business owner and you don’t have adequate IT skills, this process might get tricky and you can call in web development experts from to guide you through the process. Or sign up here and create a website using Easysite the site builder for people that have no web design or coding knowledge. That’s right even your Granny could make a website with its just so easy. If you want to get your hands dirty, you can opt for the longer per- package installation delineated below.

Individual One-package Installation

This process might take time, but it is the way to go if you want to learn the workings of PHP and MySQL. Installation of MySQL database is no big deal because you can do it online free of charge from the free MySQL Community Server.

You will then follow the Windows links depending on whether you are using the 64-bit or 32-bit version.

Go through the installation process, through the set up and configure MySQL server now to launch the configuration wizard.

The installation wizard will request for this information which you will fill as indicated;

Server type: Developer machine.
Database: Non-transactional database only.
Connection limit: Decision Support (DSS) /OLAP.
Networking options: Enable strict mode option.
Default character set: Best Support For Multilingualism.
Windows option: Allow MySQL as Windows Service and make it easier to run
MySQL’s admin tools from the command prompt by including Bin Directory in Windows Assistant.
Security options: Modify the security settings options to learn these settings with assistance of the wizard before learning the ropes.

You can verify the wizard is working by opening the task manager to check whether the program is running.

Installing PHP Individually

Start by choosing the latest version of PHP and select either the installer version, which is quicker, or opt for the zipped package for manual installation. For some Windows versions, including XP and Vista, you need to install your own web server to develop a database driven website as they have no internet Information Services (IIS).

Things get a bit tricky here because it is not common to host websites built with PHP on IIS. Linux OS is more popular to host PHP-powered sites, but then again if you are working in an environment where the company has invested in technologies, you better use IIS infrastructure to host your website.

The easiest way around this issue is to simply go to install.txt and get an easy PHP installation process that will ensure you have a running website.

Truth be told, you might find it too cumbersome to go through the whole installation procedure, but the fruits of your Windows MySQL driven websites will revolutionize your business. If you don’t have the time, or the necessary skills, calling a remote database administration expert is easy and they will complete everything for you. All you will have to do is log in and start administering your website.

Free Tools list in How to build a Database Driven Website using PHP & MySQL

  • 7-Zip
  • HashCalc
  • MySQL
  • SQLyog
  • Apache web server
  • Microsoft SMTP Server
  • Crimson Editor
  • NotePad2
  • FileZilla Client
  • ExamDiff
  • Color Picker
  • Agent Ransack
  • Microsoft Paint
  • Firefox
  • Firebug – a Firefox add-on for debugging JavaScript, HTML, and CSS
  • KeePass

Related Articles – How to build a Database Driven Website using PHP & MySQL

Strydom Web Development

Top Orthopedic Surgeons in Johannesburg

Find all your Top Orthopedic Surgeons in Johannesburg here with Strydom Conglomerate Web Directory.

Top Orthopedic Surgeons in Johannesburg

Dr Harry Papagapiou

Dr Harry Papagapiou is a specialist orthopedic surgeon practicing at Life Fourways Hospital, Busamed Modderfontein and Cure Day Clinic in Fourways. He is currently the resident surgeon at the Sports Injury Clinic at Cedar Tree Medical Centre.

Qualifying as an M.D through Witwatersrand University in 2005, and as an orthopedic surgeon early in 2014, further super-specializing in the field of knee reconstruction, he has a wide range of experience in traumatology as well as bone and joint surgery. Furthermore, being a fellowship trained knee surgeon focusing on knee and sports surgery, he specialises in cartilage and ligament restorative or reconstructive surgical procedures, in addition to joint replacements including a wide spectrum of arthroplasty options.

Dr Harry Papagapiou Top Orthopedic Surgeons in Johannesburg

Current trends aim to preserve native joint anatomy in order to enhance longevity, kinematics and functionality in today’s era of more active lifestyles.
Dr.Papagapiou’s interest in latest trends and advancements such as modern surgical techniques and 3D printing technology, in addition to computer navigated and robotic assisted surgery are examples of modern global developments that facilitate in delivering these expectations.

Recent drive towards robotic knee surgery is one of his expertise and he is a certified user of the NAVIO robotics system. Patient specific instrumentation (PSI) using 3-D printing engineering are examples of cutting edge technology in his scope of practice. He has affiliations with the following organisations: He is a current member of the South African Orthopedic Association (SAOA) and a member of the South African Knee Society (SAKS).

Call us at
+27 11 875 1930

Suite D45 Life Fourways Hospital,Cnr Cedar Road & Cedar Avenue West,Fourways, 2191

Email us at

Dr Candice Truda – Top Orthopedic Surgeons in Johannesburg

MBBCh (Wits); FCS Ortho (Wits)

Dr. Candice Truda is an Orthopaedic Surgeon, with a special interest in shoulder and knee surgery. She also enjoys treating sports injuries and working on soft tissue (ligamentous) injuries and pathologies. During her clinical training Dr Truda gained a lot of experience working at some of South Africa’s busiest public hospitals, as well as a year spent at hospitals in London, where her work included trauma orthopaedics.

Dr Candice TrudaTop Orthopedic Surgeons in Johannesburg

After qualifying as an Orthopaedic Surgeon at the University of Witwatersrand in 2007, Dr Truda worked at Chris Hani Baragwaneth Academic Hospital for 7 years, 5 of which were spent in the Sport and General Unit where she gained practical and theoretical knowledge in areas of shoulder, knee and foot surgery. She spent a lot of time on arthroscopic and soft tissue work, and also gained experience in arthroplasty. Dr Truda is now in private practice at Wits Donald Gordon Medical Centre. She is also currently doing research in septic arthritis and osteomyelitis, chronic knee dislocations and hallux interphalangeus.

Clinical Focus

  • Interest In Shoulder; Knee; Hip; Foot And Ankle Surgery
  • Focus On Sports Injuries And Soft Tissue Injury
  • Arthroscopic Surgery


  • Replacement Surgery – Shoulder; Hip And Knee
  • Shoulder Injuries – Instability And Rotator Cuff Pathology
  • Knee Arthroscopy
  • Meniscal And Soft Tissue Injury Repair
  • Surgery To Correct Bunions; Lesser Toe Deformities And Flat Feet


  • Orthopaedic Surgeon

21 Eton Road, Gate 1, Kenridge Medical Centre


Prof. Ponky Firer, Dr Brad Gelbart and Dr Matthew Street

Prof. Ponky Firer, Dr Brad Gelbart and Dr Matthew Street specialize in knee conditions of any type. Their approach is to improve your mobility and lessen your pain in the least invasive manner possible.
Your knees are important to your ability to move around which is why it’s important to see a doctor when movement becomes painful or for a prolonged period, if you suffer with an injury, dislocation or even if your knees feel unstable.

Not all knee injuries require surgical intervention, but it is necessary to have the injury assessed and treated correctly.

Prof. Ponky Firer – Top Orthopedic Surgeons in Johannesburg

Prof. Ponky Firer - Top Orthopedic Surgeons in Johannesburg

Please call Frans on 011 485 1970

Office hours: Monday – Thursday: 8:30 – 17:00 | Fridays 8:30 – 15:00

Dr Brad Gelbart – Top Orthopedic Surgeons in Johannesburg

Dr Brad Gelbart - Top Orthopedic Surgeons in Johannesburg

Please call Leonie on 011 485 1706

Office hours: Monday – Thursday: 8:30 – 17:00 | Friday from 8:30 – 15:00.

Dr Matthew Street – Top Orthopedic Surgeons in Johannesburg

Dr Matthew Street - Top Orthopedic Surgeons in Johannesburg

Please call Michelle on 011 551 2619

Office hours: Monday – Thursday: 8:00 – 17:00 | Fridays 8:00 – 15:00


Suite 303, Linksfield Park Clinic, Medical Suites, 24 12th Avenue, Linksfield West, 2192

Dr E Hoosen – Top Orthopedic Surgeons in Johannesburg

Orthopedic surgeon in Johannesburg, South Africa

Dr E Hoosen

Address: Life Brenthurst Clinic, Park Ln, Parktown, Johannesburg, 2193, South Africa

Phone: +27 11 484 0743

Dr. P.H Laubscher (Orthopaedic Surgeon)

Arthroscopic & Open Surgery

The shoulder is a fascinating joint which is regarded as one of the most mobile joints in the human body. Due to its complex nature and functioning, the shoulder is often neglected and problems go undiagnosed or mismanaged. Sign and symptoms may be confusing and therefore put both patient and doctor in the dark as to the true cause of the problem.

Dr. P.H Laubscher (Orthopaedic Surgeon)

All examinations begin with a thorough history and systematically examination of the patient, all of which are crucial components in making the correct diagnosis. Special investigations such as MRI and Ultrasound scans play a crucial role in confirming a diagnosis.
Shoulder surgery may be performed both through open and arthroscopic techniques. The appropriate technique depends on the final diagnosis.

All medical information provided on this site, in the absence of a consultation with a health care professional, must be considered as an educational service only. The information provided on this website should not be relied upon as a medical consultation. This information is not designed to replace a physician’s independent judgment and the appropriateness or risks of a procedure for a given patient. We will do our best to provide you with information that will help you make your own health care decisions.

Practice Contact Details:
Tel: (+27) 11 788-5110
Fax: (+27) 086 542-7669
Email Us

Gauteng Orthopaedic Institute

The Gauteng Orthopaedic Institute is the brain child of Dr’s Stephen Smith & Ashley Naidoo.

Gauteng Orthopaedics strives to bring their expertise in Orthopaedic practice to the patient, through access to multiple Orthopaedic facilities and surgeons.

We strive to keep integrated with the latest of technologies. allowing for ease of information and communication.

With our online booking system, both GPs and patients alike, can easily select their venue of choice, and appointment time with one of our highly skilled orthopaedic surgeons.

Orthopaedic Services:

  • Paediatric Orthopaedics

  • Orthopaedic Traumatology

  • Hand Surgery

  • Foot and Ankle

  • Primary Arthroplasty Hips and Knees

  • Sports Injuries

  • Deformity Correction

  • Limb Reconstruction

  • Limb Lengthening

  • Orthopaedic Sepsis

Dr Stephen Smith – Top Orthopedic Surgeons in Johannesburg

FC Orth (SA) (2017),

MMed (Ortho Surg) Witwatersrand (2017),

Advanced Trauma Life Support Instructor (2011)

MB BCh Witwatersrand (2008),

Cert Emergency Ass Trauma Link (2002),

BSc (Hons) Witwatersrand (2002),

BSc Witwatersrand (2001),

Cert Basic Amb Asst – Human Emer Life Programme (2001)

Dr Stephen Smith is a Specialist Orthopaedic Surgeon with a special interest in Paediatrics, Osteomyelitis, septic implants, limb deformity correction and limb lengthening. After qualifying with a BSc, and BSc honours he went on to do genetic research in diabetes under an MSc. After this he completed his undergraduate bachelor’s in Medicine and Surgery at WITS in 2008. After completing his internship and community service in Port Elizabeth he stayed on to begin his orthopaedic training. Under the Guidance of Dr T. Bam he developed a keen interest in deformity work and limb salvage.

After 2 years in PE Dr Smith moved back to WITS to complete his orthopaedic training from 2013 – 2017. During this time, he was heavily involved in research and teaching. He was instrumental in the development and use of a “trauma ring” for external fixation in open fractures and presented his findings at both the South African Orthopaedic Association (SAOA), and the South African Orthopaedic Trauma Society (SOATS) meetings. He Developed and built some of the devices used in the creation of Chris Hani Baragwanath’s first Halo Gravity Traction unit, to assist with corrections in spinal deformities.

In total he presented 11 papers at orthopaedic congresses across South Africa. Winning best presentation in 2017 at the SOATS meeting.

During his training Dr Smith continued to expand his experience in deformity correction and limb lengthening.

He continues to attend the annual South African Limb Reconstruction Meetings, and has attended advanced training courses in limb reconstruction both in South Africa and in Verona. In 2018 he co-founded the Gauteng Orthopaedic Institute with his Practice Partner Dr Ashley Naidoo. Dr Smith continued to grow his knowledge around Limb Salvage by working with Dr R. Kyte in the field of Tumour and Sepsis, focusing on osteomyelitis, septic implants and the Lautenbach method of treatment.

Dr Ashley Naidoo – Top Orthopedic Surgeons in Johannesburg

FC Orth (SA)

Mmed Orth (wits)


Oxford Hand Surgery Travelling Fellowship 2018

Dr Ashley Naidoo is a Specialist Orthopaedic Surgeon with special interest in Hand and Upper Limb Surgery.

Dr Ashley Naidoo

He qualified undergraduate Bachelor in Medicine and Surgery in 2008 from the Nelson Mandela School of Medicine in Durban (UKZN). From 2009 to 2011 Dr Naidoo has worked in both rural and urban hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal Natal. He then went on to pursue his passion in Orthopaedics in 2012 to 2017 working in Orthopaedics in Durban, Pietermaritzburg, Stanger and Johannesburg culminating in him obtaining his Fellowship in Orthopaedic Surgery from Colleges of Medicine South Africa in 2017.

He also graduated his Masters In Medicine Orthopaedic Surgery in 2017 from University of Witwatersrand for research in hand surgery.

In 2018 Dr Naidoo together with his practice partner Dr SD Smith
co-founded the Gauteng Orthopaedic Institute.

Dr Naidoo has travelled extensively to hone his surgical skills having participated in surgical courses and conferences local and abroad.

He was privileged to have travelled to Oxford University Hospitals Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre and John Radcliffe Hospital in 2018 for a Hand Surgery Travelling Fellowship.

Dr Naidoo aims to deliver high quality service with a smile to his patients and believes in comprehensive affordable Orthopaedic care.

Surgeries he performs

  • Acromioclavicular Joint Excisions (Mumford)
  • Acromioplasty
  • Arthritis of Hands (Fusions & Joint Replacements)
  • Carpal Tunnel Release
  • Complex Carpal & Wrist Trauma
  • Cubital Tunnel Release
  • De Quervain’s Release
  • Ganglion Excision
  • Golfers & Tennis Elbow
  • Arthritis of Hands (Fusions & Joint Replacements)
  • Hand Trauma (Bone, Tendon & Nerve)
  • Hand & Upper Limb Surgery
  • Rotator Cuff Repairs
  • Tendon Transfers for Nerve Deficits

Where he practices from

Netcare Waterfall City Hospital
Room 301, Waterfall Sports Centre, Exam Room 5. South Block

011 3047756

Dr Ana Filipa Garcez – Top Orthopedic Surgeons in Johannesburg

MBBCh (Wits)

FC Orth (SA)


Orthopaedic Surgeon

Dr. Garcez is a specialist Orthopaedic Surgeon who qualified from Wits university and did postgraduate training at Wits University and attained her Fellowship of the College of Medicine in Orthopaedic Surgery.

Dr Ana Filipa Garcez

Dr. Garcez forms part of the Gauteng Orthopaedic Institute which strives towards comprehensive orthopaedic care for both adults and children.

She has a passion for General Orthopaedics and trauma and is a Certified Advanced Trauma and Life Support Instructor.

She has a special interest in Paediatric Orthopaedics.

With a constant strive for excellence Dr. Garcezwill continue developing her skills in the field of Orthopaedics by attending congresses and courses. She is fluent in both English and Portuguese.

Where she practices from

Bedford Gardens Hospital
8 Leicester Rd, Bedford Gardens
Kimberly Clarke Medical Suites
East Wing, First Floor

011 615 3025

Intercare Sandton Day/Subacute Hospital

Dr SD Smith

Sessional Rooms 3rd floor

200 Rivonia Rd, Morningside,

Sandton, 2196

Tel: 010 880 1460

Netcare Waterfall City Hospital

Dr A Naidoo

Room 301, Waterfall Sports Centre, Exam Room 5. South Block

Magwa Cres & Mac Mac Avenue, Vorna Valley, Midrand, 1682

Tel: 011 304 7756

Bedford Gardens Hospital

Dr AF Garcez
Suite 5, East Wing,First Floor
Kimberly Clarke Medical Suites
8 Leicester Rd,
Bedford Gardens, 2007
Tel : 011 615 3025

Sandton Mediclinic

Dr SD Smith

Sessional Rooms 103,

North Block

Main Rd & Peter Place, Bryanston,

Sandton, 2021

Tel: 011 709 2149

Dr Chris McCready – Top Orthopedic Surgeons in Johannesburg

Dr McCready specializes in Hip and Knee Replacements and Arthroscopies and Hip Fractures.

Dr Chris McCready is an Orthopaedic Surgeon who prides himself on his ongoing search for new and innovative ways to ensure the best possible outcome for his patients. If conservative treatment is not an option, Dr McCready will meticulously explain to his patients about the procedure, using easy to understand, non-medical terminology. Dr McCready firmly believes that patients should have the tools to make informed decisions about any surgery and therefore puts a lot of emphasis on providing his patients with the knowledge and a clear understanding of the procedures, during consultations or follow up consultations.

Dr Chris McCready Top Orthopedic Surgeons in Johannesburg

Dr McCready specializes in Hip and Knee Replacements, and Arthroscopies and Hip Fractures. His in-room services offered are full and comprehensive consultations, cast application, hydrocortisone injections and Visco Supplements. Aftercare is also of the utmost importance to Dr McCready and therefore post-operative consultations are free of charge for the patient for four months after surgery.

Dr McCready is a member of the South African Orthopaedic Association, South African Arthoplasty Society and American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. He also dedicates time as a Consultant Trainer for Stryker Orthopaedics and Hip Fracture Management Techniques, which enables him and others to stay ahead of all new procedures and maintain excellent patient care.

Dr McCready enjoys golf and stays fit with mountain biking.


MB BCh, Univ of Pretoria (1995)
M.Med Orthopaedics, Univ of Pretoria (2004)
FC (Orth) SA (2004)


 Suite 304, Netcare Linksfield Hospital, 24 12th Avenue,
Linksfield West, Orange Grove, Johannesburg, 2192

 011 647 3571/3691

Dr Eugene Greeff

Dr Eugene Greeff is an experienced Orthopaedic Surgeon based in Johannesburg.
Dr Greeff graduated from the University of Pretoria in 2003.
He completed his Orthopaedic training in 2011 at the University of the Free state.
He has been working in private practice at Sunninghill and Rosebank hospitals since 2011.
Dr Greeff has a particular interest in Hip and Knee arthroscopy and joint replacements and is committed to provide the best possible care to all his patients.

Fellowship Training
Dr Greeff completed two international fellowships.

In 2012 he completed his first fellowship in Hip and Knee Joint replacements and Knee arthroscopy in Glasgow, Scotland UK.
He worked under Dr Roland Ingram and Dr Mark Blyth for 12 months.

In 2018 Dr Greeff went to Melbourne Australia to undertake his second fellowship in hip arthroscopy under Dr John O` Donnell.
Dr O`Donnell is one of the most experienced surgeons in the field of hip arthroscopy.

Joint replacements
PRP injections

Knee arthroscopy




Rosebank hospital
14 Sturdee Ave, Rosebank, Johannesburg, 2132

Sunninghill hospital
Cnr Witkoppen Rd & Nanyuki Rd, Sunninghill, Sandton, 2196

Dr Naadir Bismilla – Top Orthopedic Surgeons in Johannesburg

Knee, Shoulder & Trauma Specialist

Dr Naadir Bismilla is an Orthopaedic Surgeon practicing in Johannesburg, South Africa. Dr Naadir specializes in Knee, Shoulder & Trauma Injuries, & has helped many patients regain mobility & return to their normal functionality & movement despite having experienced an injury.

Dr Naadir Bismilla began his career in medicine after graduating from the University of the Witwatersrand with his medical degree then went on to do his internship and community service years. Dr Bismilla then completed a qualification in orthopaedic surgery whilst finishing his Master of Medicine degree

Dr Naadir Bismilla

Dr Bismilla has been practising as an orthopaedic surgeon in private practice since then. Being in the orthopaedics field for some time, Dr Bismilla has remained up to date with the latest techniques and technologies Dr Naadir Bismilla has a particular interest in the management and treatment of knee, shoulder and trauma injuries; he strives to help his patients regain mobility and return to their normal functionality despite having endured an injury and undergone surgery.

As a compassionate surgeon, Dr M. N. Bismilla always considers his patients’ needs and comfort levels during diagnosis and treatment and works to ensure they have the best possible outcome. Beyond his capabilities and expertise as an orthopaedic surgeon, Dr Bismilla understands the psychological and emotional effects of knee, shoulder and sports injuries on his patients. He approaches his patients empathetically to address concerns and provide a compassionate ear during treatment and rehabilitation.

With his membership to the South African Orthopaedic Association (SAOA), and affiliation with his brother, Dr Shaaheen Bismilla (an orthopaedic surgeon with a fellowship in knee surgery with Dr Glen Vardi), Dr Naadir Bismilla remains up-to-date with new research, technology, techniques and equipment in the field of orthopaedic surgery.

Find Dr Bismilla at:

Netcare Garden City Hospital, Bartlett Road, Mayfair West, Johannesburg, South Africa

+27 11 495 5278

Mon 09:00 – 17:00
Tue 09:00 – 17:00
Wed 09:00 – 17:00
Thu 09:00 – 17:00
Fri 09:00 – 17:00
Sat Closed
Sun Closed

N.H.C Medical & Dental Centre Northcliff, Beyers Naudé Drive, Northcliff, Randburg, South Africa

+27 11 214 9000

Mon 09:00 – 17:00
Tue 09:00 – 17:00
Wed 09:00 – 17:00
Thu 09:00 – 17:00
Fri 09:00 – 17:00
Sat Closed
Sun Closed

Medicross the Berg, Bergbron, Randburg, South Africa

+27 11 673 4150

Mon 09:00 – 17:00
Tue 09:00 – 17:00
Wed 09:00 – 17:00
Thu 09:00 – 17:00
Fri 09:00 – 17:00
Sat Closed
Sun Closed

Mjuza E A

Orthopaedic Surgery

Telephone +27 11 933 2138

Address: Room 29 Nembula House Lesedi Clinic, 23967 Old Potchefstroom Road, Diepkloof, 1862

Location: Diepkloof, Gauteng, South Africa

Dr W.A.K.Niazi

Specialised in Orthopaedic Surgery at The University of Witwatersrand (WITS) South Africa in 2004.

Completed Fellowship in Arthroscopic Surgery and Sports Medicine through International Society of Arthroscopy, Knee Surgery and Orthopaedic Sports Medicine (ISAKOS) South Africa in 2009.

Dr W.A.K.Niazi

Practice includes treatment of Orthopaedic Trauma, Sports Injuries and Degenerative Joint Diseases using Arthroscopic, Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis (MIPO) and Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) techniques.


Mobile no: 067 391 1116
Tel: 011 620 3050

Dr T. D. Pikor – Top Orthopedic Surgeons in Johannesburg

Dr Pikor is a specialist orthopaedic surgeon with a special interest in Hand and Upper Limb Conditions. After gaining experience in state for several years he has moved his practice to Wits Donald Gordon Medical Centre.

I treat general orthopaedic conditions but have a special interest in Hand and Upper Limb Surgery (Elbow and Shoulder).
The visitations, courses and fellowships I have performed have been tailored towards these conditions. Unfortunately I don’t see the following conditions: Hip and Pelvis, Spine, Neck or Back patients. As Wits University Donald Gordon Medical Centre has no casualty or trauma department only orthopaedic trauma patients that are stable are able to be seen.

Call Us
OFFICE: 011 356 6177

Email Us

Physical Address
1st Floor, Kenridge Medical Centre, Wits Donald Gordon Medical Centre, Parktown, 2193

Dr Bradley Rabin Orthopaedic Surgeon

Orthopedic surgeon in Johannesburg, South Africa
Address: Suite 309, 24 12th avenue, Linksfield Park Clinic, Linksfield, Johannesburg, 2192, South Africa

Sunday Closed
Monday 8AM–5PM
Tuesday 8AM–5PM
Wednesday 8AM–5PM
Thursday 8AM–5PM
Friday 8AM–5PM
Saturday Closed

Phone: +27 11 485 3908

Dr.CJW Breckon

Orthopedic surgeon in Sandton, South Africa

Address: Morningside Clinic, Rivonia Rd, Morningside, Johannesburg, 2146, South Africa

Monday 8AM–5PM
Tuesday 8AM–5PM
Wednesday 8AM–5PM
Thursday 8AM–5PM
Friday 8AM–5PM
Saturday Closed
Sunday Closed

Phone: +27 11 883 6157

Hand Consult SA – Top Orthopedic Surgeons in Johannesburg

Introducing a collaborative service based in Johannesburg, Gauteng that provides specialist assessment, treatment & rehabilitation services addressing conditions, injuries and diseases of the hand and upper extremity.

Research proves that when holistic treatment is offered, greater success in the treatment of the body is realized.
At Hand Consult SA you will receive the attention of both surgeon and therapist working together on a shared treatment pathway.

Delays in diagnosis and treatment compromise functional outcomes. Patients can contact Hand Consult SA in an emergency to ensure specialist care.

“When our eyes see our hands doing the work of our hearts, the circle of creation is completed inside us, the doors to our souls fly open and love steps forth to heal everything in sight” Michael Bridge

Call +27 83 650 3022

Dr Neil Cable

Orthopedic surgeon in Johannesburg, South Africa

Address: Suite 204 Medical Cntr Netcare Linksfield Hosp, 24 12th Ave, Linksfield West, Johannesburg, 2192, South Africa

Phone: +27 11 640 7672

Dr Jackie Muller

Orthopedic surgeon in Johannesburg, South Africa

Address: Room 204 Medical Centre Linksfield Park Clinic, 24 12th Ave, Linksfield West, Johannesburg, 2192, South Africa

Sunday Closed
Monday 8AM–4PM
Tuesday 8AM–4PM
Wednesday 8AM–4PM
Thursday 8AM–4PM
Friday 8AM–4PM
Saturday Closed

Phone: +27 11 640 7672

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In this article we explain Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in Lymph Node as thoroughly as possible As well as many related titles and questions

Malignant Lymph Node Neoplasm

First of it is important to explain the words in this title

In very aggressive cases this title is commonly known as:
Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in Lymph Node

Now let us explain every word separately:

Metastatic (Metastasis) (in Malignant Lymph Node Neoplasm)

Metastasis is the spread of cancer cells to new areas of the body, often by way of the lymph system or bloodstream. A metastatic cancer, or metastatic tumor, is one that has spread from the primary site of origin, or where it started, into different areas of the body.

Metastasis means that cancer spreads to a different body part from where it started. When this happens, doctors say the cancer has “metastasized.” Your doctor may also call it “metastatic cancer,” “advanced cancer,” or “stage 4 cancer.” But these terms can have different meanings. For example, a cancer that is large but has not spread to another body part can also be called advanced cancer or locally advanced cancer. Ask your doctor to explain where the cancer has spread.

Here are some questions and answers about this word:

Is metastatic cancer curable?

In some situations, metastatic cancer can be cured, but most commonly, treatment does not cure the cancer. But doctors can treat it to slow its growth and reduce symptoms. It is possible to live for many months or years with certain types of cancer, even after the development of metastatic disease.

What stage is metastatic cancer?

Metastatic cancer is commonly called stage IV cancer or advanced cancer. It occurs when cancer cells break off from the original tumor, spread through the bloodstream or lymph vessels to another part of the body, and form new tumors. Nearby lymph nodes are the most common place for cancer to metastasize

What is the survival rate of metastatic cancer?

The five-year survival rate for people diagnosed with late-stage lung cancer that has spread (metastasized) to other areas of the body is 5 percent. Overall survival rates don’t specify whether cancer survivors are still undergoing treatment at five years or if they’ve become cancer-free (achieved remission).

Is metastatic cancer always Stage 4?

For many types of cancer, it is also called stage IV (four) cancer. The process by which cancer cells spread to other parts of the body is called metastasis. … It is treated as stage IV breast cancer, not as lung cancer. Sometimes when people are diagnosed with metastatic cancer, doctors cannot tell where it started.

Does anyone survive metastatic cancer?

In the past, many people did not live long with metastatic cancer. Even with today’s better treatments, recovery is not always possible. But doctors can often treat cancer even if they cannot cure it. A good quality of life is possible for months or even years.

What is the most common site of metastasis?

Metastatic tumors are very common in the late stages of cancer. The spread of metastasis may occur via the blood or the lymphatics or through both routes. The most common places for the metastases to occur are the lungs, liver, brain, and the bones.

Can chemo cure metastatic cancer?

Chemotherapy. … Chemo is used as the main treatment for many types of metastatic cancer. It can often help shrink tumors, which can reduce pain and help you feel better, but it doesn’t make them go away and stay away. It’s sometimes used with local treatments such as radiation.

How long do you live with Stage 4 metastatic cancer?

Between 20 and 30 percent of women with early stage breast cancer go on to develop metastatic disease. While treatable, metastatic breast cancer (MBC) cannot be cured. The five-year survival rate for stage 4 breast cancer is 22 percent; median survival is three years. Annually, the disease takes 40,000 lives.

How long can you live with bone metastases?

For example, if the 5-year relative survival rate for a specific type and stage of bone cancer is 80%, it means that people who have that cancer are, on average, about 80% as likely as people who don’t have that cancer to live for at least 5 years after being diagnosed.

Can metastatic cancer go into remission?

While metastatic breast cancer may not go away completely, treatment may control it for a number of years. If one treatment stops working, there usually is another you can try. The cancer can be active sometimes and then go into remission at other times.

Can you survive bone metastases?

Bone metastasis may not be curable, but treatment may help people live longer and feel better. The exact mechanism of how cancer cells metastasize to the bones isn’t fully known.

How does metastatic breast cancer kill you?

Metastatic breast cancer is terminal.
“One thing I didn’t know when I was first diagnosed is that breast cancer can only kill you if you have metastatic breast cancer,” says Rosen, who explains that if your cancer remains in the breast, the tumor can be removed, but metastatic means it has spread outside the breast.

Can you live 10 years with metastatic breast cancer?

More than 11% of women diagnosed between 2000-2004 younger than 64 lived for 10 years or more. … “These findings make clear that the majority of metastatic breast cancer patients, those who are diagnosed with non-metastatic cancer but progress to distant disease, have never been properly documented,” said Dr. Mariotto.

Why is metastasis dangerous?

Metastases are often more dangerous than the primary tumor that gives rise to them. … Created by cells released by the primary tumor that have been transported to other organs or body parts, metastases – secondary cancer growths that spread through the body – are often viewed as its ‘deadly offspring’.

How is metastatic cancer treated?

Typically, metastatic cancer requires systemic therapy, or medications given by mouth or injected into the bloodstream to reach cancer cells throughout the body, such as chemotherapy or hormone therapy. Other treatments may include immunotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, or a combination of these.

Is metastatic cancer hereditary?

Some people are born with a gene mutation that they inherited from their mother or father. This damaged gene puts them at higher risk for cancer than most people. When cancer occurs because of an inherited gene mutation, it is referred to as hereditary cancer .

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Malignant (Malignancy) (in Malignant Lymph Node Neoplasm)

Malignancy is most familiar as a characterization of cancer. A malignant tumor contrasts with a non-cancerous benign tumor in that a malignancy is not self-limited in its growth, is capable of invading into adjacent tissues, and may be capable of spreading to distant tissues.

Malignancy is a term for diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control and can invade nearby tissues. Malignant cells can also spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph systems. There are several main types of malignancy. Carcinoma is a malignancy that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs. Sarcoma is a malignancy that begins in bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue. Leukemia is a malignancy that starts in blood-forming tissue, such as the bone marrow, and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the blood. Lymphoma and multiple myeloma are malignancies that begin in the cells of the immune system. Central nervous system cancers are malignancies that begin in the tissues of the brain and spinal cord. Also called cancer.

Here are some questions and answers about this word:

Can malignancy be cured?

Fortunately, in over 90% of patients in whom a malignant tumor is discovered there is no visible evidence that the tumor has spread. … This is important because, if the tumor has already spread, the individual cannot be cured by simply removing the visible tumor at the primary site.

Does malignancy mean cancer?

Definition of Malignant Tumors: Cancerous

Malignant means that the tumor is made of cancer cells, and it can invade nearby tissues. Some cancer cells can move into the bloodstream or lymph nodes, where they can spread to other tissues within the body – this is called metastasis.

Is malignancy dangerous?

A malignant, or cancerous, tumor, on the other hand, is innately dangerous because its cells can divide uncontrollably and produce virtually immortal daughter cells.

What does known malignancy mean?

malignancy (muh-LIG-nun-see) A term for diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control and can invade nearby tissues. Malignant cells can also spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph systems. There are several main types of malignancy.

What is malignancy test?

Examples of blood tests used to diagnose cancer include: Complete blood count (CBC). … Blood cancers may be detected using this test if too many or too few of a type of blood cell or abnormal cells are found. A bone marrow biopsy may help confirm a diagnosis of a blood cancer.

What is positive malignancy?

This means that it is likely that cancerous cells are still in the body. Lymph nodes. … A lymph node is called “positive” when it contains cancer and “negative” when it does not. A tumor that has grown into blood or lymph vessels is more likely to have spread elsewhere.

Is malignancy always cancer?

Malignancy is most familiar as a characterization of cancer. A malignant tumor contrasts with a non-cancerous benign tumor in that a malignancy is not self-limited in its growth, is capable of invading into adjacent tissues, and may be capable of spreading to distant tissues.

Do malignant tumors grow?

Malignant tumors are cancerous. They develop when cells grow uncontrollably. … Malignant tumors can grow quickly and spread to other parts of the body in a process called metastasis. The cancer cells that move to other parts of the body are the same as the original ones, but they have the ability to invade other organs.

How fast do malignant tumors grow?

Scientists have found that for most breast and bowel cancers, the tumors begin to grow around ten years before they’re detected. And for prostate cancer, tumours can be many decades old. “They’ve estimated that one tumor was 40 years old.

What causes malignancy?

A number of forces can cause gene mutations, such as smoking, radiation, viruses, cancer-causing chemicals (carcinogens), obesity, hormones, chronic inflammation and a lack of exercise.

What stage is malignant cancer?

Stage I means the cancer is small and only in one area. This is also called early-stage cancer. Stage II and III mean the cancer is larger and has grown into nearby tissues or lymph nodes. Stage IV means the cancer has spread to other parts of your body.

What does negative for malignancy mean?

Cancers that spread are called invasive. … Positive: Cancer cells are found at the edge of the margin. This may mean that more surgery is needed. Negative: The margins don’t contain cancerous cells. Close: There are cancerous cells in the margin, but they don’t extend all the way to the edge.

What does suspicious for malignancy mean?

Suspicious abnormality: means that there are suspicious findings that could turn out to be cancer. … Highly suggestive of malignancy (cancer): means that there are findings that look like and probably are cancer. Requires biopsy.

Can a malignant tumor become benign?

A benign tumor is not a malignant tumor, which is cancer. It does not invade nearby tissue or spread to other parts of the body the way cancer can. In most cases, the outlook with benign tumors is very good. But benign tumors can be serious if they press on vital structures such as blood vessels or nerves.

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What makes a tumor malignant or benign?

Benign tumors are non-malignant/non-cancerous tumor. A benign tumor is usually localized, and does not spread to other parts of the body. … Malignant tumors are cancerous growths. They are often resistant to treatment, may spread to other parts of the body and they sometimes recur after they were removed.

Do malignant tumors hurt?

They can vary greatly from painful, hard, and immobile to soft, painless, and easily moveable. According to, lumps are most likely to be cancerous if they do not cause pain, are hard, unevenly shaped, and immobile.
Malignant Lymph Node Neoplasm Symptoms

Can malignant tumors be encapsulated?

Some malignant tumors remain localized and encapsulated, at least for a time; an example is carcinoma in situ in the ovary or breast. … They are usually less well differentiated than normal cells or benign tumor cells.

Why are malignant tumors dangerous?

A malignant tumor is more dangerous because it can grow quickly. It may grow into or spread to other parts of the brain or to the spinal cord. Malignant tumors are also sometimes called brain cancer. … Benign tumors can cause damage by growing and pressing on other parts of the brain.

What is advanced malignancy?

Advanced cancer is a term used to describe cancer that is unlikely to be cured. It may be primary or secondary cancer. … For example, bowel cancer that has spread to the liver is still called metastatic bowel cancer, even when the person has symptoms caused by cancer in the liver.

What is no malignancy?

The NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms features 8,572 terms related to cancer and medicine. nonmalignant (non-muh-LIG-nunt) Not cancerous. Nonmalignant tumors may grow larger but do not spread to other parts of the body. Also called benign.

How do malignant tumors spread?

Cancerous tumors are called malignant. Cancer cells form when DNA abnormalities cause a gene to behave differently than it should. They can grow into nearby tissue, spread through the bloodstream or lymph system, and spread through the body. Malignant tumors tend to grow faster than benign tumors.

Is malignant cancer curable?

There is currently no cure for cancer. However, successful treatment can result in cancer going into remission, which means that all signs of it have gone. The early detection and treatment of cancer can significantly improve the chances of remission and a person’s outlook.

Do malignant tumors shrink?

Not only can they stop tumors from growing by halting cell division, but they can also “spur the immune system to attack and shrink” them. Share on Pinterest The results of a new study have shown that a class of drugs commonly used to treat breast cancer can both halt and shrink tumors.

What if breast biopsy is malignant?

A breast biopsy is a test that removes tissue or sometimes fluid from the suspicious area. The removed cells are examined under a microscope and further tested to check for the presence of breast cancer. A biopsy is the only diagnostic procedure that can definitely determine if the suspicious area is cancerous.

What is atypia or malignancy?

The NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms features 8,572 terms related to cancer and medicine. atypia (ay-TIH-pee-uh) State of being not typical or normal. In medicine, atypia is an abnormality in cells in tissue.

What is the meaning of negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy?

Negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy
This category means that no signs of cancer, pre-cancer, or other significant abnormalities were found.

Does suspicious malignancy mean cancer?

Suspicious abnormality: means that there are suspicious findings that could turn out to be cancer. … Highly suggestive of malignancy (cancer): means that there are findings that look like and probably are cancer. Requires biopsy.

What is inside a malignant tumor?

Malignant tumours are made up of cancer cells. They: usually grow faster than benign tumours. spread into surrounding tissues and cause damage. may spread to other parts of the body in the bloodstream or through the lymph system to form secondary tumours.

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Lymph Node (in Malignant Lymph Node Neoplasm)

Lymph node (limf node) A small bean-shaped structure that is part of the body’s immune system. Lymph nodes filter substances that travel through the lymphatic fluid, and they contain lymphocytes (white blood cells) that help the body fight infection and disease.

A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system and the adaptive immune system. Lymph nodes are widely present throughout the body and are linked by the lymphatic vessels. They are major sites of B and T cells and other white blood cells. Lymph nodes are important for the proper functioning of the immune system, acting as filters for foreign particles and cancer cells, but they do not have a detoxification function.

In the lymphatic system a lymph node is a secondary lymphoid organ. A lymph node is enclosed in a fibrous capsule and is made up of an outer cortex and an inner medulla.

Lymph nodes become inflamed or enlarged in various diseases, which may range from trivial throat infections to life-threatening cancers. The condition of lymph nodes is very important in cancer staging, which decides the treatment to be used and determines the prognosis. Lymphadenopathy refers to glands that are enlarged or swollen. When inflamed or enlarged, lymph nodes can be firm or tender.

Here are some questions and answers about this word:

Where are your lymph nodes located?

Lymph nodes are located throughout your body, including your neck, armpits, groin, around your gut, and between your lungs. Lymph nodes drain lymph fluid from nearby organs or areas of your body.

What causes lymph nodes to swell?

A wide variety infections are the most common causes of swelling of the lymph nodes, for example, strep throat, ear infections, and mononucleosis. More serious medical problems such as HIV infection, lymphomas (non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma) or other cancers, or lupus may cause swollen lymph glands.

What are the signs that you have a cancerous lymph node?

  • Signs and symptoms of lymphoma may include:
  • Painless swelling of lymph nodes in your neck, armpits or groin.
  • Persistent fatigue.
  • Fever.
  • Night sweats.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Unexplained weight loss.
  • Itchy skin.

When should you worry about a swollen lymph node?

When to see a doctor
Some swollen lymph nodes return to normal when the underlying condition, such as a minor infection, gets better. See your doctor if you’re concerned or if your swollen lymph nodes: Have appeared for no apparent reason. Continue to enlarge or have been present for two to four weeks.

Do lymph nodes hurt?

Swollen lymph nodes can be painful to the touch, or they can hurt when you make certain movements. Swollen lymph nodes under the jaw or on either side of the neck may hurt when you turn your head in a certain way or when you’re chewing food. … Swollen lymph nodes in the groin may cause pain when walking or bending.

Are lymph nodes hard or soft?

Lymph nodes that are smooth and relatively soft, but slightly enlarged, may be normal and reveal only hyperplasia when biopsied. Enlarged lymph nodes that have an irregular shape and a rubbery, hard consistency may be infiltrated by malignant cells.

What can I drink for swollen lymph nodes?

Common home remedies to treat the symptoms of swollen lymph nodes include:

  • taking over-the-counter pain medicines, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen.
  • applying a warm wet compress to the affected area.
  • drinking plenty of fluids, such as water and fresh juices.
  • resting to help the body recover from the illness.

How long do swollen lymph nodes last?

How long will it last? Viral infections and minor skin infections and irritations can cause lymph nodes to double in size quickly over 2 or 3 days. They return slowly to normal size over the next 2 to 4 weeks. However, they won’t disappear completely.

How big is a swollen lymph node?

What causes enlarged lymph nodes? When lymph nodes are active in fighting infection, they may become swollen and painful. Usually, the pain is mild, and the lymph node does not get much bigger than 2 centimeters (slightly under 1 inch) in size.

Can you feel cancer in your lymph nodes?

You may not experience noticeable symptoms of cancer cells spreading to your lymph nodes, so a diagnosis from your doctor is important. They can determine if the cancer is isolated to one region or has metastasized further.

What is cancer in your lymph nodes?

Cancer in the lymph nodes
Pain or swelling in the lymph nodes is a common symptom of cancer that starts in the lymphatic system, such as non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancer that starts in another part of the body and spreads to the lymph nodes is called metastasis.

Can you have cancer in just one lymph node?

In most cases, only one area of nodes swells at a time. When more than one area of lymph nodes is swollen it’s called generalized lymphadenopathy. Some infections (such as strep throat and chicken pox), certain medicines, immune system diseases, and cancers like lymphoma and leukemia can cause this kind of swelling.

Does hard lymph node mean cancer?

Why Lymph Nodes Swell
Swollen lymph nodes are a sign that they’re working hard. More immune cells may be going there, and more waste could be building up. Swelling usually signals an infection of some kind, but it could also be from a condition like rheumatoid arthritis or lupus, or rarely, cancer.

Is lymph node cancer curable?

Hodgkin’s disease is considered one of the most treatable forms of cancer if found early. … Stage of disease– Stage I or II can offer good prognosis, though later stages may be highly treatable as well. No lymphoma outside of lymph nodes, or lymphoma in only one area outside of lymph nodes.

What does it mean when only one lymph node is swollen?

Lymph nodes often swell in one location when a problem such as an injury, infection, or tumor develops in or near the lymph node. Which lymph nodes are swollen can help identify the problem. The glands on either side of the neck, under the jaw, or behind the ears commonly swell when you have a cold or sore throat.

Can lymph nodes swell for no reason?

Usually, swollen lymph nodes aren’t a reason to worry. They’re simply a sign that your immune system is fighting an infection or illness. But if they’re enlarged with no obvious cause, see your doctor to rule out something more serious. Swollen lymph nodes can occur in your armpits as well as in your neck and groin.

What size are cancerous lymph nodes?

Lymph nodes measuring more than 1 cm in the short axis diameter are considered malignant. However, the size threshold does vary with anatomic site and underlying tumor type; e.g. in rectal cancer, lymph nodes larger than 5 mm are regarded as pathological.

How do you get your lymph nodes to drain?

If your swollen lymph nodes are tender or painful, you might get some relief by doing the following:
Apply a warm compress. Apply a warm, wet compress, such as a washcloth dipped in hot water and wrung out, to the affected area.
Take an over-the-counter pain reliever. …
Get adequate rest

What does a swollen lymph node look like?

Swollen lymph nodes will feel like soft, round bumps, and they may be the size of a pea or a grape. They might be tender to the touch, which indicates inflammation. In some cases, the lymph nodes will also look larger than usual. Lymph nodes appear in parallel on both sides of the body.

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How do lymph nodes feel?

How to Check Lymph Nodes in the Head and Neck
With your fingertips, in a gentle circular motion feel the lymph nodes shown.
Start with the nodes in front of the ear (1) then follow in order finishing just above the collar bone (10)
Always check your nodes in this order.
Check both sides for comparison.

What is the survival rate of lymph node cancer?

The one-year survival rate for all patients diagnosed with Hodgkin’s lymphoma is about 92 percent. The five-year survival rate is about 86 percent. For people with stage 4 Hodgkin’s lymphoma, the survival rate is lower. But even in stage 4 you can beat the disease.

Can lymph node cancer be cured?

Lymphoma most often spreads to the liver, bone marrow, or lungs. Stage III-IV lymphomas are common, still very treatable, and often curable, depending on the NHL subtype. Stage III and stage IV are now considered a single category because they have the same treatment and prognosis.

Is lymph node cancer deadly?

Hodgkin’s disease is considered one of the most treatable forms of cancer if found early. … Stage of disease– Stage I or II can offer good prognosis, though later stages may be highly treatable as well. No lymphoma outside of lymph nodes, or lymphoma in only one area outside of lymph nodes.

What happens when cancer gets in your lymph nodes?

However, as the condition progresses, cancerous cells can spread to other parts of the body and grow into new tumors. This is referred to as metastasis. Cancer cells can travel through the lymph system after breaking away from the initial tumor, leading them to the lymph nodes.

How long can you live with cancer in lymph nodes?

5-year relative survival rates for NHL

SEER Stage
5-Year Relative Survival Rate
All SEER stages combined

Can a CT scan detect cancer in lymph nodes?

A CT scan combines many x-rays to make detailed, cross-sectional images of your body. This scan can help tell if any lymph nodes or organs in your body are enlarged. CT scans are useful for looking for lymphoma in the abdomen, pelvis, chest, head, and neck.

How fast do cancerous lymph nodes grow?

Chemotherapy combinations cure about 50 percent of patients, meaning there are many who need other choices. This lymphoma is very rapidly growing, and lymph nodes double in size within a few days to a few weeks. While it is rapidly growing, it is curable in many patients when diagnosed early.

Do enlarged lymph nodes always mean cancer?

Swollen lymph nodes are a sign that they’re working hard. More immune cells may be going there, and more waste could be building up. Swelling usually signals an infection of some kind, but it could also be from a condition like rheumatoid arthritis or lupus, or rarely, cancer.

What happens if you have cancer in your lymph nodes?

When cancer cells break away from a tumor, they can travel to other areas of the body through either the bloodstream or the lymph system. Cancer cells can travel through the bloodstream to reach distant organs. … When cancer grows inside lymph nodes, it usually affects the lymph nodes near the tumor itself.

What is the survival rate of cancer in the lymph nodes?

If the cancer has spread to the regional lymph nodes, the 5-year survival rate is 85%. If the cancer has spread to a distant part of the body, the 5-year survival rate is 27%. About 6% of women have metastatic cancer when they are first diagnosed with breast cancer.

How do I check my lymph nodes?

People can check whether their lymph nodes are swollen by gently pressing around the area, such as the side of the neck. Swollen lymph nodes will feel like soft, round bumps, and they may be the size of a pea or a grape. They might be tender to the touch, which indicates inflammation.

Are cancerous lymph nodes hard or soft?

These characteristics can be useful in suggesting the cause of the lymph node swelling. For example, a hard, nontender, non-moveable lymph node may be more characteristic of a cancer spread to that node. On the other hand, a soft, tender, moveable lymph node could more likely represent an infection.

Can ultrasound tell if a lymph node is cancerous?

PET scan: A PET scan, which uses a small amount of radioactive material, can help show if an enlarged lymph node is cancerous and detect cancer cells throughout the body that may not be seen on a CT scan. … Ultrasound is also used to image the abdominal organs and kidneys, which may be affected by enlarged lymph nodes.

What color are cancerous lymph nodes?

Though its color may vary depending on the tattoo composition, the other differential diagnoses of dark colored lymph node are metastatic melanoma and a blue dye colored lymph node (used to identify the sentinel node).

Are nodules and lymph nodes the same?

The nodule differs from a lymph node in that it is much smaller and does not have a well-defined connective-tissue capsule as a boundary. It also does not function as a filter, because it is not located along a lymphatic vessel. … In the small intestine, collections of lymph nodules are called Peyer’s patches.

Do lymph nodes keep growing?

They continue to grow in size – In their swollen state during an infection, lymph nodes can enlarge to a size of half an inch in diameter. … Because the swollen lymph nodes are often painless, they can sometimes grow in size before a person even notices them.

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Neoplasm (in Malignant Lymph Node Neoplasm)

a New and abnormal growth of tissue in some part of the body, especially as a characteristic of cancer.
carcinoma of the cervix is a common neoplasm in women”

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A neoplasm (/ˈniːoʊplæzəm, ˈniə-/) is a type of abnormal and excessive growth, called neoplasia, of tissue. The growth of a neoplasm is uncoordinated with that of the normal surrounding tissue, and it persists growing abnormally, even if the original trigger is removed. This abnormal growth usually (but not always) forms a mass. When it forms a mass, it may be called a tumor.

ICD-10 classifies neoplasms into four main groups: benign neoplasms, in situ neoplasms, malignant neoplasms, and neoplasms of uncertain or unknown behavior. Malignant neoplasms are also simply known as cancers and are the focus of oncology.

Prior to the abnormal growth of tissue, as neoplasia, cells often undergo an abnormal pattern of growth, such as metaplasia or dysplasia. However, metaplasia or dysplasia does not always progress to neoplasia. The word is from Ancient Greek νέος- neo (“new”) and πλάσμα plasma (“formation”, “creation”).

Here are some questions and answers about this word:

Is neoplasm the same as cancer?

An abnormal mass of tissue that results when cells divide more than they should or do not die when they should. Neoplasms may be benign (not cancer), or malignant (cancer). Also called tumor.

Is neoplasm malignant or benign?

A neoplasm can be benign, potentially malignant, or malignant (cancer). Benign tumors include uterine fibroids, osteophytes and melanocytic nevi (skin moles). They are circumscribed and localized and do not transform into cancer. Potentially-malignant neoplasms include carcinoma in situ.

What causes neoplasm?

Causes of neoplastic disease
In general, cancerous tumor growth is triggered by DNA mutations within your cells. There are a number of contributing factors that can cause your genes to mutate and result in benign or malignant tumor growth. Some common factors include: genetics.

What does benign neoplasm mean?

A benign neoplasm is an abnormal but non-cancerous growth that may occur in different parts of the body. Neoplasms or tumors also go by the names “nodules” or “mass”, depending on their size. Nodules are neoplasms that are less than 20 mm in size, whereas a mass is at least 20 mm in diameter.

How do you treat neoplasm?

Chemotherapy — drug therapy — may be used before surgery to shrink the size of tumors, or after surgery to kill any remaining cancer cells that may have spread to other parts of the body. Radiation therapy may similarly be given to shrink tumors before surgery or to kill any remaining cancer cells after surgery.

Can malignant neoplasm be cured?

The sooner a malignant neoplasm is detected, the more effectively it can be treated, so early diagnosis is important. Many types of cancer can be cured. Treatment for other types can allow people to live for many years with cancer.

Is a cyst a neoplasm?

A cyst is a sac-like pocket of tissue, filled with fluid, air, tissue, or other material that can form anywhere in the body. Cysts can be tiny or very large, and most cysts are benign (not cancerous). … Tumors, also known as neoplasms, are generally solid masses of tissue that form from abnormal new growth of cells.

Does malignant neoplasm mean cancer?

Neoplasms can be benign growths, cancer, or pre-cancerous tumors. … Cancer is a neoplasm that can grow rapidly, spread, and cause damage to the body. A malignant neoplasm is cancerous, while a metastatic neoplasm is malignant cancer that has spread to nearby or distant areas of the body.

How do neoplasms spread?

For cancer cells to spread to other parts of the body, they have to go through many changes: They have to be able to break away from the original (primary) tumor and get into the bloodstream or lymph system, which can carry them to another part of the body.

What causes benign neoplasm?

The exact cause of a benign tumor is often unknown. It develops when cells in the body divide and grow at an excessive rate. Typically, the body is able to balance cell growth and division. When old or damaged cells die, they are automatically replaced with new, healthy cells.

What is primary neoplasm?

primary tumor (PRY-mayr-ee TOO-mer) A term used to describe the original, or first, tumor in the body. Cancer cells from a primary tumor may spread to other parts of the body and form new, or secondary, tumors. This is called metastasis. These secondary tumors are the same type of cancer as the primary tumor.

What does non neoplastic mean?

: not being or not caused by neoplasms non-neoplastic diseases.

What type of cancer is malignant neoplasm?

Malignant tumors are cancerous. They develop when cells grow uncontrollably. If the cells continue to grow and spread, the disease can become life threatening. Malignant tumors can grow quickly and spread to other parts of the body in a process called metastasis.

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Various related Malignant Lymph Node Neoplasm

Lymph Node Malignancy Radiology and Ultrasound

Although widely available and easy to use, US has inherent limitations for imaging the lymph node groups in mediastinum, retroperitoneum, and deep pelvis. However, it has proven to be useful in assessment of cervical lymph nodes in patients with various head and neck carcinomas.

Normal cervical nodes appear sonographically as somewhat flattened hypoechoic structures with varying amounts of hilar fat. They may show hilar vascularity but are usually hypovascular. Malignant infiltration alters the US features of the lymph nodes, resulting in enlarged nodes that are usually rounded and show peripheral or mixed vascularity.

Using these features, US has been shown to have an accuracy of 89%–94% in differentiating malignant from benign cervical lymph nodes. In patients with thyroid cancer, for example, preoperative US evaluation of the cervical lymph nodes is not only accurate for detection of lymph node metastases but also has been shown to alter the operative procedure in these patients, facilitating complete resection of disease and potentially minimizing locoregional recurrence.

Wunderbaldinger et al. evaluated cystic lymph node metastases in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma and found, in most cases, that metastatic lymph nodes had thickened outer wall, internal echoes, internal nodularity, and septations.

Endoscopic US (EUS) has also been used to assess regional lymphadenopathy in esophageal, pancreatic, and rectal carcinomas. In a recent study, Saltzman stated that EUS was the most accurate technique for the locoregional staging of esophageal cancer, and optimal staging strategies for esophageal cancer should use EUS fine-needle aspiration with either CT or PET scans.

Other radiology techniques:

  • Cross-sectional imaging.
  • PET scans.
  • Nanoparticle-Enhanced MRI

Lymph Nodes Malignancy Grading and Stages

What is a cancer grade?

A cancer’s grade describes how abnormal the cancer cells and tissue look under a microscope when compared to healthy cells. Cancer cells that look and organize most like healthy cells and tissue are low grade tumors. Doctors describe these cancers as being well differentiated. Lower grade cancers are typically less aggressive and have a better prognosis.

The more abnormal the cells look and organize themselves, the higher the cancer’s grade. Cancer cells with a high grades tend to be more aggressive. They are called poorly differentiated or undifferentiated.

Some cancers have their own system for grading tumors. Many others use a standard 1-4 grading scale.

  • Grade 1: Tumor cells and tissue looks most like healthy cells and tissue. These are called well-differentiated tumors and are considered low grade.
  • Grade 2: The cells and tissue are somewhat abnormal and are called moderately differentiated. These are intermediate grade tumors.
  • Grade 3: Cancer cells and tissue look very abnormal. These cancers are considered poorly differentiated, since they no longer have an architectural structure or pattern. Grade 3 tumors are considered high grade.
  • Grade 4: These undifferentiated cancers have the most abnormal looking cells. These are the highest grade and typically grow and spread faster than lower grade tumors.

What is a cancer stage?

While a grade describes the appearance of cancer cells and tissue, a cancer’s stage explains how large the primary tumor is and how far the cancer has spread in the patient’s body.

There are several different staging systems. Many of these have been created for specific kinds of cancers. Others can be used to describe several types of cancer.

Stage 0 to stage IV

One common system that many people are aware of puts cancer on a scale of 0 to IV.

  • Stage 0 is for abnormal cells that haven’t spread and are not considered cancer, though they could become cancerous in the future. This stage is also called “in-situ.”
  • Stage I through Stage III are for cancers that haven’t spread beyond the primary tumor site or have only spread to nearby tissue. The higher the stage number, the larger the tumor and the more it has spread.
  • Stage IV cancer has spread to distant areas of the body.

TNM staging

Another common staging tool is the TNM system, which stands for Tumor, Node, Metastasis. When a patient’s cancer is staged with TNM, a number will follow each letter. This number signifies the extent of the disease in each category. According to the National Cancer Institute and MD Anderson experts, the standard TNM system uses the following rules:

Primary tumor (T)
  • TX: Main tumor cannot be measured.
  • T0: Main tumor cannot be found.
  • T(is), or T in situ: The tumor is still within the confines of the normal glands and cannot metastasize.
  • T1, T2, T3, T4: Refers to the size and/or extent of the main tumor. The higher the number after the T, the larger the tumor or the more it has grown into nearby tissues. T’s may be further divided to provide more detail, such as T3a and T3b.
Regional lymph nodes (N)

Lymphatic fluid transports immune system cells throughout the body. Lymph nodes are small bean-shaped structures that help move this fluid. Cancer often first spreads to and through nearby lymph nodes.

  • NX: Cancer in nearby lymph nodes cannot be measured.
  • N0: There is no cancer in nearby lymph nodes.
  • N1, N2, N3: Refers to the number and location of lymph nodes that contain cancer. The higher the number after the N, the more lymph nodes that contain cancer.
Distant metastasis (M)

Metastasis is the spread of cancer to other parts of the body.

  • MX: Metastasis cannot be measured.
  • M0: Cancer has not spread to other parts of the body.
  • M1: Cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

Malignant Lymph Node Neoplasm Survival Rate

Hodgkin’s lymphoma is treatable, especially in its early stages. The one-year survival rate for all patients diagnosed with Hodgkin’s lymphoma is about 92 percent. The five-year survival rate is about 86 percent. For people with stage 4 Hodgkin’s lymphoma, the survival rate is lower. But even in stage 4 you can beat the disease.

If you have Hodgkin’s lymphoma that’s spread through one or more organs outside of your lymphatic system, you’ll be diagnosed with stage 4 of the condition. For example, the cancer might have spread to your liver, lungs, or bone marrow.

NHL accounts for about 4 percent of all cancers in the United States, reports the ACS. An estimated 72,580 people in the country will be diagnosed with it in 2016.

The many subtypes of NHL are categorized as either B cell type or T cell type NHL. The subtypes are further categorized as aggressive or indolent.

Aggressive NHL progresses quickly. According to the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society (LLS), about 60 percent of people with NHL have aggressive subtypes of the disease. Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common aggressive subtype. It affects about 30 percent of people with NHL in the United States.

Indolent NHL is slow growing. It accounts for about 30 percent of NHL cases in the United States, reports the LLS. Follicular lymphoma is the most common type of indolent NHL.

If you have NHL that’s spread outside of your lymphatic system to an organ that isn’t next to an affected lymph node, you’ve reached stage 4 of the disease. You also have stage 4 NHL if it’s spread to your bone marrow, liver, lungs, brain, or spinal cord.

Malignant Lymph Node Neoplasm Back to Top 

Breast Area related Malignant Lymph Node Neoplasm

Metastasis Lymph Nodes Breast Cancer

If you’re diagnosed with lymph node-positive breast cancer, it means cancer has spread from the original tumor to the nearest lymph nodes, which are under your arm. When breast cancer spreads to lymph nodes it has essentially declared its intent to metastasize. These cancers, if left alone, would likely spread throughout the body.

Cancer begins when healthy cells change and grow out of control, forming a mass or sheet of cells called a tumor. A tumor can be cancerous or benign. A cancerous tumor is malignant, meaning it can grow and spread to other parts of the body. A benign tumor means the tumor can grow but will not spread.

When breast cancer is limited to the breast and/or nearby lymph node regions, it is called early stage or locally advanced. Read about these stages in a different guide on Cancer.Net. When breast cancer spreads to an area farther from where it started, doctors say that the cancer has “metastasized.” They call the area of spread a “metastasis,” or “metastases” if the cancer has spread to more than 1 area. The disease is called metastatic breast cancer. Another name for metastatic breast cancer is “stage IV (4) breast cancer.”

Doctors may also call metastatic breast cancer “advanced breast cancer.” However, this term should not be confused with “locally advanced breast cancer,” which is breast cancer that has spread to nearby tissues or lymph nodes but not to other parts of the body.

Metastatic breast cancer may spread to any part of the body. It most often spreads to the bones, liver, lungs and brain. Even after cancer spreads, it is still named for the area where it began. This is called the “primary site” or “primary tumor.” For example, if breast cancer spreads to the lungs, doctors call it metastatic breast cancer, not lung cancer. This is because the cancer started in breast cells.

Metastatic breast cancer can develop when breast cancer cells break away from the primary tumor and enter the bloodstream or lymphatic system. These systems carry fluids around the body. The cancer cells are able to travel in the fluids far from the original tumor. The cells can then settle and grow in a different part of the body and form new tumors.

Most commonly, doctors diagnose metastatic breast cancer after a person previously received treatment for an earlier stage (non-metastatic) breast cancer. Doctors sometimes call this a “distant recurrence” or “metastatic recurrence.”

Sometimes, a person’s first diagnosis of breast cancer is when it has already spread. Doctors call this “de novo” metastatic breast cancer.

Metastases are responsible for 90% of breast cancer deaths, so swift, aggressive treatment is usually warranted.

Chemotherapy Lymph Nodes Breast Cancer

Neoadjuvant and adjuvant systemic therapy (chemo and other drugs)

Systemic therapy is recommended for some women with stage II breast cancer. Some systemic therapies are given before surgery (neoadjuvant therapy), and others are given after surgery (adjuvant therapy). Neoadjuvant treatments are often a good option for women with large tumors, because they can shrink the tumor before surgery, possibly enough to make BCS an option. But this doesn’t improve survival more than getting these treatments after surgery. In some cases, systemic therapy will be started before surgery and then continued after surgery.

To help decide which women with stage II hormone receptor-positive, Her2-negative breast cancer will benefit from chemotherapy, a gene panel test such as Oncotype DX may be done on the tumor sample.

The drugs used will depend on the woman’s age, as well as tumor test results, including hormone-receptor status and HER2 status. Treatment may include:

  • Chemotherapy: Chemo can be given before or after surgery.
  • HER2 targeted drugsFor people with HER2-positive cancers, some will be treated with adjuvant (after surgery) chemotherapy with trastuzumab with or without pertuzumab for up to 1 year. Many women with HER2-positive cancers will be treated first with trastuzumab (with or without pertuzumab) followed by surgery and then more trastuzumab (with or without pertuzumab) for up to a year. If after neoadjuvant therapy, there is any residual cancer found at the time of surgery, the trastuzumab may be changed to a different drug, called ado-trastuzumab emtansine, which is given every 3 weeks for 13 doses. For people with cancer that is hormone receptor-positive, found in the lymph nodes, and have completed 1 year of trastuzumab, your doctor might also recommend additional treatment with an oral drug called neratinib for 1 year.
  • Hormone therapy: If the cancer is hormone receptor-positive, hormone therapy (tamoxifen, an aromatase inhibitor, or one followed by the other) is typically used. It can be started before surgery, but because it continues for at least 5 years, it needs to be given after surgery as well.

Malignant Lymph Node Neoplasm Back to Top 

Groin Area related Malignant Lymph Node Neoplasm

Metastatic Cervical Lymph Node Neoplasm

Cervical lymph nodes are a common site of metastases for malignant tumors that originate at primary sites in the head and neck. These include squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract as well as metastases from salivary gland, thyroid, and skin cancers.

Cervical lymph node metastasis is the presenting symptom in almost 50% of all nasopharyngeal carcinomas, in 28% of carcinomas of the tonsils, in 23% of carcinomas of the base of the tongue, in 23% of thyroid carcinomas, and in 17% of carcinomas of the hypopharynx.

Metastasis Lymph Node Ovarian Cancer

Ovarian cancer is the second most common gynecologic cancer worldwide, and it is the leading cause of death associated with gynecologic malignancies in women. The life-long risk of developing epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is 1.3%, and about 70% of patients are already at an advanced disease stage at the time of initial diagnosis; only 30% of patients are diagnosed at an early stage (stages I, II).

EOC spreads primarily through exfoliation of the tumor cells into the peritoneal cavity, but lymphatic and hematogenous spread can also occur. According to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO), the presence of lymph node involvement in the early stages of ovarian cancer raises the disease stage to 3A1. Systematic lymphadenectomy is useful for accurate stage assessment of early-stage ovarian cancer and has a proven prognostic value. Accurate staging in very early-stage disease may prevent unnecessary postoperative chemotherapy. However, there is still a debate on the therapeutic role of lymphadenectomy. Lymphadenectomy is the major surgical procedure associated with other morbidities such as lymphedema, lymphocyst, ileus, blood loss, nerve or vascular injury, blood transfusion, prolonged length of hospital stay, and increased treatment costs.

In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the rate of lymph node involvement and factors affecting lymph node involvement in clinically early-stage (stages I, II) EOC.

Ovarian cancer is mostly diagnosed at an advanced stage with carcinomatosis in the peritoneal cavity and metastatic deposits in the lymph nodes, whereas distant metastases outside the abdomen occur less frequently. Ovarian cancer frequently leads to pelvic or para‐aortic lymph node metastases. Therefore, we will focus on the management of regional lymph nodes. Anatomic reports have shown that the para‐aortic region is the most frequent localization for lymph node metastasis. Although the reported rates of microscopic lymph node metastases in early ovarian cancer macroscopically confined to the ovary (clinical T1) are approximately 13% to 20%, the rate increases to more than 50% in patients with advanced stages of the disease. We have to differentiate patients in whom the tumor is macroscopically limited to the genital tract from those who present with distant tumor lesions.

The aim of staging surgery in patients with early ovarian cancer is not only to completely remove the tumor but also to define the stage of disease and confirm that there is no distant microscopic disease because this can influence the choice of chemotherapy (stage‐adapted systemic therapy). Although patients with stage I disease can be treated with single‐agent carboplatin therapy, the worldwide standard systemic therapy for patients with early‐stage disease after complete surgical staging is heterogeneous. According to Gynecologic Oncology Group trial 0157, a combination of carboplatin and paclitaxel is also an established standard option. In contrast, a combination with paclitaxel is always recommended for patients with advanced disease.

In advanced ovarian cancer, one has to differentiate between the use of lymphadenectomy in the case of bulky nodes to achieve a complete resection (lymphadenectomy is part of debulking surgery) and the staging of clinically negative nodes, but in contrast to early ovarian cancer, the knowledge of the histologic lymph node status does not influence the choice of systemic treatment.

Malignant Lymph Node Neoplasm Back to Top 

Metastatic Lymph Nodes Rectal Cancer

Colorectal cancer is cancer that begins in the colon or rectum. This type of cancer is staged from stage 0, which is very early cancer, to stage 4, which is metastatic colorectal cancer.

Metastatic colorectal cancer is cancer that has metastasized. This means it has spread to regional or distant sites, such as other organs or lymph nodes.

Though cancer can spread to any other part of the body, colorectal cancer most often spreads to the liver, lung, or peritoneum, according to the National Cancer InstituteTrusted Source.

Approximately 21 percent of people newly diagnosed with colorectal cancer have distant metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis.

Metastatic colorectal cancer to distant sites is rarely curable. Once cancer spreads, it can be difficult to control.

However, there are treatments available that can help stop or slow the growth of the cancer and manage symptoms.

Continuous developments in colorectal cancer treatments have improved survival ratesTrusted Source in people with metastatic colorectal cancer.

Metastatic Lymph Nodes Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignancy in men. In the United States, one out of six men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during their lifetime. Because of stage migration during the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) era, the vast majority of patients with newly diagnosed PCa have clinically localized disease, defined by the absence of nodal or distant metastases. In the Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor (CaPSURE) registry, out of 12,000 patients diagnosed between 1990 and 2004, only 2.4% presented with bony metastatic disease (M+) at their initial diagnosis. There are no recent data on initial presentation with radiographically evident lymph node–positive (LN+) disease in the absence of bony metastases. The current (7th) edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Cancer Staging Manual groups M+ and LN+ disease together as stage IV. Many physicians tend to view these two categories of patients as having similar outcomes, and approach their treatment with the same algorithm.

The goal of this article is to review the data on management of PCa with lymphatic involvement (LN+) and focus on the role of multimodality therapy, which combines systemic and local therapies in managing these patients. Patients with LN+ PCa can be broadly separated into two groups, largely based on the bulk of nodal disease. Patients who undergo staging scans prior to surgery and have no radiological evidence of pelvic lymphadenopathy but are then found to have involved pelvic lymph nodes at the time of pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) have pathologically node-positive (pN+) disease, and they are considered to be in the favorable category. This is in contrast to clinically node-positive (cN+) patients, who have pathologically enlarged lymph nodes on staging scans and in whom surgery is rarely even attempted. According to the 2013 National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines, patients with metastases to the lymph nodes by imaging studies (cN+) should be treated systemically with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) or radiation therapy (RT) with long-term ADT, and patients with involved lymph nodes detected at the time of radical prostatectomy (pN+) are offered observation, ADT, or RT with long-term ADT. While ADT is the common denominator, there is no consensus on the role of local therapies in management of patients with LN+ PCa.

Neck Area related Malignant Lymph Node Neoplasm

Metastatic Lymph Nodes Esophageal Cancer

Normally, cells in the body will grow and divide to replace old or damaged cells in the body. This growth is highly regulated, and once enough cells are produced to replace the old ones, normal cells stop dividing. Tumors occur when there is an error in this regulation and cells continue to grow in an uncontrolled way. Tumors can either be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer). Although benign tumors may grow in an uncontrolled fashion sometimes, they do not spread beyond the part of the body where they started and do not invade into surrounding tissues. Malignant tumors, however, will grow in such a way that they invade and damage other tissues around them. They also may spread to other parts of the body, which is called metastasis.

Cancers are described by the type of cells from which they arise.The vast majority of esophageal cancers develop from the inner lining (mucosa) of the esophagus. The lining of the esophagus is somewhat unique: it changes as it goes from the throat to the stomach. In the upper (proximal) esophagus, the lining of the esophagus resembles the lining of the throat, made up of squamous cells. Hence, when cancers develop in this region, they are usually squamous cell carcinomas. In the lower (distal) esophagus, the more common type of cancer is called adenocarcinoma, which is what the cancer is called when it develops from an area of the lining that contains glands.

In addition to invasive cancers, patients are sometimes diagnosed with precancerous lesions, called carcinoma-in-situ. These precancerous lesions can be seen prior to the development of either squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma. Carcinoma-in-situ occurs when the lining of the esophagus undergoes changes similar to cancerous changes without any invasion into the deeper tissues. Hence, while the cells themselves have cancer-like qualities, there has been no spread or invasion by the cancer cells. Another type of lesion that is considered to be a precursor to cancer itself is called Barrett’s esophagus, which is explained in depth below.

malignant neoplasm metastatic to lymph node of neck

Some patients with head and neck cancer first show up to a doctor’s office because they feel a “swollen gland” or lump in the neck. Lymph nodes can be enlarged for many reasons, including inflammation, infection or cancer. In general, swollen glands that get larger and then smaller, or those that go away, are not typically cancer. Also, enlarged lymph nodes that present for just one to two weeks are not typically cancer. Your doctor will have to put a number of pieces of your history and physical exam together to decide if additional tests are required.

This Section is about patients who have been diagnosed with metastatic lymph node(s) in the neck. The only way to make that diagnosis with certainty is after examination of some cells from the lymph node under a microscope.

Metastasis is the term used for spread of cancer cells outside of the primary tumor. Cancer spreads from the primary site in two ways: via lymphatics and via the bloodstream.

  • Lymphatic spread of cancer: Lymphatic spread of cancer is typical for most carcinomas. It occurs when tumor cells from the primary cancer site are transported to the lymph nodes through the lymphatic channels. This is often the first step in the spread of cancer, particularly for carcinomas. When invaded by tumor cells, the lymph nodes are usually enlarged. Read on to learn more about lymphatic spread of cancer.
  • Hematogenous spread of cancer: Another way cancers spread is through the blood (called hematogenous spread). This is more common for sarcomas and some carcinomas such as follicular thyroid carcinoma and some kidney cancers. Cancers that spread via the blood stream usually result in metastases to the lung or the liver.

Lymph nodes are tiny round or oval organs found all over your body, and they are connected through a complex system of lymphatic channels. They function to help the body fight infection via white blood cells. They act as filters of anything that should not be in the body, including cancer cells. Metastatic lymph nodes are those that have cancer cells within them (spread from a primary tumor somewhere else).

Lymphatic spread of cancer in the head and neck region results in enlarged lymph nodes in the face or neck (these are called regional lymph nodes because they are in the region of the head and neck).

For most (but not all) cancers of the head and neck, having cancer spread to the lymph nodes automatically puts your cancer into at least stage III. Positive lymph nodes decrease the probability of survival at five years by about 50 percent as compared with cancer that is limited to the primary site in early stage.

Also, spread of cancer cells outside the lymph node capsule, a higher number of lymph nodes with cancer and perhaps involved lymph nodes located lower in the neck might be associated with a worse prognosis and higher chance of spread to distant parts of the body. That said, doctors are still able to cure a significant number of patients with cancer that has spread to the neck with current treatment options.

Once a diagnosis of a metastatic cancerous lymph node in the neck has been made, the most important next step is to try to find a primary tumor if at all possible. If a primary site cannot be found after an exhaustive search (as discussed below), you will be given the diagnosis of cancer with an unknown primary (CUP).

Malignant Lymph Node Neoplasm Back to Top 

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24 Hour Dentist Pretoria

24 Hour Dentist Pretoria

Find your 24 Hour Dentist Pretoria quickly here at Strydom Conglomerate Web Directory

24 Hour Dentist Pretoria

Smile Solutions 24 Hour Dentist Pretoria


012 346 3588

*These include Sundays and public holidays.

All calls diverted to dentist on duty our Dentist is on call 24 hours a day, 7 days a week for emergency telephonic consultations. Emergency appointments are made at the discretion of the dentist on call.


9am – 9pm: R 1 000.00
9pm – 9am: R 1 500.00

Average total cost of emergency appointment: R1 000.00 – R 3 500.00

* Amount is dependant on the nature of the treatment provided.

Telephone: +27(0)12 346 3588
Telephone: +27(0)12 346 2961
Cell: +27(0) 74 138 2151 (Office hours only)
Cell: +27(0)74 166 9409 (Office hours only)


Monday – Thursday 08h00 to 17h00
Friday 08h00 to 13h00
Selected Saturdays only – call for more info

Quagga Dental


CALL: 012 327 2309

At Quagga Dentist, we have advanced dental skills to assist with emergency cases. Our aim is to restore function to your teeth quickly and effectively to minimize the risk of permanent damage. In the event of an emergency, we do our best to see the patient as fast as possible.

Ignoring a major dental problem can increase the risk of permanent damage and the need for more extensive treatment later on. Whether you have a cracked tooth, severe toothache, or require a tooth extraction, we are ready to assist you.

We will assist any dental emergency in and around Pretoria.

The first thing you should do in the case of a dental emergency is to schedule an appointment with us as soon as possible.

To minimize the risk of damage, do the following until you are able to come in for a consultation:

  • If you have a chipped or cracked tooth, rinse the mouth with warm water to keep it clean. Apply a cold compress to reduce swelling
  • Toothaches may be a sign of a more complicated dental problem, so it is important to schedule an appointment to have the affected area thoroughly examined.

012 327 2309
012 327 2310




Shop 101 A, Quagga Shopping Centre, Cnr Quagga road and WF Nkomo Street, Pretoria West

Smile Connection Dental Studio 24 Hour Dentist Pretoria

After Hours Emergencies

012 348 4182


Smile Connection Dental Studio offer a wide range of services aimed at restoring your teeth so that they are fully functional and aesthetically pleasing. We would like all our patients to keep their natural teeth throughout their life and emphasise the importance of prevention and maintenance.

A thorough examination and diagnosis allows Dr Eugene to detect existing problems and concerns, and plan an effective approach to regain and maintain the results and healthy smiles our patients require. General and Specialised dental services are available.

Teeth Replacement

Missing teeth replacement include Dental implants, Dental Bridges and Dentures

Teeth Restoration

Teeth Restoration includes Fillings, Crowns and Veneers

Teeth Whitening

At Smile Connection Dental Studio we use the Zoom teeth whitening system

Smile Make-over

When your smile is healthy and attractive you will feel more confident

Preventative Dentistry

Improve long term oral health by taking positive steps to prevent tooth decay and gum disease

Root Canal Treatment

This process is carried out in the roots of a tooth, the nerves and blood vessels are removed and the canals cleaned and sealed

Laser Dentistry

Laser therapy  is a very useful and enables the dentist to perform oral surgery with less post-operative discomfort to the patient

Facial Aesthetics

Restoring and repairing crooked, chipped broken teeth. Gaps closed and stains removed

Contact Information

012 348 4182 | 012 472 0161
Office 2
342 Cnr Glenwood Rd &
Fairy GlenLynnwood Park, Pretoria South Africa

Office Hours

Monday to Friday
8:00 – 16:30, by appointment

Dr Mario Reiners – DENTIST in Pretoria & DENTAL SURGEON

BChD (Pret) PPD Inpl (Stel) NDT (Stel) Pt No. 5449332

In case of Emergency please call us on 083 500 2488

Dental Trauma, Emergencies and Pain Relief

Dental Trauma

If it happens that you or your child sustain dental trauma such as a broken, fractured or displaced (avulsed) tooth there is no reason for alarm, as long as quick action is taken. Stay calm and calm your kid. If available you can take pain relieving and inti-inflammatory medication. Phone our emergency number immediately.

In cases of trauma the consequences for the tooth may differ depending basically on the intensity of the trauma:

  • Dental fracture due to trauma may not affect the dental pulp or
  • May affect the dental pulp, or
  • The trauma may leave it exposed or
  • The tooth may be luxated. In such case the tooth can return to its position either spontaneous or with external aid or
  • The tooth may be completely avulsed.

Treatment also differ, depending on the intensity of the trauma:

  • If the dental pulp is exposed, endodontic treatment is usually required, with a later reconstruction of the crown by whatever method is indicated.
  • If luxation occurs, the tooth should be repositioned and splinted for a certain time.
  • If the tooth is avulsed, its replacement may be attempted if it has not been contaminated. The avulsed tooth may be preserved in a saline solution, milk (see below photo) or even the patient’s mouth until it is reinserted.


Dr. Reiners also offers a service to treat dental emergencies, such as dental trauma, soft tissue injuries and pain relief:

  • Dental Trauma
  • Soft tissue injuriesSoft tissue injuries due to any force must be treated with great care. If the injury caused the skin and mucosa to burst open, the treatment normally consist disinfecting and suturing of the wound. Dr. Reiners will always take x-rays to make sure that there are no underlying trauma to the teeth and bones. If the soft tissue injury does not present a open wound, the effect of the trauma, in most cases, lies deeper and then Dr. Reiners does a thorough examination of the underlying structures (bones, joints,  teeth). Any internal bleeding must be treated with extreme care.

Treatment also differ, depending on the intensity of the trauma:

  • If the dental pulp is exposed, endodontic treatment is usually required, with a later reconstruction of the crown by whatever method is indicated.
  • If luxation occurs, the tooth should be repositioned and splinted for a certain time.
  • If the tooth is avulsed, its replacement may be attempted if it has not been contaminated. The avulsed tooth may be preserved in a saline solution, milk (see below photo) or even the patient’s mouth until it is reinserted.
  • Pain reliefDental pain may be caused by so many factors and it is therefore very important to diagnose the cause of the pain.
  • Dr. Reiners always does a thorough clinical examination as well as radiographic evaluation to get to the reason for the pain.
  • If necessary he does a pulp test as well.
  • Treatment normally includes standard fillings, endodontic treatment, extraction, anti-inflammatory medication, antibiotics incase of abscesses, muscle relaxants and pain medication.


143 Gerhard Street,

Lyttelton, Centurion,

Pretoria, 0163

Tel: 012 543 0594

Opening Hours: Monday – Friday  09:00AM – 17:00PM

Saturdays: By Appointment Only *

After Hours / Sundays & Public Holidays *:

Call Emergency number – 083 500 2488


60 Ray Street,


Pretoria, 0182

Tel: 012 543 0594

Opening Hours: Monday – Friday  09:00AM – 17:00PM

Saturdays: By Appointment Only *

After Hours / Sundays & Public Holidays *:

Call Emergency number – 083 500 2488

* After hours fee may apply.

Dr. Odirile P Moloi & Dr. Malehlokwa M Marishane 24 Hour Dentist Pretoria

Emergencies call +27 (0)12 320 2478

BDS (Medunsa)

Dr Odirile P Moloi completed his BChD degree at University of Limpopo (Medunsa campus) and did his community service at the South African Military Health Services, where he developed a keen interest in Endodontics and Aesthetic Dentistry. He further expanded his skills by serving at numerous military sick bays helping military personnel from different parts of South Africa. He has been in private practice since 2007 and is based in Louis Pasteur Hospital, Pretoria Central. His main field of interest is Endodontics (Root Canal Therapy),CAD/CAM, Aesthetics and Minor Oral Surgery. He is a key OPL for Dentsply Sirona and gives lectures in Endodontics. He has appear in numerous TV Adverts for Colgate-Palmolive and continuous to do Oral Heath interviews on local TV and Radio Stations.In his spare time he enjoys collecting vinyl records,camping,hiking and exploring Mountain Bike Trails.

Dental Check-up
Oral Hygiene
Scale and Polish (Tooth Cleaning)
Bleaching Tooth Whitening
Tooth Filings
Crown and Bridges
Root Canal Treatment
Tooth Extraction

Pretoria Central Practice
Please call us for any enquires or dental bookings.
Open: Monday – Friday (08:00 – 17:00)
Open: Saturday – (08:00 – 13:00)
Closed: Sunday

Tel: +27 (0)12 320 2478
Other: 012 320 9019
Fax: 012 320 8748
Emergency or After Hours:
012 333 6000

Shop No.11, Louis Pasteur Arcade,
Schoeman St, Pretoria Central, Pretoria, 0001

Home Emergency Doc & Dentist

Contact Us

Pager: 011 321 1404

Doctor: 082 457 0176

Dentist: 082 443 5366

Available 24/7

When you need Medical or Dental treatment urgently our Doctors do House Calls

We offer a Personal & Professional Service
Our mobile medical service allows you to be treated in the privacy, comfort and safety of your own surroundings.
All our Doctors and Dentists are registered with the HPCSA
They are both highly skilled and compassionate ensuring the highest quality care for each patient.

Home, Hotel and Business Visits
We treat – All ages – from Paediatric – Adult – Geriatric
From minor ailments and injuries to terminal illness

Dental Treatment

Our Dental surgery is open 24 hours for all Dental Emergencies.

Physical Address: 7 Long Ave, Glenhazel 2192

Postal Address: P.O.Box 918 Wendywood 2144

Telephone Number: (011)440-5325 / 26

Fax Number: 086 602 1444

Emergency Numbers:

Pager: 011 321 1404

Doctor:  082 457 0176

Dentist: 082 443 5366


Dentree Dental Studio 24 Hour Dentist Pretoria

Urgent Dental Care CALL 082 682 0597


Do not hesitate to seek urgent dental care if you experience any of the following symptoms:

  • A Severe Toothache or Bleeding
  • A knocked out Tooth
  • Broken Tooth or Jaw
  • Lost Dental Filling or Crown
  • Swelling in the Head or Neck area

We Create Beautiful Smiles
Dentree Dental Studio is a modern dental clinic, specialized in advanced diagnostics and treatment of dental and oral disorders for all ages.

We offer comprehensive services from all fields of dentistry. In addition to high-end dental equipment, all services are provided in a comfortable and luxury environment.

C/O Kameelfontein Rd and Livingstone Dr1st Floor, Sable Hills Centre, Roodeplaat, Pretoria

082 682 0597

Opening Hours Mon – Fri: 8:00 – 17:00
Book Appointment:

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Dr Nadine Behari Dentist Review

Dr Nadine Behari Dentist Review

Read the honest review and overview of Dr Nadine Behari here at Strydom Conglomerate Web Directory.

Dr Nadine Behari Overview

Dr Nadine Behari graduated with a Bachelor of Dental Science (BDS) degree from University of Witwatersrand Dental School in 2003. She completed a year of community service in the Eastern Cape before embarking upon work in the private dental sector.

She worked in association with a prosthodontist for 12 years before joining the family at Premier Health Centre. She is registered with the Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA), the South African Dental Association (SADA) and the Paedodontic Society of South Africa.

Qualifications : BDS (Wits)

Dr Nadine Behari and Thembela Moyoand
Dr Nadine Behari and Thembela Moyoand

Her gentleness, passion and dedication to dentistry will definitely make your dental experience a pleasant one.

Premier Dental Care is situated at the Premier Health Centre – centrally located in Blairgowrie (Randburg), neighbouring the suburbs of Sandton, Hyde Park, Craighall, Linden, Victory Park, Cresta, Greenside, Parkhurst, Parkmore and Bryanstan.

The Centre aims to provide a holistic approach to health & wellness by creating a full turnkey experience where clients can find the solution to any problem, from diagnosis to treatment and after care programs.

The wide spectrum of practitioners means that you can meet all your wellness needs under one roof.

The Centre accommodates a variety of both Medical and Sports professionals and offers additional services like yoga classes and personal training as well as an aesthetics centre.

Dr Nadine Behari Contact Detail

She can be fount at Premier Dental Care

Reception: 010 591 2223


Premier Health Centre
13 Mackay Avenue
Blairgowrie, 2194

Operating Hours:
Monday to Friday – 8:30 to 5 pm
Saturday – 8:30 to 2 pm

Dental Services Offered

  • Restorative treatment – Fillings, Implants

  • Bleaching/Teeth whitening

  • Crowns and bridges

  • Cleaning and polishing

  • Instructions in oral hygiene (dental hygiene)

  • Root canal treatment

  • Routine check-ups and dental X-Rays

  • Paediatric dentistry

  • Extractions

  • Dental emergencies, which include:

    • Broken teeth or fillings

    • Broken dentures

    • Loose crowns or bridges

    • Tooth aches

    • Painful abscesses

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Dr Nadine Behari News

BLAIRGOWRIE – New Blairgowrie medical centre gets a thumbs up from the local community association. Link

Dr Nadine Behari Reviews

Ask f. asked:
Anon: Any good dentist in mayfair /fordsburg

Meeshka S. replied:

Nadine Behari, Fordsburg 0118385891
Ask f. asked:
Asiya Ismail slmz, please refer me to a good dentist. i live in crosby. thnks

Yasmin E. replied:

salms I went to nafeesa and she could not help me with my toothache she referred me to a maxillofacial but then my GP told me to go to NADINE BEHARI and she extracted my tooth with no maxillofacial story ,so be careful with these young amateur dentists around they r chancers.nadine is excellent.shes at bree str opp JMS muslim school.011 838 5891,she works with prof. Dullabh

Overall 5/5

Bedside Manner 5/5

Wait Time 5/5

Nadine Behari is an excellent dentist Very welcoming, treatment is very professional…..thank you Dr N Behari

2017-10-22 by Verified User

Overall 5/5

Bedside Manner 5/5

Wait Time 5/5

I have had a fear of dentists for the longest time. I have been to numerous dentists and have had orthodontic surgery as well as braces for 4 years. Dr. Behari was by far the gentlest, warmest and most professional dentist I have come across and I can highly recommend her to anyone looking for a dentist. Thank you for changing my perception of dentists Dr. Behari!

2018-07-17 by Verified User

Overall 5/5

Bedside Manner 5/5

Wait Time 5/5

Nadine is an amazing dentist. I can’t recommend her highly enough!!! She has an excellent manner and thoroughly explains everything she is doing. No pain!

2017-10-22 by Verified User


Dr Spiros Kavalieratos

Dr Spiros Kavalieratos DESIGN A SMILE

Directory and informational article about Dr Spiros Kavalieratos and review by Strydom Conglomerate

Dr Spiros Kavalieratos Overview

Dr Spiros Kavalieratos of DESIGN A SMILE is a dentist who is dedicated to enhancing your already beautiful smile by making use of conservative and cutting edge procedures which will lead to a long-lasting smile.

The type of dental care that is provided at DESIGN A SMILE is one that is personalized and ensures the best quality for all patients. Dr Kavalieratos believes in helping patients focus on ‘dental health care’ and not ‘disease care’.

You, as the patient, will be equipped with tools and methods to use in practising good dental hygiene. Sterilization is maintained, and cross contamination processes which are recommended by the South African Dental Association (SADA) are practised.

DESIGN A SMILE are a highly trained and skilled team who are committed to giving you only the best services for your dental health.

With DESIGN A SMILE, you will have only the best and the most comfortable experiences as they take on a caring and individualistic approach to all their patients.

Qualifications :
Dip Dent Tech;BDS(Witwatersrand)

Practice No. : 5437997

Telephone No. : 0118872048

67A Dennis Road, Atholhurst, Sandton


Dr Spiros Kavalieratos Practice

When you visit our Sandton dental practice, your smile is our top priority.  Our entire team is dedicated to providing you with the personalized, gentle care that you deserve. Part of our commitment to serving our patients includes providing information that helps them to make more informed decisions about their oral health needs.  This website is a resource we hope you’ll find both useful and interesting.

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Dr Spiros Kavalieratos - DESIGN A SMILE



Smile Services

  • New Patient Exams
  • Digital X-Rays
  • General Dentistry
  • Teeth Whitening
  • Composite Fillings
  • Cosmetic Dentistry
  • Periodontics
  • Root Canal
  • Porcelain Veneers
  • Dental Implants
  • & More!

Dr. Spiros Kavalieratos – Sandton Family & Cosmetic Dentist

My first dental experience took place at the age of four. A guava pip lodged itself in a cavity in one of my baby molars and my dentist extracted my tooth. He gave me a toothpaste sample and a balloon and that experience molded my destiny. I wanted to become a dentist from that day onward.

At age eight I wore a removable orthodontic appliance and that was when I realized that I wasn’t normal. Everyone hated going to the dentist. I used to beg my parents to take me there!

It was difficult to gain acceptance into a South African Dental School, as I was a foreign student and places were limited for us. I therefore took a circuitous route , which took me through a few extra years studying dental technology and qualifying first as a dental technician at Technikon Pretoria. This has given me a unique perspective and training that has proved invaluable in my dental career.

Whilst completing my one year practical training as a dental technician trainee at the University of Stellenbosch I was privileged to meet many dental students and dentists. This made me more determined than ever to persevere and to reapply to the School of Dentistry at the University of the Witwatersrand. My application was accepted and that was the beginning of the realization of my dream.

I feel honored and privileged in being able to serve you. It’s not about changing your smile, but about changing your life and well-being. By changing your attitude and behavior towards your oral and dental needs I can be a positive influence in your life. It is only through the power of regular contact and association with first class mentors and colleagues and hours and hours of continuing education, that I continually strive for truth and excellence in my daily practice. It is through the desire to continually learn and grow, to be teachable, have an inquiring mind and passion to discover the truths and then to deliver this package that I have kept my dream alive and love my life and dentistry. It is with this background that you come to me and can feel confident that your best interests will always come first in my quest to serve you.

Mission Statement

To strive for excellence in educating, communicating, informing and performing the science and art of dentistry. To nurture the young into becoming compliant adult patients with beautiful healthy smiles. To educate and help them manage their dental fears and insecurities and guide them through their journey from childhood into maturity as happy dental patients.

Dr Spiros Kavalieratos Reviews

Hello Dr Spiros

Just a quick note to tell you again how much appreciated your care and attention to my problem was. I would have to go very far to find a finer and more caring doctor if ever to be found! I will be visiting Dr G in Cape Town on Wednesday to finalise the issue. Most important I am out of pain and all wrinkles have returned to the right side of my face.

Once again, many many thanks.

Best regards


Hi Dr Kavalieratos

Having healthy gums and teeth is something that we all take for granted.

It’s only when things go wrong that we search for alternatives. I have had the experience of rehabilitating my own mouth over the last few years and it is only the result of excellent Dentists and Surgeons, as well as up to date technology like Dental Implants that I feel like I have got a second chance of enjoying the benefits of a healthy mouth.

A dental implant is like having a new tooth

in your mouth. It’s impossible to tell the difference between an implant and a real tooth. Multiple implants is also a possibility. Nothing seems impossible these days – some personal research is beneficial in order to gain more practical understanding of Dental Implants. It’s worth all the preparation, planning, surgery and cost. Just make sure you pick the right dental team.

Thanks to Dr AA, Dr SK, Dr MS

Kind regards

Dr Bothner Parklane Reviews

Dr Bothner Parklane Reviews

See all the Dr Bothner Parklane Reviews here at Strydom Conclomerate Web Directory as well as an overview of  Dr Bothner Parklane.

Dr Bothner Parklane Reviews – Doctor Overview

Dr. Bothner is a Gynaecologist and Obstetrician at the Hart Parklane Fertility Clinic in Johannesburg.

She completed her qualification in 1989 at the University of Ulm in Germany, before relocating to South Africa and completing her Fellowship in 1996 at the University of Witwatersrand in Johannesburg. Her training was done at various hospitals, including Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital, Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital and Rahima Moosa Mother and Child Hospital.

Dr Bothner Parklane Reviews - Doctor Overview

Despite her high level of education, Dr. Bothner strives to continue training. So, in 2018, she completed her Master’s degree in the Biotechnology of Human Assisted Reproduction and Embryology at the University of Valencia, and is an active member of The South African Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

Dr. Bothner has been working at Parklane Hospital in Private Practice since 1998, and joined her late husband, Dr. N.H. Netshidzivhani, at Parklane Fertility in the year 2000. Dr. Bothner continued managing the clinic, and was joined by Dr. Klaus Wiswedel – a legendary physician who founded the first infertility clinic in the country – and Dr. JFA Potgieter.

Dr. Bothner takes a holistic approach to treatment, and she has completed a number of courses, including BodyTalk, Reiki and Phytoalchemy, to be able to give her patients the best possible care.

In her spare time, Dr. Bothner takes a keen interest in nature and enjoys wildlife and horseback riding. She also enjoys dancing and spends time reading whenever possible.

Operating Hours

Monday-Friday 9:00AM-5:00PM

Dr Bothner Parklane Reviews – What People say

Dr Bothner delivered my son in March 2010. She was my first gynae ever and I refuse to see anyone else to date. When I suffered a miscarriage in 2014 she was as brilliant as ever helping me understand the whole situation. I am looking forward to going back to her because I may be preggies. Although I am on the other side of town I still refuse to see anyone else. Source

Netcare Excellent Experience

My wife delivered our first baby on Friday 31 May 2013 at Parklane Hospital. We were anxious as our baby was under weight (2.28kg) and we feared that something could be wrong. Delivery went smooth (Dr. Bothner & Dr. Lucic) and we felt a lot better after we found out nothing was wrong. I must applaud all the staff of Parklane Hospital for making our experience a happy one. One person in particular have been outstanding. Nurse Lindy Ntuli taught us how to take care of our baby. I do understand that it is her job to do that but being a HR Manager myself I do appreciate extraordinary staff a little more than the ordinary person. She persevered through all our feeding sessions until my wife was comfortable breastfeeding. She followed up on our baby’s progress even when she was not our allocated nurse. She guaranteed success in the beginning and achieved it in the end. We owe her a lot and my letter to you is only a small gesture but hopefully you can understand what her dedication has meant to us. I commend Parklane’s staff for excellent service and professionalism. We will be referring everyone we know. Many thanks. Source

Female Gynae @ Parklane Hospital

I’m new to this kinda stuff.
I am looking for a female gynae @ Parklane Hospital – who has had good results in treating fibroids.
I have been battling to fall pregnant for the past 3years – but my GP says I need to remove da fibroids before I can attempt any ivf or gift procedure


You can also try DR K Bothner,don’t have her details on me at the moment, but she also came highly recommended. You could google her if you like, she is also at Parklane but she’s at Meredale on Fridays

Unfortunately, Dr Bothner is also very busy at times, it does get annoying at some point. Source

Dr Bothner Parklane Reviews – News

Dr Herman Nditsheni Netshidzivhani – a specialist who gave life

Among those who came to pay their respects at Netshidzivhani’s Johannesburg home this week were a number of children of friends and family who were delivered by him and Dr Brigit Bothner, Netshidzivhani’s wife and partner in his gynaecological practice.

In the early 1990s, Netshidzivhani was the registrar of the gynaecology department at the then Ga-Rankuwa Hospital (now Dr George Mukhari Hospital), and went on to work at the Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital in Soweto, where he met Bothner, who had come from her native Germany to train, and who he later married. Theirs was an enduring love story.

In a statement read out at his funeral in Tshakhuma yesterday, Bothner said Netshidzivhani was the “love of my life, my soul mate”. Source

Meet a media mogul in the making

The partnerships are key to the content of her magazines, too. In Mamas & Papas, her long-standing specialist columnists are Dr Herman Netshidzivhani and Dr Birgit Bothner, married paediatricians based at Park Lane Hospital. “Partnerships like this one are vital, because, at the end of the day, content is king,” says Mdluli. Source

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Park Lane Hospital Gynaecologists

Find your Park Lane Hospital Gynaecologists here with the help of Strydom Conglomerate Web Directory.

Park Lane Hospital Gynaecologists Alphabetical

Dr JC Archer – Park Lane Hospital Gynaecologists

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Suite M14 Park Lane Clinic, Cnr Junction Avenue & Park Lane, Parktown, 2193

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 484 1262

Dr SA Bhoora – Park Lane Hospital Gynaecologists

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Womens Wellness Centre, Sessional Rooms, Netcare Park Lane Hospital, Junction Ave, Parktown, JHB, 2193

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 480 4330

Dr PCF Blaauwhof

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

House 4 Netcare Garden City Hosp, 35 Bartlett Road, Mayfair West, 2092

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 830 1414

Dr M Bothma

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Netcare Park Lane Hospital, Parktown, 2193

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 642 4771

Dr S Burgin – Park Lane Hospital Gynaecologists

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Netcare Park Lane Hospital, Parktown, JHB, 2193

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 480 4000

Dr JM Carter

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Ground Floor Netcare Park Lane Hospital, Junction Avenue & Park Lane, Parktown, 2193

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 480 4120

Dr MI Cassim Park Lane Hospital Gynaecologists

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Life Brenthurst Clinic, Parktown, 2193

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 484 5119

Dr AL Cebekulu

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Netcare Parklane Hospital, Cnr Junction Avenue & Park Lane, Parktown, 2193

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 480 4243

Dr A Chrysostomou

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital, Netcare Linksfield Hospital, Netcare Linkwood Hospital

Netcare Linksfield Hospital, Linksfield West, 2192

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 647 3562

Dr YM Dasoo Park Lane Hospital Gynaecologists

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Netcare Garden City Hospital, Mayfair West, 2092

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 839 3501

Dr TBT Dehinbo

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Netcare Rand Hospital, Berea

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

Dr N Dinat

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

86 14th Street, Parkhurst, 2193

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 447 8131

Dr PS Dingayo Park Lane Hospital Gynaecologists

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Phoenix Building

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 484 0117

Dr S Ebrahim

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Netcare Park Lane Hospital, Parktown, 2193

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 643 2317

Dr AA Fabiyi

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital<br/>Netcare Clinton Hospital

Lesedi Private Hospital, Diepkloof, 1862

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 933 3340

Dr GA Gamedze Park Lane Hospital Gynaecologists

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Life Brenthurst Clinic, Parktown, 2193

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 484 0452

Prof F Guidozzi

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Ground Floor Netcare Park Lane Hospital, Cnr Junction & Park Lane Street, Parktown, 2193

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 480 4120

Dr S Hirschowitz

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Netcare Park Lane Hospital, Parktown, 2193

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 642 4847

Dr CH Hurwitz Park Lane Hospital Gynaecologists

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Netcare Park Lane Hospital, Parktown, 2193

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 643 8261

Dr RA Ismail

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Life Brenthurst Clinic, Parktown, 2193

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 642 9867

Dr SK Jackson

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Netcare Park Lane Hospital, Parktown, JHB, 2193

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 480 4000

Dr JI Jeebodh Park Lane Hospital Gynaecologists

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Netcare Park Lane Hospital, Parktown, 2193

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 480 4000

Dr NM Kabamba

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Womens Wellness Centre, Park Lane Hospital, Junction, 195 Jeppe Street, Parktown, 2193

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 480 4269

Dr YP Kennedy

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Netcare Park Lane Hospital, Parktown, 2193

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 480 4000

Dr T Kopenhager Park Lane Hospital Gynaecologists

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Netcare Park Lane Hospital, Parktown, 2193

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 643 3221

Dr H Laloo

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

127 Louis Botha Avenue, Orange Grove,
GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 483 2264

Dr RKT Larbi

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Parklane Hospital, Cnr Junction Avenue & Park Lane, Parktown, 2193

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 484 9300

Dr ME Ledwaba Park Lane Hospital Gynaecologists

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Suite 14 Ground Floor Park Lane Clinic, Junction Avenue, Parktown, 2193

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 484 7728

Dr SB Lumu

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Shop 40, 38 Bruce Street, Palm Springs, 1560

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 815 3558

Dr IH Maghoma

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Room 34 Lower West Wing Brenthhurst Clinic, 4 Park Lane, Parktown, 2193

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 484 7119

Dr JM Mbere Park Lane Hospital Gynaecologists

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Room 809 Lister Building, 195 Jeppe Street, Johannesburg, 2001

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 337 5637

Dr DA Merrell

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

17 Roberts Avenue, Kensington, 2094

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 614 7017

Dr T Mohamed

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Netcare Park Lane Hospital, Parktown, 2193

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 480 3700

Dr TM Mokaya Park Lane Hospital Gynaecologists

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Suite 23 West Wing Sunninghill Hospital, Cnr Witkoppen & Nanyuki Road, Sunninghill Park, 2191

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 257 2155

Dr MT Mokoape

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Netcare Park Lane Hospital, 15 Junction Ave, Ground Floor, Parktown, 1923

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

014 804 124

Dr SJ Molingoane

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Netcare Park Lane Hospital, Parktown, 2193

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 983 0483

Dr B Moore Park Lane Hospital Gynaecologists

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Ground Floor Netcare Park Lane Hospital, Cnr Junction & Park Lane Street, Parktown, 2193

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 484 2444

Dr S Mose

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

2nd Floor Rm 306 Phoenix Place Life Brenthurst, Parktown, 2193

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 484 0343

Dr MJ Mseleku

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Suite 16 Ground Floor Parklane Clinic, Junction Avenue, Parktown, 2193

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 643 2317

Dr TN Mtsi Park Lane Hospital Gynaecologists

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Netcare Park Lane Hospital, Parktown, 2193

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 480 4372

Dr KR Mukhudwani

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Netcare Park Lane Hospital, Parktown, 2193

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 480 4000

Dr VC Naran

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

4 Coralfish Street, Lenasia Ext 7, 1827

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 854 2228

Dr Q Ndiweni Park Lane Hospital Gynaecologists

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Netcare Garden City Hospital, Doctors Village, Hou, 35 Bartlett Road, Mayfair, 2092

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 830 0366

Dr FZ Nxumalo

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Womens Wellness Centre, 1st Floor, Parktown, 2193

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 480 4296

Dr NP Odell

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Netcare Park Lane Hospital

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 480 3700

Dr V Padayachee Park Lane Hospital Gynaecologists

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Cnr Junction Avenue & Park Lane, Parktown, Johannesburg, 2193

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 680 9634

Dr AH Patel

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Womens Wellness, Park Lane Hospital, Junction Aven, 173 Rivonia Road, Parktown, 2193

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 884 8228

Dr FS Paterson

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Netcare Park Lane Hospital, Parktown, 2193

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

061 588 7203

Miss JJ Phelp Park Lane Hospital Gynaecologists

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Cnr Junction Avenue & Park Lane, ParktownJohannesburg, 2193

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 480 4000

Dr T Poonyane

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

11 Parklane, Parktown, 2193

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 484 0568

Dr NS Ramatsoso

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Netcare Park Lane Hospital, Parktown, 2193

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 480 4142

Dr A Ramsubag Park Lane Hospital Gynaecologists

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

102 Columbine Avenue, Mondeor, 2091

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 942 2868

Dr PF Retief

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Netcare Park Lane Hospital, Parktown, 2193

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 480 3700

Dr SJ Seabe

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Phoenix Place

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 484 0336

Dr TH Smith Park Lane Hospital Gynaecologists

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Ground Floor Netcare Park Lane Hospital, Cnr Junction Avenue & Park Lane, Parktown, 2193

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 480 4120

Dr MKP Thubisi

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Sessional Rooms, Netcare Park Lane Hospital, Parktown, 2193

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 304 7848

Dr GD Toweel

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Park Lane Clinic, Junction Avenue, Parktown, 2193

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 480 4330

Dr SM Tshabalala Park Lane Hospital Gynaecologists

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

Womens Wellness Centre

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 480 4188

Dr MC Van Der Griendt

[Gynaecology] – Netcare Park Lane Hospital

1st Floor North Wing Park Lane Clinic, Junction Road, Parktown, 2193

GPS coordinates : -26.181644, 28.046631

011 642 1480

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Stem cells in gynaecology

Ultrasonics in Obstetrics and Gynaecology

Sonar is easy to apply as a diagnostic method in obstetrics and gynaecology by direct contact scanning through a film of olive oil applied to the abdominal wall. Using the full bladder technique one can map out the uterus and its contents in very early pregnancy revealing the growing gestation sac from before the sixth week of pregnancy onwards. The level of nidation of the ovum and its relationship to subsequent miscarriage can be studied and the diagnosis of “blighted ovum” is facilitated at an early stage.

The diagnosis of hydatidiform mole and the estimation of retained products of conception following abortion are now commonplace. Twins can be diagnosed very early in pregnancy by the demonstration of two gestation sacs. Later on the finding of two heads on two-dimensional scanning makes the diagnosis even more certain. The growth of the foetus can be studied by plotting the enlargement of the biparietal diameter, and localisation of the placenta has become a routine and reliable procedure. Using the Doppler echo effect the foetal heart can be picked up from the 13th week of pregnancy onwards.

Approximately 30 per cent of all in-patients in the Queen Mother’s Hospital are now investigated by sonar at some stage or other in pregnancy. In gynaecology our experience continues and we have not had to alter our diagnostic criteria as applied to ovarian and uterine tumours, the different varieties of ascites, splenomegaly and hepatic infiltration with metastases.

A plea is made for sonar being accepted as an ancillary diagnostic technique by the radiological world already accustomed to visual diagnostic techniques.

Park Lane Hospital Visiting Hours

Park Lane Hospital Visiting Hours

Park Lane Hospital Visiting Hours: Monday to Sunday 11:00 – 12:00 & 15:00 – 16:00& 19:00 – 20:00

Corner Junction Avenue & Park Lane, Parktown, Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa

Netcare  Park Lane Hospital Visiting Hours: Overview

Ante-Natal Ward

11:00 – 12:00
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
Saturday, Sunday
11:00 – 12:00
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
Public Holiday
11:00 – 12:00
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
no children under 12 allowed

General ICU

11:00 – 12:00
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
Saturday, Sunday
11:00 – 12:00
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
Public Holiday
11:00 – 12:00
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00

Park Lane Hospital

Visiting Hours – Wards

Park Lane Hospital Visiting Hours – NNU

11:00 – 12:00
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
Saturday, Sunday
11:00 – 12:00
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
Public Holiday
11:00 – 12:00
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
no children under 12 allowed

Paediatric Ward

15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
Saturday, Sunday
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
Public Holiday
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
no children under 12 allowed

Paeds High Care

11:00 – 12:00
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
Saturday, Sunday
11:00 – 12:00
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
Public Holiday
11:00 – 12:00
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00

Park Lane Hospital

Visiting Hours – Ward 1

Unrestricted visiting.
No children under 12 years allowed, e
xcept for sibling(s) of the newborn.

Ward 3

11:00 – 12:00
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
Saturday, Sunday
11:00 – 12:00
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
Public Holiday
11:00 – 12:00
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00

Ward 6

11:00 – 12:00
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
Saturday, Sunday
11:00 – 12:00
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
Public Holiday
11:00 – 12:00
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00

Ward 7

11:00 – 12:00
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
Saturday, Sunday
11:00 – 12:00
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
Public Holiday
11:00 – 12:00
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00

Park Lane Hospital Visiting Hours – Related Hospitals

Park Lane Hospital Visiting Hours – Hospital Information

The hospital is situated in the city of Johannesburg, Gauteng province.  Johannesburg is the largest city of the Gauteng province and is also the wealthiest city of South Africa.  Johannesburg is situated in the mineral-rich Witwatersrand and is the hub of global gold and diamond trading.

The city of Johannesburg was founded after the discovery of gold in the area and is today the economic capital of Africa.  Every year Johannesburg attracts thousands of people looking for work and their share of the city’s riches.

Johannesburg is located in the centre of Gauteng and in close proximity to many cities and towns in the province.  Pretoria is about 70km North from Johannesburg and the OR Tambo International Airport is only 27km from the city.

The hospital is situated in the elite suburb of Parktown which is one of the largest suburbs in Johannesburg.  Parktown is nestled between the suburbs of Westcliff, Hillbrow, Houghton, Berea and Forest Town.   The hospital is easily accessible via the M1 to the West and the M31 to the East of the hospital.

At Netcare Park Lane Hospital we aim to provide the highest standards of patient care. Our hospital has a special focus on gynaecology, obstetric, neonatal and paediatric care. With over 30 resident obstetricians and gynaecologists based at the hospital, you can be assured that you are being treated by some of the leading specialists in their field.

Hospital General Manager

Lebo Masunyane

011 480 4000

Nursing Manager

Rosaline Butler

011 480 4000

Address & contact details

Cnr Junction Avenue & Park Lane, Parktown, Johannesburg, 2193

Private Bag x 40500, Houghton, Johannesburg, 2041


Medical Disciplines

Cardiothoracic surgery
Critical care
Ear, nose and throat surgery (Otorhinolaryngology)
Family practice
General practice
General surgery
Internal medicine
Maxillo-facial and oral surgery
Medical oncology
Paediatric pulmonology
Paediatric surgery
Plastic and reconstructive surgery
Psychiatry Radiation oncology
Reproductive medicine
Rheumatology Urology

Specialised facilities – Park Lane Hospital Visiting Hours

Dedicated caesarean, labour, laminar and general operating theatres
Fertility centre
Maternity unit
Voice & Swallowing Centre

Facilities, services & specialised clinics

Antenatal classes
Mother and baby wellness clinic
Occupational therapy
Pharmacy (in-hospital service)
Pharmacy (retail)
Psychology (clinical)
Radiology (diagnostic)
Radiology (interventional)
Social services (counselling)
Speech therapy
Speech therapy and audiology

Constantiaberg Medi Clinic

Constantiaberg Medi Clinic

Find all info about Constantiaberg Medi Clinic here at Strydom Conglomerate Web directory.

Constantiaberg Medi Clinic

Mediclinic Constantiaberg is situated in the lovely Southern Suburbs of Cape Town. Our hospital offers 24/7 medical treatment to both local and international patients. The hospital is supported by experienced Healthcare Practitioners (onsite doctors and allied healthcare professionals), dedicated nursing staff and a dynamic management team. Our Hospital covers the Southern Suburbs of Cape Town, Constantia, Plumstead, Grassy Park, Kenilworth, Tokai, Claremont, Wynberg, Rondebosch, Ottery, Muizenberg, Noordhoek, Houtbay, Simonstown etc.

Constantiaberg Medi-Clinic has a carefully planned design, sophisticated equipment and facilities, and generous proportions. It is supported by leading medical professionals and a dedicated workforce.

This efficient and reliable private hospital network is widely regarded as one of South Africa’s most trusted and efficient, and they offer a selection of some of the finest doctors, nurses, medical practitioners and administrative staff in the world.

This makes Constantiaberg Medi-Clinic the ideal place to visit for those unexpected emergencies, or even planned medical procedures, and should you be visiting the city as an international tourist, they are well versed to look after your every needs to expectations that will meet or exceed those from your home country. There is an established emergency room, as well as new doctors rooms catering for more scheduled medical procedures and consultations.

There is a network of Medi-Clinic hospitals throughout the country, each offering a standardised level of service and expert healthcare facilities.

Constantiaberg Medi Clinic – ADDRESS

Drs Dietrich, Voigt, Mia & Partners, Mediclinic Constantiaberg Hospital, G12 East Suite, Burnham Road, Plumstead, Cape Town, Western Cape


Office: 021 797 3785
Physical Address:
Burnham Road, Plumstead,
Cape Town, 7800Postal Address:
PO Box 179, Plumstead,
Cape Town, 7800


The hospital is located in Burnham Road, Plumstead in Cape Town, Western Cape. The nearest main road is the M4 to the West of the Hospital. Plumstead is located in the Southern Suburbs of Cape Town, 18.4km South of Cape Town CBD.


Medical Aid patients

Medical Aid patients are to familiarise themselves with their medical scheme’s/insurer’s benefits and available funds before admission. Patients are to provide the confirmation/pre-authorisation number obtained from their scheme on their pre-admission form. The account remains the patient’s responsibility and is payable within 30 days of discharge.

Private paying patients:

A pre-payment covering the estimated cost of the procedure/service is required on admission. Should the account exceed this amount, the patient may be required to make further interim payments. The estimated amount is not a quote as there are variables that may influence the final amount. Every effort will be made to finalise the account on discharge. A waiting period of 30 to 60 minutes may be expected. If discharge takes place over a weekend or after hours, the final account will be posted to the guarantor of the account on the next working day. The account is payable upon receipt. If the deposit exceeds the final billed account, a refund will be issued to the patient from Head Office in Stellenbosch within 25 days of discharge, depending on the method of payment.


Sunday: CLOSED
Monday: 07H00 – 18H00
Tuesday: 07H00 – 18H00
Wednesday: 07H30 – 18H00
Thursday: 07H00 – 18H00
Friday: 07H00 – 18H00
Saturday: 07H00 – 13H00
Public Holidays: CLOSED

Related Hospitals

Montana Hospital <—> Kingsway Hospital <—> Muelmed Hospital Maternity Ward <—> Arwyp Hospital <—> Flora Clinic Neurologist <—> Entabeni Hospital <—> Kingsbury Hospital


Emergency number:  084 124

Please provide the following information:

  • WHO is calling? 
  • WHAT is your contact number?
  • WHAT has happened?
  • WHERE has it happened?
  • HOW many people are involved?
  • WAIT for questions – please do not just hang up

Please note that calls to this number may be recorded. It is an offence to place prank calls.

Tips on what to do in an emergency

A medical emergency means someone’s life is in danger and they require immediate medical attention.

  • In case of an emergency, take a deep breath and calm down.
  • Call ER24 on 084 124.
  • Tell the call taker that there is an emergency and you require assistance.
  • Give a brief overview of what type of emergency you are dealing with (i.e. person fell down the stairs, someone not breathing, a motor vehicle collision, etc.)
  • Provide the call taker with your name and your contact number. Should the line be dropped, the call taker will need a way to call you back.
  • Provide the call taker with the exact location of the emergency. Provide a closest cross street or landmark where possible.
  • You can now provide more detail on the patient’s current condition or the emergency.
  • Follow all of the call taker’s instructions carefully. You may request telephonic first aid.
  • Stay on the line until the call taker ends the call.

Visiting Hours – Constantiaberg Medi Clinic

Visits from family and friends are an important part of the recovery process and Mediclinic makes every effort to accommodate visitors. Flexible visiting hours apply (09:00 – 20:00), with a resting period between 13:00-15:00, but there may be times when visitors cannot be accommodated. Please enquire at the nurses’ station to confirm if a patient is able to receive visitors. Visitors may be asked to leave the bedside when procedures are carried out in the unit; we appreciate your understanding in this regard.

We ask that visitors respect other patients in the room and restrict the number of individuals visiting to three per bed in general wards, two per bed in critical care units and one person can accompany a patient admitted for a day procedure in the Day ward.

Silent hospitals promote healing. We ask that you put your mobile on silent while on hospital premises, keep volume to a minimum and that any accompanying children are well supervised.

Our Facilities

Support groups

  1. CPR for family and friends
  2. The Compassionate Friends
  3. Look Good, Feel Better
  4. MS Society
  5. Parent support group
  6. Prostate Support Action (PSA)
  7. Stroke services
  1. Pharmacy
  2. Restaurant
  3. Public and bedside telephones
  4. Individual television

Please direct all enquiries to the administrative assistant or the unit manager.

Constantiaberg Medi Clinic – SERVICE OFFERINGS

Mother and Child Unit

Mediclinic Constantiaberg is proud to introduce a fully integrated and Multi-Disciplinary, Mother and Child Unit. The unit consists of Obstetrics, Neonatal Critical Care, Paediatric, Paediatric High Care and Critical Care Units, facilitating an integrated approach to caring for the next generation.

Emergency Centre

The 24-hr emergency centre is staffed by Emergency Physicians and well-trained staff. Our Emergency Team is experienced in emergency medicine and supported by state of the art technology. We make use of the international triage system and each patient will be triaged and seen by the doctor according to their level of acuity.

Epilepsy Unit

The unit offers expert diagnosis and care for patients with seizures or related disorders, and treats medically refractory seizure disorders in children and adults.

Haematology and Bone Marrow Transplant Unit

This unit functions as a comprehensive diagnostic and treatment centre for all haematology linked disorders, which provides management of related medical, surgical and oncology problems in a holistic and integrated fashion, with counselling and psychological support where needed. Plasma exchange and apheresis facilities together with an internal laboratory ensure that state-of-the-art technology and real-time results are available for optimal patient management. An ongoing academic training program and international links ensure that the treatment programs offered remain up-to-date, and affordable at medical aid rates. The unit is well integrated with other hospital facilities and radiotherapy services to ensure that adequate backup is available for the management of any disorder.

Joint Replacement Unit

Advice is offered on all aspects of joint replacement surgery, pre-operative assessment, hospital orientation, an introduction to nursing staff, careful in-hospital follow-up and rehabilitation, advice and placement in a step-down facility as well as a 24-hr hip fracture service.

Neuroscience Unit

A multi-disciplinary team of medical specialists provide a service to patients suffering from a wide variety of neurological disorders, which include; Medical and surgical management of epilepsy (utilising a dedicated, open-plan epilepsy monitoring (EEG) unit, and Parkinson’s disease; cortical mapping for both speech and motor areas of the brain; surgical management of chronic pain; early and effective treatment of acute stroke. A number of years ago, the hospital acquired a “Vector Vision”. This sophisticated piece of equipment is used for neuronavigational/computer-aided neurosurgery, enhancing the safety of selected surgical procedures.

Constantiaberg Medi Clinic – Specialised Clinics

  1. Pre-admission centre
  2. Hand clinic

Please direct all enquiries to the Patient Experience Manager.

Supplementary Services

  1. Pathology
  2. Radiology, which includes CT scan, MRI, 3D and 4D scan.

Constantiaberg Medi Clinic – Support Services

  1. Antenatal classes: 021 799 2911
  2. Cape Spine: 021 762 8794
  3. Constantia Sleep Centre: 021 761 3109
  4. Constantia Stroke Service: 021 797 3528
  5. Epilepsy Monitoring Unit: 021 797 2099
  6. Haematology Unit: 021 799 2569
  7. Hand Clinic: 021 762 7295
  8. Joint Replacement Unit: 021 797 2079
  9. Pathology – Ampath: 021 797 0043
  10. Pathology – Pathcare: 021 797 3785
  11. Radiology: 021 761 0036

Rent to own tiny house shells

Rent to own tiny house shells

Rent to own tiny house shells

Read all about :
Rent to own tiny house shells | Do Tiny Houses Have Addresses | How much does it cost to park a tiny house | How much do tiny homes rent for | Where can I build a tiny house in Florida | Orlando Lakefront tiny houses Orlando FL | Tiny house Bradenton FL | Tiny house Naples Florida | Tiny home Panama City FL | Tiny house rent to own Texas | Small home builders Austin TX | Tiny homes Bastrop TX | Tiny homes for rent in Fresno CA | Tiny homes Redding CA | Wishbone tiny homes Asheville NC | Tiny house for rent Raleigh NC | Finished portable cabins rent to own in KY  | Rent to own tiny homes in KY | Montauk NY tiny homes | Rent to own tiny house Alabama | Rent to own tiny house Alabama | Tiny home on wheels Alaska | Tiny houses Medford Oregon | Tiny homes of The Triangle | Tiny house rentals near Disney World | Rent to own tiny house Tennessee | Rent to own tiny house Colorado | Rent to own tiny house Georgia | Rent to own tiny house near me | Rent to own tiny house on wheels

Rent to own tiny house shells

If you believe less is more, it’s easy to see the appeal of the tiny-house movement: You’ll spend less money living in a tiny house, use less energy, and spend less time inside. But if you’re not ready to downsize your entire life into two hundred square feet, you can rent to own a tiny house.

How to build a cellar under your house

@ The Tiny Life

As tiny houses get more popular people are looking for more affordable housing options and a rent-to-own tiny house is one option to move into a tiny house today!  Rent-to-own is an agreement, in which you rent a tiny home for a certain amount of time, then have the option to buy it before the lease expires.

So today we are going to break down all the key parts of a rent to own agreement and what you need to know when it comes to paying for a tiny house on wheels with this method.

How Does Rent To Own Work?

When it comes to renting a tiny house to own there are two main types: Lease Purchase and Lease Purchase.  The main difference is that with a Lease Purchase at the end of the time period you have the option to buy the tiny house.  While the Lease Purchase at the end of lease, you’re legally obligated to buy it.

In some cases when your lease window comes to an end there may be an agreed upon amount you’ll have to pay to finalize the purchase and in other cases you can make it so when the lease payments are completed, you’re the owner with no more additional money.

What Is The Cost To Rent To Own?

Like many things in life, it depends.  Generally speaking a completed tiny house will cost the builder between $20,000 and $60,000 to build, with that in mind you’re going to typically see a monthly payment between $120 per month up to $460 per month depending on terms and cost of the house.

When you rent to own you’ll also be required to pay a down payment, which is between 2%-5% of the loan, so plan to put down at least $500 up to $3,000 as your down payment.  This number is often negotiable and can be worked out, but the more you can put down the better.

Rent To Own Tiny House Shells

A tiny house shell is another really great way to save even more money.  A shell is simply all the exterior elements (roof, siding, windows, and doors) built on a trailer.

I recommend tiny house shells to people who don’t have much building experience because it lets all the really important parts be built by a professional tiny house on wheels builder, but not going through the expense of all the interior work which really should be customized to your needs.

About a third of the labor that goes into building a tiny house on wheels is in the shell, while the bulk of the time spent on building goes into the last steps of finishing the inside.

Buying a tiny house that is already built can be tricky because if it isn’t designed for you, then it won’t meet your needs and you’ll be looking to move out.  So make sure you know the layout that you need to enjoy life and meet all your day to day needs.

@ Einstyne Homes

Rent To Own your Tiny House

When you can rent to own your tiny house, everything gets easier!

Buying a tiny house can be difficult.

We offer an option where you can rent-to-own your tiny house! We are currently only offering this option on our DIY Tiny House Shells!

Criteria for rent-to-own applications can vary based on your specific situation

Contact Us today to see if you might qualify for our rent to own program, or just email us directly at:

Do Tiny Houses Have Addresses – Rent to own tiny house shells

Some tiny houses do have addresses, but it depends on the area you live in and where your house is located. If you do not have an address, there are plenty of other solutions so that you can still receive your mail, such as mail forwarding services and PO boxes.

Click This Link -> How to get your mail when renting to own tiny house shells?

How much does it cost to park a tiny house

Another cost factor is where you’re going to keep your tiny home.

Some tiny homeowners choose to put their tiny houses on land that they own with the intent of having their home be stationary.

Part of the appeal of tiny homes is that they can be mobile. So another option, if you don’t own land, is to park your tiny home in tiny house communities or RV parks. This allows you to travel and live anywhere in the United States.

Most parking in tiny home communities will cost approximately $300-$600 per month.

How much do tiny homes rent for

Long-term tiny houses for rent can be found for much less per month, but they can also be difficult to locate. Some are listed on tiny home rental and purchase site Tiny House Listings. Although prices ranged at publishing time from a low of $120 per month to several thousand, $500 per month was a typical range.

But that’s the cost for long-term rentals. Renting a tiny home by the night through a site like Airbnb or through a tiny house village can cost substantially more. Mt. Hood Tiny House Village rentals in Mt. Hood, Ore. can start at about $139 per night, making short-term rentals a better option for vacationers or for those who want to test drive tiny house living before committing to it for the long term.

Where can I build a tiny house in Florida Laws by State

Laws Surrounding Tiny Houses You Must Know:

Many states still don’t have specific laws surrounding tiny houses. However, this doesn’t mean that you won’t run into trouble when building one.

The biggest restrictions on tiny houses will come during the building process.

This is because builders still have to follow zoning regulations that are put in place by that state.

One good thing to note is that even if your state doesn’t have laws, you still have options. This is because it doesn’t matter the size of the home in order to get permits to build it. All that matters is that you obtain proper permits.

This way your house, no matter how small, can still be deemed safe to live in.

The biggest problem that people run in to, however, is actually living in their tiny house.

While you may be able to obtain zoning permits to build your home, you might have a difficult time living there full time.

This is why so many people choose to build tiny homes that can be moved.

Finding a permanent lot that can be lived in year-round can be tricky. But it doesn’t mean that it can’t be done. People have found creative solutions to still live in their tiny house without breaking the law.

We have written an article about why tiny houses are illegal in some states. It has lots of tips and tricks to help keep yourself safe from the law while living in a tiny house.

The US States Which Are the Most Tiny-House Friendly

New Hampshire
New Mexico
North Carolina
South Carolina
South Dakota

Rent to own tiny house shells – LEAST Tiny-House Friendly States

New Jersey
New York
North Dakota
Rhode Island
West Virginia

Rent to own tiny house shells by US Location

Rent and find parking for your Tiny House on many places across the US. More locations will be added to this article.

Rent to own tiny house shells Florida

Rent and find parking for your Tiny House on many places across Florida

Orlando Lakefront tiny houses Orlando FL

Looking to stay in one of our 10 tiny home rentals for your vacation to Orlando? 
Click here to book with us directly!

Orlando Lakefront Tiny Home and RV community is a haven for those looking to experience tiny living. With 10 unique tiny home vacation rentals, and 40 lots to park your own tiny homes or RVs, we provide the opportunity to enjoy lakeside life in the heart of Orlando.

Tiny house Bradenton FL

Tiny House Siesta

Each Tiny House Siesta has it’s own unique features that set it apart.  Whether it is a 1st floor bedroom you seek, a 3 bedroom model, or a pet friendly tiny, we’re sure you’ll find one that will make your Tiny House Siesta a memorable experience that you will enjoy and cherish.

Tiny house Naples Florida


A coveted Central Florida location in the heart of it all that promises a relaxed small cottage home lifestyle in a community of 220 homes. Life in Lakeshore offers exclusive private amenities, close proximity to world-class golf courses, events, diverse shops and restaurants, top-notch medical facilities, and an abundance of outdoor activities.

Tiny house Gainesville FL


1705 NW 6th Street Street
Gainesville, FL 32609

Phone: 1-352-262-5573

Mobile: 1-352-262-5573



Tiny home Panama City FL

As a relatively cheap housing option that doesn’t look like a mobile home, tiny homes have started popping up in some areas around the county as interest in the area is high.

PANAMA CITY — Modular houses typically referred to as tiny homes could be a quick, relatively cheap living option for area residents recovering from Hurricane Michael.

Some area officials say that, as long as it adheres to basic Florida building codes, a tiny home can be erected in the county in residential zones. Interest in the topic has ignited on local social media sites in recent weeks after at least one out-of-state tiny home manufacturer started advertising its product in the area to help address the housing shortage since the hurricane.

Rent to own tiny house shells Texas

Rent and find parking for your Tiny House on many places across Texas

Tiny house rent to own Texas

As tiny houses get more popular people are looking for more affordable housing options and a rent-to-own tiny house is one option to move into a tiny house today! Rent-to-own is an agreement, in which you rent a tiny home for a certain amount of time, then have the option to buy it before the lease expires.

Small home builders Austin TX

Small House Solutions

Small House Solutions is an Austin, TX based Custom Design-Build Firm serving many Texas Metro Areas. We specialize in a variety of home types and structures including: Tiny Homes on Wheels, Park Models, Backyard Homes (ADU’s), Accessory Structures (Studios, Pool Houses, Offices), Granny Flats, Mother-in-Law Suites, and Large Custom Homes.

Tiny Homes On Wheels

These are built on either a bumper pull or gooseneck trailer. Maximum dimensions: 8.5′ wide, 13.5′ tall. Popularly parked in an RV park or rural property outside of the city limits.


When it comes to tiny house designs, our full-service approach ensures that each small detail is covered and we meet your expectations. Our tiny house design packages include:

  • Site visit and site analysis by highly experienced members of our staff
  • Sit-down design consultation or Zoom video conference with screen share
  • Due diligence research and site-specific calculations, including zoning, impervious cover, setbacks, and much more
  • Finish materials and color selection via,, and our selection spreadsheet
  • CAD tiny house floorplans and four-sided elevations
  • Photo-realistic 3D layout rendering and interior and exterior 3D renderings
  • CAD site plan if the property survey is available, or we can arrange a survey at an additional fee
  • Complete design file, needed for structural engineering, including electrical plan, roof plan, window schedule, door schedule, and more
  • A fixed price quote to have your new tiny home built
  • Co-ownership of your tiny house plans and renderings. You can use the designs as you wish.
    Small House Solutions

Tiny homes Bastrop TX

Arnold Custom Builders

Small and Comfortable Homes

If you prefer a home that’s small yet spacious, efficient yet comfortable, then a tiny home might be a great choice for you. With over 20 of years experience, Arnold Custom Builders can create the tiny home of your dreams.

1011 Highway 71 W
Bastrop, TX 78602
Phone: 512-321-9298

Logo Design South Africa

Logo Design South Africa

Logo Design South Africa : Improve Your Conversion Rate And Increase Revenue With These User Experience Design Essentials

It’s a staggering statistic, but it certainly says something about the importance of user experience in website design : Logo Design South Africa.

User experience (UX) is the overall experience a visitor has on a website, in a program or in a mobile app. It’s not any single design element or layout that defines the experience — instead, it is a comprehensive compilation of many little interactions woven together, producing positive or negative feelings about the website and, by default, the parent company.

The emotional connection that users feel as a direct result of the UX design directly impacts brand identity, consumer retention and a business’s bottom line.

Plus, according to research from Stanford University, over 46 percent of consumers view a website design as a top indicator of credibility — a quality that is imperative for brands to secure to captivate new consumers and then turn them into returning customers.

But these three simple design tips will improve your user experience, increase conversions and revenue and ultimately grow your business.

Logo design South Africa price

Round Logo Ideas – What Logo Shapes Mean The Circle

Corporate Logo Brands Rides A.I. Wave To $15.5M

Web Development South Africa

Aesthetic theory and logo design: examining consumer response to proportion across cultures

Logo Design South Africa Incorporate consistent branding.

Studies show that consistent branding can increase revenue by up to 23 percent. Plus, a cohesive visual identity across every platform and device — including your website — will aid in creating a brand that consumers enjoy engaging with, leading them to want to engage with you over and over and over again.

This cohesive visual identity is quite easy to reproduce. The top website designs utilize a recognizable color palette, imagery that provides value and information to users, consistent typography and a subtle branding on each page of the website — often in the form of a watermark-like logo. This consistent branding creates a stable environment that empowers your users to find the products or information they are looking for without distracting or confusing them. They know where they are, what they can expect and now have the time to determine what they want to do.

An excellent example.

An example of consistent branding and strong user experience design. The megastore’s investment in a modern, simple logo design and an easy-to-use website have resulted in a digital destination that is completely intuitive and easy to shop on. The regularly large logo design condenses to a simple responsive symbol, but in every iteration of the design — desktop, tablet and mobile-friendly — the bones and structure of the site remain intact.

Users can quickly search, easily access their cart and personal account, and speedily find their way back to the homepage should they get lost while journeying deep into the website’s many pages. This simple, clean, consumer-centric design is branded in Walmart’s signature blue and yellow hues and mirrors the visuals and messaging that every piece of Walmart’s marketing collateral has, from commercials to social media posts to banner ads. Walmart prioritized a consistent brand and simple site over bells and whistles — and it paid off, too. Their e-commerce sales grew by 23 percent in Q4 of 2017 — just like the study said they could.

Logo Design South Africa Utilize clear calls to action.

As author Nora Roberts said, “If you don’t go after what you want, you’ll never have it.” That idea certainly rings true in website design. Amazingly enough, even after they have found their way to your online site, some consumers won’t know the action you want them to take until you make it crystal clear with direct language and calls to action (CTA).

To maximize the UX design — and effectiveness — of a CTA button, there are a few rules to live by:

  • Make buttons large and fully clickable — don’t just rely on the text within the button
  • Write clear, easy to understand messaging. This can be playful and on-brand, but most importantly, users should immediately understand what will happen when they click the button. (Bonus tip: Include a verb, an urgent adjective and keep the whole CTA short and sweet).
  • The font itself should be readable and large — now is not the time to play with any trendy, swirling fonts you may have recently discovered. Stick to simple sans-serif typography.
  • Ensure the call to action stands out. Stay within your color palette but use a hue or unique shape that makes the action stand out and grabs a user’s attention to boost conversions.
  • If it fits with your aesthetic, include tiny complementary design elements, such as an arrow or a shopping cart.
  • Utilize white space to allow the message to breathe.


Logo Design South Africa Create for consumers – not designers.

At the end of the day, a website isn’t for designers or a company — it is for the consumers. Therefore, before adding any features or implementing any changes, designers should walk through what that means for the user experience and customer journey, first.

Once you conduct consumer research, you and your team will understand the features that are the most important to them and those that — even if they are beautiful — won’t make a difference in a customer’s overall experience and interaction with your brand.

Finally, once you design any UX design improvement, take the time to A/B test the new feature to ensure it is functional and breeds better conversions. Studies show that most companies discover the best conversion rate optimization through A/B testing as opposed to total implementation.

Ultimately, investing in user experience design will provide a strong return on investment down the road. Of course, there are always other improvements that will improve UX, such as fast loading time and site speed, strong SEO, and integrated content marketing and videos. But by paying attention to the customer journey on every device, creating intuitive navigation and focusing on clear messaging and calls to action, you’ll dazzle consumers with a pleasant interaction and keep them coming back for more.

Montana Hospital Visiting Hours

Montana Hospital Visiting Hours

Montana Hospital Visiting Hours: Monday to Sunday 15:00 – 16:00 & 19:15 – 20:00

Corner Dr Swanepoel & Rooibos Streets, Montana Park, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa

Netcare  Montana Hospital Visiting Hours: Overview

Montana Hospital Visiting Hours – General Ward

15:00 – 16:00
19:15 – 20:00
Saturday, Sunday
15:00 – 16:00
19:15 – 20:00
Public Holiday
15:00 – 16:00
19:15 – 20:00

Medical ICU

15:00 – 16:00
19:15 – 20:00
Saturday, Sunday
15:00 – 16:00
19:15 – 20:00
Public Holiday
15:00 – 16:00
19:15 – 20:00
no children under 12 allowed

Medical Ward

15:00 – 16:00
19:15 – 20:00
Saturday, Sunday
15:00 – 16:00
19:15 – 20:00
Public Holiday
15:00 – 16:00
19:15 – 20:00
no children under 12 allowed

NeoNatal ICU

15:00 – 16:00
19:15 – 20:00
Saturday, Sunday
15:00 – 16:00
19:15 – 20:00
Public Holiday
15:00 – 16:00
19:15 – 20:00
no children under 12 allowed

Obstretrics & Gynaecology

15:00 – 16:00
19:15 – 20:00
Saturday, Sunday
15:00 – 16:00
19:15 – 20:00
Public Holiday
15:00 – 16:00
19:15 – 20:00

Paediatric ICU

15:00 – 16:00
19:15 – 20:00
Saturday, Sunday
15:00 – 16:00
19:15 – 20:00
Public Holiday
15:00 – 16:00
19:15 – 20:00
no children under 12 allowed

Paediatric Unit

15:00 – 16:00
19:15 – 20:00
Saturday, Sunday
15:00 – 16:00
19:15 – 20:00
Public Holiday
15:00 – 16:00
19:15 – 20:00
no children under 12 allowed

Paediatric Unit (old)

15:00 – 16:00
19:15 – 20:00
Saturday, Sunday
15:00 – 16:00
19:15 – 20:00
Public Holiday
15:00 – 16:00
19:15 – 20:00
no children under 12 allowed

Surgical ICU

15:00 – 16:00
19:15 – 20:00
Saturday, Sunday
15:00 – 16:00
19:15 – 20:00
Public Holiday
15:00 – 16:00
19:15 – 20:00
no children under 12 allowed

Ward 1 Surgical

15:00 – 16:00
19:15 – 20:00
Saturday, Sunday
15:00 – 16:00
19:15 – 20:00
Public Holiday
15:00 – 16:00
19:15 – 20:00
no children under 12 allowed

Ward 2 Surgical

15:00 – 16:00
19:15 – 20:00
Saturday, Sunday
15:00 – 16:00
19:15 – 20:00
Public Holiday
15:00 – 16:00
19:15 – 20:00
no children under 12 allowed

Ward 3 Surgical

15:00 – 16:00
19:15 – 20:00
Saturday, Sunday
15:00 – 16:00
19:15 – 20:00
Public Holiday
15:00 – 16:00
19:15 – 20:00
no children under 12 allowed

Montana Hospital Visiting Hours – Hospital Information

The hospital is situated in Pretoria, Gauteng.  The city of Pretoria lies in the northern part of Gauteng and is about 62km North of Johannesburg.  Pretoria is home to many museums and historical buildings.

The hospital is situated in the suburb of Montana Park in Pretoria.  Montana Park is a quiet suburb and only 15km North East of the Pretoria CBD.  It is nestled in the foothills of the Magaliesberg and is a relatively new suburb.  The suburbs of Doornpoort, Sinoville and East Lynn borders Montana Park.

Roodeplaat Dam Nature Reserve is just about 15km away from Montana Park and provides a wonderful outing for the whole family and the Montana Family Market offers great entertainment which range from delicious food, live music to great games for the kids.

The hospital is easily accessible via the R513 to the South and the N1 to the East of the hospital.  The 24-hour trauma and emergency unit serves the community and surrounding areas around the clock.

The hospital has 212 beds and offers private and medical aid patients quality healthcare services with highly trained professionals and medical staff on call around the clock.

Mothers and babies receive expert medical care in a tranquil environment at the maternity unit.   The maternity unit is supported by the mother and baby wellness clinic which provides mothers with after- labour services and advice.

Patients in need of highly intensive medical care receive around the clock high medical care at the intensive care units which is equipped with high-tech support and monitoring equipment.

Hospital General Manager – Daan Slabbert – 012 523 3000

Nursing Manager – Sunel Barnard – 012 523 3000

Address & contact details – Cnr Dr Swanepoel & Rooibos Streets, Montana Park, Pretoria, 0159

Postal Address – PO Box 3115, Montana Park, Pretoria, 0159

GPS: -25.67444,28.244166

Tel: 012 523 3000

Fax: 012 548 4646


Montana Hospital Visiting Hours – Medical Disciplines

Cardiothoracic surgery
Ear, nose and throat surgery (Otorhinolaryngology)
General practice
General surgery
Internal medicine
Maxillo-facial and oral surgery
Orthopaedic surgery
Plastic and reconstructive surgery
Vascular surgery

Montana Hospital Visiting Hours – Specialised facilities

24-hour emergency department
Breast care unit
Cardiac catheterisation laboratory
Cardiac unit
Dedicated laminar theatres
Maternity unit
Renal dialysis unit

Montana Hospital Visiting Hours – Services & specialised clinics

Antenatal classes
Diabetes clinic
Mother and baby wellness clinic
Pharmacy (in-hospital service)
Pharmacy (retail)
Radiology (diagnostic)
Radiology (interventional)
Wound clinic

Quietest Livestock Guardian Dog

Quietest Livestock Guardian Dog

Read all about your best choices pertaining “Quietest Livestock Guardian Dog” here at Strydom Conglomerate Web Articles.

Quietest Livestock Guardian Dog

Alrighty then … Here is a quote from a person on the Homesteading Today Forum Link to article at bottom of page) :

our LGDs don’t bark much. They will bark at specific things and howl as well but it is language. They are marking their territory against predators, letting me know what is going on, calling each other in to deal with something, warning off people. Just watch out when they’re totally silent and walk out you with that stiff legged march, head down…

On the other hand, I’ve heard plenty of dogs, most who were not LGDs, who barked incessantly. Usually it is because they’re lonely. People tie or cage them up and fail to train them. Sad

So there you have it -> Normally LGD’s don’t bark excessively

Is the Quietest Livestock Guardian Dog a Good Thing

A quote from a person on the Homesteading Today Forum Link to article at bottom of page) :

As for barking, yes, it’s awfully noisy around here at night, but that’s the point. The coyotes around here are thick as thieves and my neighbor 1 mile south has had coyotes come right into his barn and kill full grown ewes, yet I have not lost a single goat to coyotes since getting the dogs. In fact, I haven’t seen a coyote on our land in years. The two boys loose in the yard at night are all the protection my chickens need, too. Their run is covered with netting but the pop door into the shed doesn’t even have a door on it.

Thus -> Having a too quiet LGD May not be very desirable

Whether livestock guardian dogs can be effective if they don’t bark depends on several factors, including:

  • The purpose they are serving for you
  • How large your ranch is
  • How spread out your livestock are
  • How high your predator load is
  • Other means of protection available for your livestock

If, for example, you’re looking for a livestock guardian dog to protect livestock primarily during the daytime (like chicken owners who lock up their flocks at night), your dogs can be trained to bark only when it is absolutely necessary. Their mere presence in the chicken yard, as well as their marking behavior, will be a powerful deterrent for most predators. See more on training below.

Which Livestock Guardian Dog Breeds Bark Less Than Others?

Some livestock guardian dog breeds do tend to bark less than others, but again, please remember that every dog is an individual, and there are never any guarantees that your dogs will bark more or less based on their breed.

If you’re looking for a much quieter livestock guardian dog, one of these two breeds might work for you:

  • Pyrenean Mastiff

  • Polish Tatra Sheepdog

If you’re concerned about excessive barking, and want a breed of LGD that’s more easily trained to only bark when absolutely necessary, consider one of these (click on the breed for more breed info):

  • Karakachan

  • Anatolian Shepherd – however, read this article for an example of the opposite, just another reminder that you never know what your new dog will be like

  • Maremma Sheepdog

  • Spanish Mastiff

These breeds tend to bark less than most other livestock guardian dog breeds on average. They don’t naturally “warning bark” as much – they typically bark when there is a predator very close by.

Why LGD’s Bark – Quietest Livestock Guardian Dog

The role of the livestock guardian dog is to deter predators from approaching livestock.  There are many ways this is accomplished.  One is by leaving scent or sign, by defecating and urinating around the perimeters of the dog’s patrol area.  By marking his “turf” an LGD sends a powerful message to any interlopers or intruders: “Be gone! And stay away from my flock!”  LGD breeds have been bred for generations to do this.

In Barking: The Sound of a Language, Rugaas writes: “In the scattered farms throughout Europe and other places with lots of space and few people, early settlers preferred dogs who (sic) barked when strangers were approaching, as a warning.  Today, if you get a dog like a Great Pyrenees, you will find out that they are still very good at barking in similar situations.  They are genetically dispositioned to do it and it would be cruel to punish them for it.”

Barking is part of how LGDs do their jobs. There are 3 main types of barking.

  • Patrol Barking: “Hey, any predators out there, I’m just letting you know I am here & on duty! So don’t even think about it!”
  • Alert Barking: “I think I see/hear/smell something amiss!”
  • Call To Arms Barking: “I need the cavalry on the south perimeter, STAT!”

Some LGDs will even bark to let you know there is something amiss with the stock, like a newborn calf in trouble, or perhaps a goat with its head stuck through the fence. As you get to know your dogs, you will learn to readily identify the sounds they make & why. Most of the time, if your LGD is barking, there is a good reason.

Warning & Guard Barking

Besides marking territory, another way of telling predators to “steer clear” is by barking.  warning bark is usually one sharp bark notifying you, the owner, that something is amiss.  Or there may be danger afoot and your LGD wants you to know about it.

By guard barking, the LGD ends a message to hungry coyotes, wolves, bears or other predators to not come any closer, because this is the LGD’s territory and it is protecting it.

A dog’s sense of smell and hearing are much more acute than that of a human.  Thus they typically smell and hear things we cannot.  This is why dogs often seem to be “barking at nothing” to the average observer, when in fact, they hear, smell or even see something that escapes human detection.  They are actually warning or guard barking.

It’s prudent therefore, for the LGD owner to first go outside and check what it is that his dog is barking at, rather than simply yelling at them to stop barking.

Can You Train Your Dog to Stop Barking at Night?

Training your livestock guardian dogs to not bark at night is essentially training them to go against their instincts. You can use the training techniques detailed above, but this will mean many late nights for you and that may not be practical.

If nighttime barking is your primary concern and you cannot put in the time and effort to train them, you may need to bring your dogs in at night and find another means to protect your livestock at night.

What to do when LGD barks a lot at people

To get the best out of your LGD, it is recommended that you invest time in training basic manners, such as come, stay, wait, and quiet. It is also important that you handle your LGD regularly, so that when a trip to the vet becomes necessary, it will not add further stress or possible injury to either you or the dog. Many people fear that by handling the LGD, it will become too ‘people friendly.’ However, in these days of urban expansion, including subdivisions on the outskirts of small towns, having a more ‘people tolerant’ LGD is not necessarily a bad thing. It is also helpful that your guardian dog does not chase away farm gate business!

Read some more interresting articles about dogs:

Guard dogs for sheep and goats

Livestock Guard Dogs Feeding

Can Dogs eat Smoked Salmon?

Is Xanthan Gum safe for dogs

Forum Source

Homesteading Today Forum

Kingsway Hospital Visiting Hours

Kingsway Hospital Visiting Hours

Kingsway Hospital Visiting Hours: Monday to Sunday 15:00 – 16:00 & 19:00 – 20:00 / 06:00 – 18:00 (Surgical Ward Only)

607 Andrew Zondo Road, Amanzimtoti, Durban, 4126

Netcare Kingsway Hospital Visiting Hours: Overview

Day Ward

06:00 – 18:00
Saturday, Sunday
06:00 – 18:00
Public Holiday
06:00 – 18:00
no children under 12 allowed


15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
Saturday, Sunday
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
Public Holiday
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
no children under 12 allowed

Maternity Ward

15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
Saturday, Sunday
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
Public Holiday
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
no children under 12 allowed

Medical Ward 1

15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
Saturday, Sunday
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
Public Holiday
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
no children under 12 allowed

Medical Ward 2

15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
Saturday, Sunday
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
Public Holiday
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
no children under 12 allowed

Medical Ward 3

15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
Saturday, Sunday
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
Public Holiday
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
no children under 12 allowed

Neonatal ICU

15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
Saturday, Sunday
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
Public Holiday
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
no children under 12 allowed

Nursery Ward

15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
Saturday, Sunday
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
Public Holiday
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
no children under 12 allowed

Oncology Ward

15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
Saturday, Sunday
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
Public Holiday
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
no children under 12 allowed

Orthopaedic Ward

15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
Saturday, Sunday
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
Public Holiday
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
no children under 12 allowed

Paediatric Ward

15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
Saturday, Sunday
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
Public Holiday
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
no children under 12 allowed

Surgical Ward

15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
Saturday, Sunday
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
Public Holiday
15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00
no children under 12 allowed

Netcare Kingsway Hospital Information

The hospital is situated in the coastal town of Amanzimtoti in KwaZulu-Natal.  Amanzimtoti is about 28km South of Durban and a popular seaside holiday destination.  The town is well-known for its warm climate and many beaches.  The water in Amanzimtoti holds wonderful species of fish, beautiful coral reefs and ship wrecks which attracts many locals and visitors all year round.

Amanzimtoti is also known for its annual sardine run, Umgababa Festival and the Amanzimtori Bird Sanctuary.  Holidaymakers and locals also enjoy visiting the Toti Brewing Company and Splash Water World.

The hospital is easily accessible via the N2 to the North-West and the R102 to the South-East of the hospital.  The 24-hour accident and emergency department equipped with a helipad services the community 24/7.

The hospital has 145 beds and is equipped with state-of-the-art medical equipment and facilities.  Professional medical staff cares for mothers and babies at the maternity ward and fully-equipped neonatal facility.

Children receive quality healthcare services at the paediatric ward.  Specialised services by highly trained specialists and staff are provided at the in-vitro fertilisation centre, oncology –and orthopaedic wards.   World-class services are also performed at the EEG and Sleep Lab.

Critically ill and injured patients receive around the clock specialised high care at the intensive care unit which is equipped with cutting-edge support and monitoring equipment.  The hospital is well-known for its excellence in treating patients with respiratory ailments.

Kingsway Hospital Visiting Hours – Contact Detail

Hospital General Manager – Annatjie Demetriou – 031 904 7000

Nursing Manager – Thiloshini Govender – 031 904 7000

Street Address – 607 Andrew Zondo Road, Amanzimtoti, Durban, 4126

Postal Address – PO Box 94, Umbogintwini, Durban, 4120

GPS: -30.03250,30.905325

Tel: 031 904 7000

Fax: 031 904 7001

Facilities, services & specialized clinics

Antenatal classes
Maternity unit
Occupational therapy
Occupational therapy
Pharmacy (in-hospital service)
Pharmacy (retail)
Radiology (diagnostic)
Radiology (interventional)
Sleep laboratory
Speech therapy
Speech therapy and audiology

Medical Disciplines

Cardiothoracic surgery
Ear, nose and throat surgery (Otorhinolaryngology)
Family practice
General practice
General surgery
Internal medicine
Maxillo-facial and oral surgery
Orthopaedic surgery
Paediatric pulmonology
Plastic and reconstructive surgery
Radiation oncology

Anatolian Shepherd vs German Shepherd

Anatolian Shepherd vs German Shepherd

In this article I will compare to Shepherd dogs: Anatolian Shepherd vs German Shepherd.

“Find similarities and differences between Anatolian Shepherd Dog vs German Shepherd” Compare Anatolian Shepherd Dog and German Shepherd. Which is better: Anatolian Shepherd Dog or German Shepherd?

Anatolian Shepherd vs German Shepherd

Anatolian Shepherd is originated from Turkey but German Shepherd is originated from Germany. Anatolian Shepherd may grow 9 cm / 4 inches higher than German Shepherd. Anatolian Shepherd may weigh 24 kg / 53 pounds more than German Shepherd. Both Anatolian Shepherd and German Shepherd has almost same life span. Anatolian Shepherd may have less litter size than German Shepherd. Anatolian Shepherd requires Moderate maintenance. But German Shepherd requires Low maintenance

Youtube Video

Anatolian Shepherd History

Up in the mountains of central Turkey, in the region called Anatolia, a large, strong and rugged dog breed was born and is honored today on a postal stamp. This was the Anatolian Shepard – keeper of the flocks with strength, agility and speed. The Anatolian Shepard is able to pursue and catch any predator that threatens his livestock and they are his livestock. His keen sense of hearing and his excellent sight only add to his prowess as a protector.

The Anatolian is a giant dog, classified as a shepherd by the UKC – Kennel Club of the United Kingdom, while he is classified as a mountain dog or molossus by the Federation Cynologique International. When the breed was created, they were a gift to the farmers in the mountains to guard the livestock from cheetahs. This helped the cheetahs to stop attacking the livestock and prevented the farmers from wiping out the cheetah population by shooting them.

Anatolian Shepherd vs German Shepherd - Anatolian Shepherd

The Anatolian Shepard does have some controversy in his lineage as in some areas he is considered to be either the most closely related or the same breed as the Turkish Kangal Dog. The Anatolian is considered to have a blood line that goes back at least 6000 years.

They are direct descendants of mastiffs and mountain dogs. Yet they have the long legs, agility and aloofness of the sight hounds that are also in their bloodline. Originally called the “Coban Kopegi” or shepherd dog by their Turkish farmers, they were eventually separated into the breed called the Anatolian Shepard. When the breed was first brought into the United Kingdom the line of the Kangal dog was first. Then they were crossed with dogs called Anatolian Shepherds. Many breeders believe that the Anatolian Shepherd is a category that includes the Kangal, Coban Kopegi, Aksaray Malaklisi and the Akbash dog.

So as of January 2012, the Australian National Kennel Club no longer considers the Anatolian Shepard and the Kangal as separate breeds. The UK Kennel Club now recognizes the Kangal and the Anatolian as the same breed. For others they are still clearly separate and distinct breeds with the ASD being their own breed. In fact, the government of Turkey recognizes them as separate breeds and the Kangal Dog as the National Dog of Turkey.

The Anatolian Shepard was already in the United States in when the Anatolian Shepard Club of America came into being because of a young naval officer who had met the dogs in Turkey. They were allowed into the Miscellaneous Class of the American Kennel Club in 1996 after this naval officer had been breeding them in California for years. By 1998 they had moved to the Working Group where they reside today.

German Shepherd History

In 1882 german shepherd was introduced in a show at Hanover. They were created by the cross breeding of the rural sheep dogs by a man named Max. In 1906 they were first exported to America. After that the breed became very popular in UK.

Anatolian Shepherd vs German Shepherd - German Shepherd

Quietest Livestock Guardian Dog

Guard dogs for sheep and goats

Can Dogs eat Smoked Salmon?

Is Xanthan Gum safe for dogs


Comparison Tables For : Anatolian Shepherd vs German Shepherd

Anatolian Shepherd

German Shepherd
Breed Name Anatolian Shepherd Dog German Shepherd

General Details

Breed Type Purebred Purebred
Is Hypo­allergenic No No
Lifespan 11-13 yrs. 10-14 yrs.
Height 26-30 in. 22-26 in.
Weight 80-150 lb 75-95 lb
Intelligence High High

History – Anatolian Shepherd vs German Shepherd

Origin Country Turkey Germany
Origin Year 4000 BC 1899 AD

Temperament – Anatolian Shepherd vs German Shepherd

Overall Friendliness Below Average Good
Family Friendly Good Very Good
Kid Friendly Below Average Good
Pet Friendly Below Average Very Good
Stranger Friendly Poor Below Average

Personality – Anatolian Shepherd vs German Shepherd

  • Affectionate
  • Stubborn
  • Protective
  • Affectionate
  • Loving
  • Does Not Like Being Alone
  • Willing To Please

Living Environment

Apartment No Yes
Indoor Yes Yes
Small Yard No Yes
Medium Yard Yes Yes
Large Yard Yes Yes
Temperature Tolerance ¹ 30°F to 70°F 40°F to 85°F
Barks/Howls Below Average Very Often

Exercise Needs

Energy Level Medium High
Exercise Required Medium High
Top Running Speed 22 mph 30 mph
Strength Very High High

Grooming Needs

Coat Main­tenance Low Medium-High
Shedding High High
Dander Low High
Drool Amount Medium Medium

Instincts & Behavior Comparison – Anatolian Shepherd vs German Shepherd


Breed Name Anatolian Shepherd Dog German Shepherd

Breed Mentality

Dominant/Alpha Yes No
Family/Pack No Yes
Independent No No

Breed Focus

Distracted Easily No No
Average Yes No
Focused & Patient No Yes

Breed Instincts

Aggression Average Average
Burrow/Digging Average Below Average
Chasing Average Below Average
Follow Commands Average High
Fighting Average Below Average
Guarding High High
Herding High High
Hunting Average High
Protection High High
Remove Vermin Average Below Average
Sledding Average Below Average
Watch High High

Health Comparison – Anatolian Shepherd vs German Shepherd

Breed Name Anatolian Shepherd Dog German Shepherd


Lifespan 11-13 yrs. 10-14 yrs.

Common Health Issues

Allergies No Yes
Blindness No Yes
Bloat No Yes
Cancer No Yes
Cataracts No Yes
Cherry Eye No Yes
Chronic Diarrhea No Yes
Cruciate Ligament Rupture No Yes
Cushing’s Syndrome No Yes
Degenerative Myelopathy No Yes
Demodectic Mange No Yes
Diabetes No Yes
Digestive Problems No Yes
Elbow Dysplasia No Yes
Epilepsy No Yes
Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency No Yes
Heart Disease No Yes
Hemophilia A No Yes
Hemophilia B No Yes
Hip Dysplasia No Yes
Hypertrophic Osteodystrophy No Yes
Lens Luxation No Yes
Lupus No Yes
Megaesophagus No Yes
Myasthenia Gravis No Yes
Nail Bed Disease No Yes
Osteochondrosis No Yes
Pannus No Yes
Panosteitis No Yes
Paralysis No Yes
Perianal Fistula No Yes
Progressive Retinal Atrophy No Yes
Retinal Dysplasia No Yes
Seborrhea No Yes
Vitiligo No Yes
Von Willebrand’s Disease No Yes
Wobbler’s Syndrome No Yes

Appearance Comparison

Breed Name Anatolian Shepherd Dog German Shepherd


Hair Yes No
Fur No Yes

Coat Type

Double Coat Yes Yes
Smooth Coat Yes No

Coat Texture

Rough Yes No
Straight Yes Yes

Coat Length(s)

Short Yes Yes
Medium No Yes

Coat Color(s)

Black Yes Yes
Blue Fawn Yes No
Brindle Yes No
Fawn Yes No
Fawn&white Yes No
Gray Yes Yes
Liver Yes Yes
Red Fawn Yes No
White Yes Yes
Bi-color No Yes
Black & Tan No Yes
Black & Cream No Yes
Black & Red No Yes
Black & Silver No Yes
Blue No Yes
Sable No Yes

Seroprevalence of canine herpesvirus-1 in Anatolian Shepherd dogs and German Shepherd dogs.

What is the Best Breed of Dog for Coyote Hunting

What is the Best Breed of Dog for Coyote Hunting

What is the Best Breed of Dog for Coyote Hunting? What a great question. Look at the following facts about Coyotes and you will realize how important it is to make the right choice on which dog you will use to partner up with you.

They are also extremely bold predators. Attacks on pets often occur right in the presence of one or more humans. Dogs are snatched from the ends of their leashes, or dragged from their own yards over 6-foot privacy fences.

Holly Vaughn, wildlife communications coordinator for the Michigan Department of Natural Resources, says this behavior results from the coyotes’ belief that it is humans invading their territory, not the other way around.

Although coyotes only weigh about 20 to 50 pounds, they hunt with deadly precision. They carefully stalk their prey and run at speeds of 40 miles-per-hour, nipping at the legs of victims that attempt to escape.

When they attack, they immediately aim to kill, biting the neck and compressing the windpipe. Pets killed in coyote attacks typically die from a combination of suffocation and shock.

Coyotes are without a doubt the most versatile carnivores in America, maybe even worldwide,” animal behaviorist, Marc Bekoff told

Is it a Good thing to hunt Coyotes?

Coyotes help control rodent populations and are an important part of the ecosystem, wildlife experts say. To protect livestock, however, the federal Agriculture Department’s Wildlife Services killed nearly 90,000 coyotes in 2008.

Catching them is tricky because they are cunning, skittish animals wary of anything unusual in their habitat, said Paul Curtis, a wildlife specialist at Cornell University.

The IDFG has never attempted to estimate coyote populations in the state of Idaho, but the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Wildlife Services (WS) program developed coyote population estimates in conjunction with the preparation of several different environmental assessments (USDA-ADC 1996a,b; USDAWS 2002).

What is the Best Breed of Dog for Coyote Hunting – Idaho’s coyote population was estimated in these analyses by considering the most relevant available scientific information on coyote densities, then extrapolat- ing a conservative density estimate to the total land area of Idaho. Density estimates ranged from a low 0.63/mi2 (Clark 1972) to a high of 5-6/mi2 (Knowlton 1972), and the lower end of this range was applied to the total area of Idaho to arrive at a conservative statewide coyote population estimate of about 50,000 animals.

Table 1. Estimated sheep (2005-2007) and cattle (2005) losses due to wolves, black bears, mountain lions, and coyotes in Idaho (NASS 2006, 2008).



Black Bears


Mountain Lions




2005 Sheep loss


2006 Sheep loss


2007 Sheep loss


2005 Cattle loss



NASS estimates of Idaho cattle losses to wolves in 2005 were combined into the “other predators” category, which included any losses attributable to wolves, grizzly bears, black bears, and vultures. What is the Best Breed of Dog for Coyote Hunting – Total losses reported in the “other predators” category in 2005 were 600 calves and 400 adult cattle, for a total of 1,000. The Idaho Wildlife Services program has received no reports of cattle or calf losses to vultures, and the combined 1,000 losses are believed to be primarily attributable to wolves and bears. The number of confirmed and probable calf losses documented by Idaho Wildlife Services as being bear-related was 3 animals in 2005, while the number of confirmed and probable calf losses attributed to wolves was 24 animals. The ratio of 3/27 was applied to the combined 1,000 wolf and bear losses to assign 111 of the losses to bears and 888 of the losses to wolves.

Table 2. Estimated average number of livestock killed per individual of each species most commonly implicated in livestock predation in Idaho in 2005.

Black Bears
Mountain Lions
2005 combined sheep and cattle losses due to each species


500 + 888    =


900 + 111    =


500 + 200 = 700
6,100 + 600 =


2005 estimated population of each species


Estimated number of sheep and cattle killed per individual present


Estimated number of just sheep killed per individual present


Estimated number of just cattle killed per individual present



Table 3. Estimated average number of sheep killed per individual of each species most commonly implicated in livestock predation in Idaho in 2005-2007.

Black Bears
Mountain Lions
2005 Sheep loss


2005 Estimated population of each species


Estimated number of sheep killed per individual present in 2005


2006 Sheep loss


2005 Estimated population of each species


Estimated number of sheep killed per individual present in 2006


2007 Sheep loss


2007 Estimated population of each species


Estimated number of sheep killed per individual present in 2007


3-year average number of sheep killed per individual predator present










So I suppose it depends on your specific circumstances.

Can a dog kill a coyote?

Yes a coyote can kill and eat a dog. And Yes a dog can and does kill coyotes. There are several hunters that use chase dogs to find coyotes and then they send Pitbull or other bully breed types in to kill the coyote. Coyotes are small and weak compared to most bully breeds and any bully breed will kill a coyote. My German Sheppard on the regular attacks coyotes in the neighborhood and has never lost. They all give him a huge wide berth now.

Pitbull Terrier used to kill coyotes after hunt

Several dogs in fact can kill a coyote. Most all the Eastern European and Western Asian Flock Guards can, as well as some of the larger Mastiff or Molosser breeds. Had you asked which dogs cam kill a European Wolf (Gray Wolf is a whole different matter), it would have dwindled the list some.

Some of the dogs which can easily kill a coyote include, Caucasian Ovcharka, Central Asian Shepherd, Kangal, Anatolian Shepherd, Sarplainic, Black Russian Terrior, Komodor, Neopolitan Mastiff, Cane Corso, American Bulldog, Rhodesian Ridgeback, Akita, Rottweiler, Presa De Canario, Dogo Argentino, etc.

All of these dogs can dispatch a coyote without too much ado. Again, if we are speaking of a North American Gray Wolf, then that is another conversation all together.

What is the Best Breed of Dog for Coyote Hunting – It depends on the dog’s Breed, Size, Fur, Age, and Fitness.

BREED: Breeds like a mastiff or kangal won’t even be looked at the wrong way by a coyote, but a pug, beagle or shiba will be seen as a snack, but a pitbull, english bulldog, or small-mid sized collie could be equal on the list and get attacked or not.

SIZE: i feel an average dog to be on equal terms with a coyote if the dog is 20-35% heavier, so a 40 lb coyote would be a match with a 48-54 lb dog, but that’s just an average dog, some breeds like a jack russel/labrador mix could be the same weight could give a coyote a run for its money, or a fit dog could weigh the same as the coyote and win.

FUR: yeah, you heard me! Fur is a deciding fight with another animal. One of the reasons coyotes and wolves have such thick fur is it acts as some padding for bites and makes it harder for teeth or claws to land a direct hit on their body. Dogs like Tibetan mastiffs, Newfoundlands, alaskan malamutes, and collies have very long and/or thick fur which can make it incredibly hard to bite through 3-12 inches of fur, but breeds like molosser breeds, labs, and most bully breeds have fur less than 3 inches thick, which can leave them easier to be damaged, however some breeds break the mold, like with the chinese shar pei which has short, prickly fur that can cause welts on people with thin skin that pet it wrong, shar peis also have extremely stretchy skin which can stretch so much that if a dog bit its shoulder, they would just get skin, and the shar pei could still turn around and bite the dog back.

AGE: age has a factor in a fight also. A dog that is 13 years old with bad hips isn’t going to do well fighting a coyote, because most dogs rhat age tend to be calm and peacful. And they are normally weak or tired at that age. Or how an 5 month old mastiff is bigger than a coyote, but it probably doesn’t have any instinct to fight yet, and die in a fight, which is sad because i love puppies. Most dog are at the prime of their life between 2 years old to 5 or 6 years old, excluding small and giant breeds. Dogs this age have all instincts developed and are physically developed.

FITNESS: Finally the last one, Jeez this is taking a while, i know, but that is why i divided the categories to make it easier, anyway back to the answer. Fitness is important for lots of things, especially when your fighting. A dog that is physically fit and active will have a better chance with a coyote. A dog that never goes outside of a small house and love off food scraps, treats, and your grandmas potroast will get tired within the first 15 second of fighting, not that it would happen since at that point your dog probably isn’t let out enough for coyote to notice him. But a dog that gets 6 hours of intense exercise every day and is fed raw venison and bones, with probably be as fit or more fit than a coyote, a police dog is a good example, if your dog gets good exercise, he or she will have better endurance, live years longer so you can your them more, and be stronger since they exercise those limbs.

What is the Best Breed of Dog for Coyote Hunting

1. American Staghound – What is the Best Breed of Dog for Coyote Hunting

This animal has been developed by cross-breeding Scottish deerhound, greyhound, and some other breeds. The American Staghound is well-known for its sharp eyesight and seemingly endless stamina. These dogs are especially suitable for coyote hunting because they have been exclusively developed for the purpose of hunting predators, specifically coyote and wolves. So in this breed, you have kind of ‘made to order’ hunting dog.

These dogs are runners – one look at their powerful body and long legs will tell you that. These features comprise of the greyhound part in them and are what make them so suitable for tracking down fast runners like coyotes.

American Staghound

What is the Best Breed of Dog for Coyote Hunting – The American Staghound is also a good house dog, but because of its predator hunting instinct, you should not trust it with non-canine pets. Otherwise, this dog is easy to maintain at home and is good with children. Extremely loyal and quick learners, you will be able to get the best out of this animal with the right kind of training. However, these dogs are not very suitable as guard dogs.

Not your typical dog, the American Staghound is a cross-breed between a greyhound and Scottish deerhound. Why are they so special when it comes to hunting coyotes? Well, they have the features that make them a perfect fit for hunting predators. They have an exceptional eyesight and a keen sense of smell. This makes them the perfect companion for any hunting trip especially when it comes to wolves and coyotes. These dogs have long legs and are fairly powerful, even though they may not look it. Which means they can run fast and have great stamina so they can easily keep up with coyotes.

This breed of dog makes a wonderful pet, however, if you plan on keeping it in a home with other animals, you should be aware. The American Staghound have the hunting instinct engraved into them, so they may cause a bit of havoc.

2. Plott Hound – What is the Best Breed of Dog for Coyote Hunting

What is the Best Breed of Dog for Coyote Hunting – The PlottHound is lean and muscular with large floppy ears rather like those of a Labrador or Dalmatian. Courage and loyalty go hand in hand with this breed. This kind is particularly well-known for its hunting skill in big animals like boar and coyotes. In fact, the dog is named after Johannes Plott along with his brother who introduced them to the US in 1750 for the purpose of boar hunting.

Plott Hound, What is the Best Breed of Dog for Coyote Hunting

Today the Plott Hound is predominantly found in the state of North Carolina and is the official State Dog of that state.

Plott Hounds are known for their hunting skills. Initially used to hunt boars, these dogs are wonderful for hunting predators like coyotes also. They are built for the hunt with a lean, muscular body which allows them to overpower smaller predators. They are also fairly quick, but may not have as much stamina as the American Staghound. In either case, this breed is quite loyal and doesn’t really back down from a fight. Making them a great option for your next coyote hunting trip.

3. Greyhound – What is the Best Breed of Dog for Coyote Hunting

The coyote is just about the smartest wild animal alive because they always have an escape route. I respect them. They can outsmart you. But greyhounds are smart, too. I think they’re the neatest dog ever made.

To subdue a coyote, the greyhounds often nip its back leg to sever a hamstring. Then they go for the kill by biting the neck. Hunters often leave coyote carcasses behind.

What is the Best Breed of Dog for Coyote Hunting – Originally, the Greyhound comes from Egypt but has been popularized the world over as a racing and running dog. Lean, hardy and built for speed with eagle-eye eyesight; these dogs are ideal for coyote hunting. Greyhounds are the fastest dogs in the world with a maximum recorded speed of 43 mph, guaranteeing that they could easily outrun the fastest coyote.

Greyhound, What is the Best Breed of Dog for Coyote Hunting

Here’s a greyhound racing video that gives you an idea of the sheer power, speed, and stamina of these magnificent animals. The Greyhound is a temperamental breed but docile and extremely gentle as a house dog. Due to its timid nature, this dog can best be used as a chaser to catch the prey in combination with another more aggressive breed to make the actual killing. These dogs also need access to a fenced area where they can get a good run on a regular basis, fenced because they are independent and have the tendency to wander off and not come back. Greyhounds are ideal for hunting coyotes as they have the innate hunting instinct to chase and seize fleeing creatures.

When it comes to hunting, you need a dog that is quick and can run for miles. A Greyhound does just that. Greyhounds are generally known as racing dogs but they can also be used as hunting dogs. They tend to be not quite skinny, but don’t let that fool you. They are muscular and strong, one of the reasons why they can run for so long. Not only are they fast but also have an eagle like eye-sight which allows them to spot coyotes from afar and go after them. Greyhounds max out at around 40 mph which means they can easily outrun coyotes and help you hunt them down.

4. Mountain View Cur – What is the Best Breed of Dog for Coyote Hunting

This breed was developed in 1987 in New York. The dominant gene of the Mountain View Cur is of the Mountain Cur, although they differ widely from the original mountain breed. Due to their crossbreeding, they are hardy, without any inherent genetic problems that are common to most pedigrees. This fact also explains their rather long average lifespan of 14 years.

Mountain View Cur

Mountain View Curs are also brilliant with a high level of self-control, making them ideal for training for hunting purposes and although they are well-suited to hunt coyote, they can also kill other animals like raccoons, pheasant, wild boar, and bobcat. Although this dog is in its element while out in the open on a hunt, it is equally comfortable at home with the occupants toward whom it is protective, making it a good house pet as well. Mountain View Curs are safe to have among children.

A crossbreed, the Mountain View Cur is generally a mountain breed, however, differs from other mountain breed dogs. This breed doesn’t come with the instinct for hunting like the American Staghound but they are quite clever and have a high level of self-control. This allows you to train it to be a great hunting dog. Even though the dog doesn’t grow to be that big, they are known to hunt raccoons and wild boars amongst other wild animals. You may need to spend a little extra time training the Mountain View Cur to hunt, but we guarantee that it will be worth it.

5. Black Mouth Cur – What is the Best Breed of Dog for Coyote Hunting

On your hunt, you probably want a dog that is full of energy and can easily track and hunt coyotes. What is the Best Breed of Dog for Coyote Hunting – The Black Mouth Cur fits that description well. These dogs are probably the best built in the sense that they are muscular and have a lean body as compared to the other dogs mentioned. They are great for hunting rodents like raccoons. You can just as easily train it to help you on your hunt for coyotes. This breed has high stamina levels and enjoys running around in the wild. Which means that when you take it out on your hunt, you can expect it to be restless until it catches something.

Black Mouth Cur

Dogs are known as “man’s best friend” for a reason. They are not only loyal but also make a wonderful hunting partner. So why not take one of these dogs with you on your next coyote hunting trip. It would certainly save you time, you won’t have to spend time on a trap as the dog will help you track a coyote down. If not for you to hunt, the dog will do it on its own, which makes these dogs a wonderful option in farms to protect it from coyote attacks.

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Tygerberg Hospital Wards

Tygerberg Hospital Wards

Find all the information about Tygerberg Hospital Wards here at Strydom Conglomerate Directory Articles.

Tygerberg Hospital Wards

Hospitals consist of departments, traditionally called wards, especially when they have beds for inpatients, when they are sometimes also called inpatient wards.

Tygerberg hospital is the largest hospital in the Western Cape and the second largest hospital in South Africa. The hospital has a service drainage area in which 3.4 million people live. The hospital has 67 wards, 29 theatres, 10 intensive care units and 164 ICU & HC beds, which in total accommodates 1384 beds. Each year more than 107 215 patients are admitted in Tygerberg Hospital, while more than 492 670 patients visit Tygerberg Hospital annually.

Tygerberg Hospital Address

Street Address:

Francie van Zijl Avenue, Tygerberg, 7505

Postal Address:

Tygerberg Hospital, Private Bag, X3 Tygerberg, 7505

Tygerberg Hospital Wards Map
Click Map Image to open full size in a new tab


(For direct calls add 021 938 with the extension no)

A1W Surgical
A1East Burns
A2 East Thoracic
A2 West Thoracic

A3W Orthopaedics


A3 East
A4W Neuro


A4 East

A5 West Lung
A5 East
A5 West Int
A6 West Heart
A6 West Int

A7 West Nephro
A7 East

A8 West Neurology Derma


A8 East
A9 West


A9 Wes Int


A10 Wes



A10 East



(For direct calls add 021 938 with the extension no)

C1AW Trauma
C1DE Int Medicine
C1DW Int Medicine

C2A Labour Ward

C2B Obstetrics
C3A Wes Paeds
C5 Plastics, Vascular
C5 Abdomen
Day Surgery
B1 Thoracic

Burns Unit

C2A Theatre
C3B Theatre
Cardio Theatre
DLG Psychiatry
DG Surgical
D1 Vascular
D2 Surgery
D3 Plastic Surgery
D4 Private
D5 Head, Neck & Breast


D6 Urology
D7 Eye
D8 Int Medicine
D9 Int Medicine
D10 Int Medicine
FLG Children


(For direct calls add 021 938 with the extension no)

FG Gynae
F2 Obstetrics B
F2 Obstetrics M
F3 Congo
F4 Orthopaedics
GLG Psychiatry
GG Paediatrics
G1 Paediatrics
G2 Paediatrics
G3 Paediatrics
G4 Paediatric


G5 Paediatrics
G6 Paediatrics
G7 Paediatrics
G8 Paediatrics
G9 Paediatrics
G10 Paediatrics
JLG Psychiatry
J2 Obstetrics B
J4 Obstetrics
J5 Obstetrics B
J6 Orthopaedics
J7 Surgical
J8 Peadiatrics
Cardiac Arrest
Carel du Toit

Tygerberg Animal Hospital Kenridge

Tygerberg Hospital Abortion Clinic

Tygerberg Hospital Visiting Hours

Dimensioning hospital wards using the Erlang loss model

Internal Medicine C8BH

Operating Times

  • Monday – Thursday
  • Friday
    No clinic.

7am – 4pm

Contact Number

021 938 5446/3/1
021 938 4404


Eighth Floor (East), Green Avenue


G Ground East | 021 938 6378 | 021 938 6722
G1 East | 021 938 6573 | 021 938 6570
G2 East | 021 938 4552 | 021 938 4556
G3 East | 021 938 4564 | 021 938 4565
G4 East | 021 938 4660 | 021 938 4658
G5 East | 021 938 5881 | 021 938 4154
G6 East | 021 938 4472 | 021 938 4474
G7 East | 021 938 4667 | 021 938 4664
G8 East | 021 938 4723 | 021 938 5052
G9 East | 021 938 5635 | 021 938 5634
G10 East | 021 938 5004 | 021 938 5007
A9 West | 021 938 6052 | 021 938 6056
J1 – Khayelitsha Hospital East | 021 938 6533 | 021 938 4532
C1D – Khayelitsha Hospital East | 021 938 5941 | 021 938 4625

Tygerberg Hospital Visiting Hours

Tygerberg Hospital Visiting Hours

Find all the information about Tygerberg Hospital Visiting Hours here at Strydom Conglomerate Directory Articles.

Tygerberg Hospital Visiting Hours

15:00 – 16:00
19:00 – 20:00

The above times are for the following wards/all modules:

  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology
  • Internal Medicine
  • Paediatrics
  • Surgery
  • Emergency Services
  • J7
  • D4
  • ICU

It is recommended that you phone and confirm these times for the ward that the patient is in.

Tygerberg Hospital Visiting Hours

Information you will need

It is strongly recommended that you know the ward where the patient is being kept before attempting to visit. Tygerberg is a large facility and without this information it’s difficult to locate patients.

Tygerberg Hospital Address and Contact

Street Address:

Francie van Zijl Avenue, Tygerberg, 7505

Postal Address:

Tygerberg Hospital, Private Bag, X3 Tygerberg, 7505

Phone: +27 21 938 4911

Dos and Don’ts for Tygerberg Hospital Visiting Hours

Dos and Don'ts for Tygerberg Hospital Visiting Hours

Dos for Tygerberg Hospital Visiting Hours

  1. Do ask the patient’s permission to visit before you arrive. Ask them to be candid with you, and if they prefer you not visit, ask them if another day would be better, or if they would prefer you visit once they get home. Many patients love visitors, but some just don’t feel up to it. Do the patient the courtesy of asking permission.
  2. Do wash your hands and sanitize them before you touch the patient or hand the patient something you’ve been touching. If you wash your hands, then touch something else, like a telephone or TV remote or even the bed linens or your jacket, wash your hands and sanitize them again. Infections come from almost any source and the pathogens can survive on surfaces for days. 1 You can’t risk being responsible for making your favorite patient even sicker than they already are.
  3. Do take balloons or flowers as long as you know the patient isn’t allergic to them and is in a room by themselves. If your patient shares a hospital room, you won’t want to take either, because you don’t know if the roommate has an allergy. Most solid color balloons are latex, which is rubber, and some people are allergic to rubber. When in doubt, take mylar balloons or don’t take any at all.
  4. Do consider alternatives to balloons and flowers. A card, something a child has made for you to give to the patient, a book to read, a crossword puzzle book, even a new nightgown or pair of slippers are good choices. The idea isn’t to spend much money; instead, it’s about making the patient feel cared for without creating problems that might trigger an allergic reaction.
  5. Do turn off your cell phone, or at least turn the ringer off. Different hospitals have different rules about where and when cell phones can be used. In some cases, they may interfere with patient-care devices, so your patient can be at risk if you don’t follow the rules. In other cases, it’s simply a consideration for those who are trying to sleep and heal and don’t want to be annoyed by ringtones.
  6. Do stay for a short time. It’s the fact that you have taken the time to visit, and not the length of time you stay, that gives your patient the boost. Staying too long may tire them out. Better to visit more frequently but for no more than a half hour or so each time.
  7. Do leave the room if the doctor or provider arrives to examine or talk to the patient. The conversation or treatment they provide is private, and unless you are a proxy, parent, spouse or someone else who is an official advocate for the patient, that conversation is not your business. You can return once the provider leaves.

Tygerberg Hospital Visiting Hours = 15:00 – 16:00 & 19:00 – 20:00

Don’ts for Tygerberg Hospital Visiting Hours

  1. Don’t enter the hospital if you have any symptoms that could be contagious. Neither the patient nor other hospital workers can afford to catch whatever you have. If you have symptoms like a cough, runny nose, rash or even diarrhea, don’t visit. Make a phone call or send a card instead.
  2. During flu season, it is not uncommon for hospitals to restrict visitors to spouses, significant others, family members over 18, and pastors, so it is worthwhile to call the hospital before your visit.2
  3. Don’t take young children to visit unless it’s absolutely necessary. Even then, check with the hospital before you take a child with you. Many hospitals have restrictions on when children may visit.
  4. Don’t take food to your patient unless you know the patient can tolerate it. Many patients are put on special diets while in the hospital. This is especially true for those with certain diseases or even those who have recently had anesthesia for surgery. Your goodies could cause big problems.
  5. Don’t visit if your presence will cause stress or anxiety. If there is a problem in the relationship, wait until after the patient is well enough to go home before you potentially stress them by trying to mend that relationship.
  6. Don’t expect the patient to entertain you. Your friend or loved one is there to heal and get healthy again, not to talk or keep you occupied. It may be better for your patient to sleep or just rest rather than carry on a conversation. If you ask them before you visit, gauge their tone of voice as well as the words they use. They may try to be polite, but may prefer solitude at this time instead of a visit.
  7. Don’t stay home, on the other hand, because you assume your friend or loved one prefers you not visit. You won’t know until you ask, and your friend or loved one will appreciate the fact that you are trying to help by asking the question.
  8. Don’t smoke before visiting or during a visit, even if you excuse yourself to go outdoors. The odor from smoke is nauseating to many people, and some patients have a heightened sense of smell while taking certain drugs or in the sterile hospital environment. At most, it will cause them to feel sicker, and if your friend is a smoker, you may cause them to crave a cigarette, and that might be problematic.

Tygerberg Hospital Wards

Tygerberg Animal Hospital Kenridge

Tygerberg Hospital Abortion Clinic

Tygerberg Animal Hospital Kenridge

Tygerberg Animal Hospital Kenridge - Dr Stephen Smith - Squirrel eye surgery

Find all the information about Tygerberg Animal Hospital Kenridge here at Strydom Conglomerate Directory Articles.

Tygerberg Animal Hospital Kenridge

Over the years the Tygerberg Animal Hospital Group has become renowned for world-class professional services, delivered with warmth and care throughout Cape Town’s northern suburbs.

Our philosophy is the highest quality medical and surgical care, and treating each pet as if it were our own. In fact, our motto is ‘pets first’.

To promote long, healthy lives for pets, we believe in good communication between veterinarians and owners so that owners can make well-informed decisions about their pet’s health.

Apart from maintaining the highest pet health care standards, we emphasise prevention and healing. This means our vets and staff continually undergo education programmes. It also means we regularly update our procedures and techniques programmes to be the most effective in keeping pets happy and healthy.

Tygerberg Animal Hospital Kenridge - Dr Stephen Smith - Squirrel eye surgery

Address and Contact

78 De Bron Street, Kenridge, Cape Town, Western Cape

Tel: (021) 914 0886
Fax: (021) 914 0887

KENRIDGE’S STORY – Tygerberg Animal Hospital Kenridge

Established in 1992, this branch at 78 De Bron Ave has earned itself an enviable reputation in not only treating small animals, but also reptiles, fish, rodents and exotics. Patients that have become quite commonplace are snakes, tortoises, rock monitors and rabbits. Run by Dr Stephen Smith, Kenridge has special heated snake/tortoise cages, heating pads and facilities for special anaesthetic requirements.

Following the recent renovations, clients now have the use of a new and much larger parking area in Mildred Road, with easy access to the clinic via a new entrance. Kenridge now boasts a new reception and retail area with separate dog and cat waiting areas, plus separate dog, cat and exotics hospital wards. Of importance is a state-of-the-art theatre, as well as new prep room, dental/non-sterile procedure room, laboratory and pharmacy.

Complementing Dr. Smith at the practice are veterinarians Dr Liesl Shaw, Margaret Haddow and Donna Brook, as well as eight staff members.

Tygerberg Hospital Wards

Tygerberg Hospital Abortion Clinic

Tygerberg Hospital Visiting Hours

What We Do

Our primary goal is the improvement of animal health and this takes many forms. In our consultation rooms we provide primary health care, ranging from vaccinations to deworming and flea treatment, in order to maintain the health of your pets as well as to prevent diseases.

Sick animals are checked in consultations where the client’s concerns as well as the history of the pet are discussed. Upon examining the animal, decisions are made as to whether any further diagnostic tests are needed and what treatment options are available. Some patients with less severe ailments are treated at home or on an outpatient basis. The more serious or complicated cases may be admitted for in-hospital treatment, further tests or surgery.

Many different surgeries are done on a daily basis at all our branches, but the most routine include sterilisations (spaying or castrations), stitching up wounds and the removal of growths or tumours. These are done under very sterile conditions in special theatres to prevent infections. For more specialised procedures you may be referred to one of the bigger branches.

In-hospital patients are regularly monitored and appropriate treatment is given. Further testing may be necessary for accurate diagnosis, and many of these, including X-rays, ultrasounds, blood and other laboratory tests, can be done at the bigger branches.

At our Bellville branch we have vets on the premises 24 hours a day for emergency and intensive care cases.

Incidence of rabbit diseases at an animal hospital

Consulting Hours

8:30 – 11:30 — by appointment only
15:00 – 18:30 — by appointment only

8:30 – 12:00 — by appointment only
View Bellville for afternoon hours

Sundays & Public holidays:
Please view Bellville for Sunday
and Public Holiday hours

Retail Hours

8:30 – 18:30

8:30 – 12:00

Sundays & Public holidays:
Please view Bellville for Sunday
and Public Holiday hours

HISTORY – Tygerberg Animal Hospital Kenridge

A heritage as diverse and remarkable as all the patients we’ve treated with care and love over the years marks the Tygerberg Animal Hospital history.

Way back in 1954 Dr John Dorrington opened his veterinary practice in Teddington St, Bellville. Nine years later Dr Wendel du Buy joined him and the practice in Kort St, Bellville operated as Dorrington & Du Buy. In 1965 the practice had to be registered as a hospital in order to purchase drugs – which used to be bought from the local chemist – therefore the name Tygerberg Animal Hospital was born. Dr Wim Peters joined Drs Dorrington and Du Buy in 1967.

Durbanville branch saw the light of day in 1974, while Parow branch was opened in 1984. In the 1980s Drs Du Buy and Strong started the first clinical pathology clinic for animals by sending blood to pathologists in order to set up a blood test database for dogs and cats.

TAH Bellville relocated to Edward St in 1985 and bought out
Dr Kriel’s practice in Goodwood three years later. Another three years later the Kenridge practice was opened, and in 1997 TAH Bellville relocated to its current location in Kontiki St. With each move the facilities were upgraded. Meanwhile, the Eversdal branch relocated to Sonstraal in May 2003.

Over the years, TAH grew from a four-man team of vets to 19 vets and 100 staff members. The long-serving veterinarians all agree that one of the most rewarding aspects of progress has been the huge change in client attitude towards pets. From the extreme of people willing to put their pets to sleep for the sake of convenience years ago, pet owners now spend whatever it takes to keep their pets healthy and alive. This has been facilitated with all the hi-tech options available for optimum pet health care and TAH has been at the forefront of this technology.

Tygerberg Animal Hospital Kenridge – Dr Stephen Smith – Squirrel eye surgery

It all started in January 2011 when a newborn baby squirrel, Stuart, was brought to her – literally – by the Jack Russell dog belonging to the hostel master at Rondebosch Boys.

Tygerberg Animal Hospital Kenridge - Dr Stephen Smith - Squirrel eye surgery

It was probably kicked out of the nest, because it only had one functioning eye.

“People always associate me with animals and even it is a dove or another small animal they found, they bring it to me.

The other day the matric boys brought in a tiny sunbird chick.

It just worked out this way; it has followed me,” she said.

Dr Stephen Smith, an exotic animal veterinarian at the Tygerberg Animal Hospital in Kenridge, performed plastic surgery on Stuart’s deformed eye to build a functioning eyelid.

Tygerberg Hospital Abortion Clinic

Tygerberg Hospital Abortion Clinic

Find all the information about Tygerberg Hospital Abortion Clinic here at Strydom Conglomerate Directory Articles.

Tygerberg Hospital Abortion Clinic

The Choice on Termination of Pregnancy Act No. 92 of 1996 gives all women the right to a free abortion (termination of pregnancy), at a government hospital or clinic during the first 3 months of pregnancy.

Women of all ages have the right to an abortion and should never be denied the service because of their age. It’s, however, advisable to be accompanied by a trusted adult (a parent, aunt or teacher) for support if you’re under 18.

Abortion methods 

If you’re considering going for an abortion, speak to a medical practitioner about the safest methods available to you.

Abortion methods

  • Medical Abortions

Medical abortions use medication (pills or tablets) only. It’s available for women who are between 4 and 9 weeks pregnant. The length of the process is different for each woman but it usually takes a few days. Woman may experiences symptoms similar to a miscarriage.

  • Surgical Abortions

Surgical abortions involve a nurse (up to 12 weeks of pregnancy) or a doctor (from 12 to 20 weeks) conducting a same-day procedure in a clinic or hospital.

Where can you have a safe abortion?

Government hospitals, designated private doctors and gynaecologists, and non-profit providers such as the Marie Stopes centres in the Western Cape, offer safe and legal termination of pregnancy.

To have a free abortion, the request must be made at a primary healthcare clinic, where the pregnancy will be confirmed, counselling provided, an appointment made, and a referral letter is given to a facility where the procedure can be performed.

Not all health workers are willing to be involved in this service, but they are obligated by law to inform the client of her rights and must refer the client to a health worker or facility, where she can get the service at one of these Western Cape Health Facilities.

Women are advised to go for safe, legal abortions rather than “backstreet” abortions that are likely to endanger their health and their lives.

How can you access the service?

If you’re a first-time visitor to a health facility, you will be asked to complete a form and a folder will be opened.

You will need the following:

  • Your official ID document.
  • Your referral letter (if relevant).
  • Any medication you are taking.
  • Your clinic/hospital card if you have previously registered at the facility.

You must sign an informed consent form giving permission for the abortion to be done.

Note: Health workers who are unwilling to give the service for any reason must refer you to a colleague who is willing to do so, or to the appropriate health care facility near you with a referral letter and a booking.

Tygerberg Hospital Wards

Tygerberg Animal Hospital Kenridge

Tygerberg Hospital Visiting Hours

Tygerberg Hospital Abortion Clinic – Caring for yourself after an abortion

Recovery after an uncomplicated abortion usually happens fairly quickly but it’s different for every woman.

Normal symptoms that most women will experience after a surgical abortion include:

  • Irregular bleeding or spotting for the first 2 weeks.
  • Cramping for the first 2 weeks. Some women may have cramping (like menstrual cramps) for as long as 6 weeks.
  • Emotional reactions for 2 to three weeks.

Tygerberg Hospital Abortion Clinic - Caring for yourself after an abortion

If you experience any of these symptoms, please consult your nearest medical facility immediately:

  • Lasting pain.
  • Discoloured or smelly vaginal discharge.
  • Abdominal tenderness.
  • Hot flushes or fever.
  • Sudden belly swelling.
  • Rapid heart rate.
  • Continuous and heavy bleeding, that soaks two or more pads in an hour, for two hours in a row.

Tips to speed-up your recovery:

  1. Drink a lot of fluids, including water.
  2. Get a few days’ leave from work to make sure you have recovered fully.
  3. Eat healthy food, take vitamins and get a lot of rest.
  4. Avoid exercising for 2 weeks.
  5. Avoid lifting heavy things and keep clear of hard work.
  6. Tampons can be used 4 weeks after your treatment or after your first period. Waiting until then helps to minimise the risk of infection.
  7. Refrain from having sex for up to 2 weeks after an abortion to minimise the risk of infection.
  8. Avoid drinking alcohol for 48 hours following your treatment, as alcohol can increase the risk of heavy bleeding.
  9. Look after your feelings as well as your body. Talk to someone about your abortion if you need to.

Women are advised to go for safe, legal abortions rather than “backstreet” abortions that are likely to endanger their health and their lives.

It’s much better, and in the long run, a lot cheaper to go to a registered clinic or hospital to have an abortion done. Make informed decisions about your body and your life.

Tygerberg Hospital Abortion Clinic – How do I know if a place is unsafe?

Those flyers, you see them everywhere… Promising safe, same-day, painless abortions – 100% guarantee them, in fact.

But these illegal abortions are literal death traps and you need to avoid them. Even so, between 52 and 58% of the yearly abortions taking place in SA are illegal. And the problem with this is that you can get seriously hurt.

Tygerberg Hospital Abortion Clinic - How do I know if a place is unsafe?

Not just that, unsafe abortions can lead to death. Here are a few tips to check whether a place is up to standard…

If a place is happy to perform abortions outside the constraints of the law (after 20 weeks), it’s illegal and unsafe. No abortion clinic will operate within an unsafe, unsanitary area or an actual building.

It’s a big red flag if there is only a mobile number and the “medical practitioner” is happy to meet you at your preferred location.

If you arrive at the location and begin to feel on edge, ask for the Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA) registration number. If this can’t be given to you, Avoid. This. Place.

It’s also a trap if other practices besides medical and surgical abortions are offered.

All abortion clinics will do physical examinations in latex gloves and with general hygiene (running water, clean linen, a medical waste disposal system…). You will always be recommended to schedule a follow-up appointment.

If this isn’t offered or unadvised, beware.

Tygerberg Hospital Abortion Clinic – Know your rights

All women have the right to legal, safe abortions. This means that it doesn’t matter what age you are or what your family, husband or partner thinks. Essentially, it’s up to you. There is also no limit to the number of times you can have the procedure.

Tygerberg Hospital Abortion Clinic - Know your rights

You have the right to choose what is best for you and your body.

Not all health practitioners are willing to be involved in termination services. This is their choice and that is fine. However, should they refuse to help you for whatever reason, they are obligated to refer you to someone or someplace that will. It is the law. Know your rights and use them.

How to make Slime Activator with Salt

How to make Slime Activator with Salt

How to make Slime Activator with Salt – This is our number one favorite on the slime activator list because it makes an awesome stretchy slime. It’s also more easily available for UK, Australian and Canadian residents.

How to make Slime Activator with Salt : SALINE SOLUTION 

This slime activator is also commonly used as a contact solution, but I highly recommend picking up the lesser expensive saline solution instead.

Also, on our slime activators list is salt. So how to make slime activator with salt. You have to make a saline solution first by mixing salt with water. To make this saline solution use one cup of water and half a teaspoon of salt and place this in a pan. Boil this for approximately fifteen minutes and keep the pan lid on to avoid evaporation. You will then need to allow the pan to cool until it is at room temperature. Finally, carefully pour this solution into a bottle and jar which has a lid. You are now ready to start combining it with the glue to make some gooey fun stuff!

How to make Slime Activator with Salt – Salt is a good option as an activator for slime as it is readily available and it is also cheap to purchase. The volume of salt that you can purchase can produce a large quantity of slime which is useful if you need to make a large amount or if you plan to make it on a few occasions.



  • 1/2 cup Clear or White PVA School Glue
  • 1 tablespoon Saline Solution (must contain boric acid and sodium borate)
  • 1/2 cup of Water
  • 1/4-1/2 tsp Baking Soda
  • Food coloring, confetti, glitter, and other fun mix-ins (CHANGE FOR RECIPE)

How to make Slime Activator with Salt


STEP 1:  In a bowl mix 1/2 cup water and 1/2 cup of glue well to combine completely.

How to make Slime Activator with Salt

STEP 2: Now’s the time to add (color, glitter, or confetti)! Remember when you add color to white glue, the color will be lighter. Use clear glue for jewel toned colors!


STEP 3: Stir in 1/4- 1/2 tsp baking soda.

Baking soda helps to firm and form the slime. You can play around with how much you add but we prefer between 1/4 and 1/2 tsp per batch. I get asked all the time why do you need baking soda for slime. Baking soda helps to improve the firmness of the slime. You can experiment with your own ratios!

This slime recipe is also called BAKING SODA SLIME!

STEP 4: Mix in 1 tbsp saline solution and stir until slime forms and pulls away from sides of the bowl.   This is exactly how much you will need with the Target Sensitive Eyes brand, but other brands may differ slightly!

If your slime still feels too sticky, you may need a few more drops of saline solution. As I mentioned above, start by squirting a few drops of the solution onto your hands and kneading your slime longer. You can always add but you can’t take away.  Saline solution is preferred over contact solution.

STEP 5:  Start kneading your slime! It will appear stringy at first but just work it around with your hands and you will notice the consistency changes. You can also put it in a clean container and set it aside for 3 minutes, and you will also notice the change in consistency!


SLIME TIP:   We always recommend kneading your slime well after mixing. Kneading the slime really helps to improve its consistency. The trick with this slime is to put a few drops of the saline soluti9n onto your hands before picking up the slime.

You can knead the slime in the bowl before you pick it up as well. This slime is stretchy but can be stickier. However, keep in mind that although adding more activator (saline solution) reduces the stickiness, and it will eventually create a stiffer slime.


You will love how easy and stretchy this saline slime is to make, and play with too!  Once you have your desired slime consistency, time to have fun!  How big of a stretch can you get without the slime breaking?

SLIME TIPS AND TRICKS on How to make Slime Activator with Salt

  • Baking soda helps to firm and form the slime.  You can experiment with your own ratios!
  • BAKING SODA SLIME TIP: Clear glue slime usually doesn’t need quite as much baking soda as white glue slime!
  • The saline solution is the slime activator and helps the slime to get its rubbery texture! Be careful, adding too much saline solution can make for a slime that’s too stiff and not stretchy!
  • Give this slime a fast stir to activate the mixture. You will notice the thickness change as you stir it.  You will also notice the volume of your mixture changes as you whip it up.
  • Slime is awesome for tactile sensory play, but make sure to wash hands and surfaces after making and playing with slime.
  • Make a few batches in different colors and swirl them together as shown in the cover photo or below! Think of what other color combinations your kids would enjoy. Slime making is only limited by the imagination of the hands creating it!

More info at : Little Bins Little Hands

Anatolian Shepherd/Great Pyrenees mix lifespan

Read all about Anatolian Shepherd/Great Pyrenees mix lifespan and great facts about this mixed dog breed here at Strydom Conglomerate.

Anatolian Shepherd/Great Pyrenees mix lifespan (The Anatolian Pyrenees)

Their life expectancy is around 11–13 years.  (Anatolian Shepherd/Great Pyrenees mix)

Anatolian Shepherd Life expectancy: 13 – 15 years

Great Pyrenees Life expectancy: 10 – 12 years

Anatolian Shepherd/Great Pyrenees mix breed is also known as The Anatolian Pyrenees

The Anatolian Pyrenees is a mixture of the Anatolian Shepherd and the Great Pyrenees. Both breeds were primarily used as livestock guardians, so the Anatolian Pyrenees can also be considered a great guardian, both for the family and for livestock. The Anatolian Pyrenees is a gentle giant who is great with children.

The Anatolian Shepherd originates from Turkey; the Great Pyrenees hails from the Pyrenees Mountains of Asia. The Anatolian Pyrenees is generally cream colored with some brown or black markings. The Anatolian Pyrenees is an above average shedder and is sometimes considered high-maintenance due to this.

75% Great Pyrenees and 25% Anatolian Shepherd.

Pros and Cons : Anatolian Shepherd Great Pyrenees Mix Lifespan

Before making a decision about whether a certain mixed breed is right for you, it’s best to take a look at some of the pros and cons.

As with any puppy, there’s no way to be sure how your Anatolian Shepherd Great Pyrenees pup will grow up.

The similarities between the parent breeds can help give us some clues.

Anatolian Shepherds are likely to be independent and strong-willed, which could be a challenge for some owners.

Of course, if you have livestock and want a dog to watch over them, this can also be a plus.

This mixed breed is likely to bark at night, a throwback to their guarding instinct. Bear this in mind if you live in a built-up area.

Anatolian Shepherd/Great Pyrenees mix lifespan

Where Does the Anatolian Shepherd/Great Pyrenees Mix Come From?

This mix is becoming more popular, as both a working farm dog and an active family pet.ff
The origins of the mix aren’t that well-documented though.Find out a little more about this mix by taking a closer look at the two parent breeds.

If you like the sound of a mix between these two ancient breeds, we recommend a little background reading.

Have a look into the pros and cons of mixed breeds versus purebred dogs.

Fans of mixed breeds suggest that by crossing two purebred dogs, it helps to improve the health of dogs by increasing the gene pool.

But the other side of the argument is that we should retain the characteristics of purebred dogs rather than cross them with other breeds.

Anatolian Shepherd/Great Pyrenees mix lifespan – Anatolian Shepherd history

The Anatolian Shepherd comes from Turkey and is a great example of one of the original domestic canine breeds.

In fact, it’s believed that this ancient breed has been around since 2000 B.C.

Their original purpose was to guard flocks of sheep and goats.

Herders needed a dog with a strong protective instinct.

But also one that was both independent enough to think for itself and dependable enough to do its job.

The characteristics of the Anatolian Shepherd have not changed much since those early days.

The breed first came to America just before World War II, when these two dogs were imported.

With the intention of seeing if they were suited to working on U.S. ranches.

Due to the war, this project didn’t really get off the ground.

In the 1970s though, the breed became popular after a breeding pair were brought back from Turkey by a Naval Lieutenant.

The Anatolian Shepherd then became a popular option to defend flocks of sheep from wolves and other predators.

Anatolian Shepherd/Great Pyrenees mix lifespan – Great Pyrenees history

The Great Pyrenees shares a similar heritage in that it was also a flock guardian.

This breed hails from the Pyrenees Mountains on the border of France and Spain.

It’s thought that they descend from Central Asian, or Siberian breeds.

Remains of Great Pyrenees dogs have been found in fossils from the Bronze Age, around 1800–1000 B.C.

Despite their heritage as working dogs, in the 17th century, the Great Pyrenees also became popular in the French Courts.

With royals and nobility keen to own this breed.

Is an Anatolian Shepherd/Great Pyrenees Mix Right for Me?

If you have a smallholding and are looking for a versatile, mixed-breed dog that can both protect your livestock and enjoy time with your family, the Anatolian Pyrenees could be just right for you.

These large dogs are gentle giants but do require an experienced owner who can provide firm yet loving boundaries.

It’s impossible to guess the character of your Anatolian Pyrenees rescue dog or puppy.

But this mix certainly has its fair share of fans who love the combination of a strong work ethic and the independent spirit that these dogs tend to offer.

Anatolian Pyrenees Breed History

The Anatolian Shepherd originates in the country of Anatolia (Turkey) where he has been honored with a commemorative postage stamp. The Anatolian Shepherd has been in America since the 1970s, and some owners use them for guarding livestock; others use them as watchdogs.

Anatolian Pyrenees lifespan
Anatolian Pyrenees

The Great Pyrenees is typically a mellow dog that could live in an apartment but is better suited to a home with a large yard where he can roam and expend his instinctual energy. The Great Pyrenees comes from Asia Minor. He was bred to assist sheep herders. However, Louis XIV procured a Great Pyrenees and declared him the Royal Dog of France.

Anatolian Shepherd lifespan
Anatolian Shepherd

The Great Pyrenees was brought to the United States before World War II. The Anatolian Pyrenees is a gentle giant who is great with children. The breeds were mixed due to their similarities; both are great shepherd dogs. Owners of the mixed breed generally own farms and use the hybrid dogs to guard livestock.

Great Pyrenees lifespan
Great Pyrenees

Anatolian Pyrenees Breed Appearance

The Anatolian Pyrenees is a mixture of two breeds that are biologically quite similar. The Great Pyrenees is typically white or cream-colored with long hair; the Anatolian Shepherd has a short coat with some longer hair around the ears, legs, and tail. The Anatolian Shepherd is a combination of colors, usually fawn, white, pinto, or brindle. Often he will have a black “mask” marking. The Anatolian Pyrenees may be a combination of colors, but will have medium-long hair. It is not a waterproof coat.

Anatolian Shepherd/Great Pyrenees mix lifespan – Breed Maintenance

Unfortunately, the Anatolian Pyrenees is a constant shedder. You may need to brush him daily in order maintain a healthy coat. The parent breed, the Anatolian Shepherd is a naturally clean dog, so it is possible the Anatolian Pyrenees will inherit this trait. You should brush your Anatolian Pyrenees dog’s teeth at least three times a week; however, if you want to prevent gum disease, brush the dog’s teeth daily. Trim your dog’s nails every other week. The rule of thumb is if you can hear your dog’s nails clicking on the floor, it is time to cut them.

Anatolian Pyrenees Temperament

The Great Pyrenees is a very “mellow” dog and can adapt to any situation. He is gentle, loyal, and affectionate. The Anatolian Shepherd is very protective of his family. He is highly intelligent and can be dominant at times. Expect the Anatolian Pyrenees to be a mixture of both personalities. Both are great with children; however, early socialization is key to making sure the Anatolian Pyrenees are accustomed to children, other pets, and a variety of people. They are not, however, good dogs for novice dog owners. Patience is required to train the Anatolian Pyrenees.

Anatolian Pyrenees Activity Requirements

The Anatolian Pyrenees is a mix of two very active dogs. If you keep the Anatolian Pyrenees in a fenced-in yard at any time, be sure that the fence is at least six feet high. The parent breed is quite a jumper! The Great Pyrenees is also known as a “Houdini Hound,” so be prepared for your Anatolian Pyrenees to be an escape artist. The Anatolian Pyrenees needs a fairly high amount of daily activity. Be sure to not only take him out for exercise, but to also mentally stimulate him as well – games of fetch will not do for this highly intelligent hybrid dog. It should also be noted that the Anatolian Shepherd can be aggressive when defending his “turf,” whether it is against another dog or strangers. Always keep him on a leash when out walking.

Training Your Anatolian Shepherd/Great Pyrenees Mix

If we consider the heritage of both these breeds, their primary role has been to protect their flock, whatever the weather and whatever the threat.

This has led to both breeds developing an extremely independent spirit.

While this can certainly be a good thing, it also means training will be more of a challenge than for some other breeds that love to please their owners.

Your Anatolian Shepherd Great Pyrenees mix puppy will definitely need early socialization.

Puppy training classes are highly recommended

They may ignore your commands if they don’t deem them important enough.

While this is true for both breeds, the Anatolian Shepherd in particular requires careful training.

If your puppy inherits these traits, you will need to pay very close attention to how you train your puppy.

Likewise, they should not ever be trained as a guard dog.

Guard dogs for sheep and goats

What human food can I feed my diabetic dog

Final Stages of Dog Diabetes

Can Dogs eat Smoked Salmon?

Behavioral comparisons of nervous, stable, and crossbred pointers at ages 2, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months

Bottlenecks and selective sweeps during domestication have increased deleterious genetic variation in dogs

Similar Anatolian Shepherd Great Pyrenees Mixes and Breeds

Similar mixed breeds include the Akita Labrador mix and the Great Pyrenees Labrador mix.

Purebred dogs that are comparable include the Siberian Husky and English Mastiff.

Anatolian Shepherd Great Pyrenees Mix Rescues

The National Anatolian Shepherd Rescue Network in the U.S. and Canada finds new homes for both purebred and mixes of Anatolian Shepherds.

Blue Bonnet Animal Rescue Network focuses on rescuing and finding homes for farm-friendly dogs, including livestock guardian breeds such as the Anatolian Shepherd and Great Pyrenees.

While the Anatolian Shepherd Dog Rescue League is dedicated to finding homes for purebred dogs, they may be worth contacting to see if they have any mixed breed dogs available as well.

The Great Pyrenees Rescue Society finds homes for mixed breed crosses of the Great Pyrenees.

Livestock Guard Dogs Feeding

Livestock Guard Dogs Feeding

Livestock Guard Dogs Feeding – Livestock guardian dog (LGD) breeds and food, this is a really touchy subject.  And for this reason, I’ve been putting off writing this article for a long time.  There is just too much opposing science and too many differing (all well-argued) opinions to know for sure who’s right on this one.  But, here goes…

Livestock Guard Dogs Feeding

What should you feed your livestock guardian dog breed?  Livestock guardian dog breeds should be fed high quality commercial food or a carefully balanced raw food diet. Be aware that LGDs have historically lived on marginal diets, and modern-day owners need to take care not to overfeed their dogs as this leads to shortened lifespans and numerous health problems. 

Whether you’ve got a large Great Pyrenees or a smaller (but, yes, still large) Sarplaninac, livestock guardian dogs of all origins were traditionally bred to live on marginal diets.  Yes, they are large dog breeds, and for that fact alone, they will require a lot of food, but you don’t want to overfeed these dogs.

Livestock Guard dogs Feeding

Feeding routines are important. Feed the pup near the livestock (not at your house) preferably at the same time every day. Secure the pup’s food so it can eat in peace, without competition from the livestock. Allowing livestock to eat the dog’s food creates unnecessary conflict that can escalate as the dog grows in size.

What to Feed Livestock Guard Dogs: Commercial or Raw Food

The very general basis of raw food diets is that wolves eat raw food diets, and because dogs are closely related to wolves (and originally developed from wolves or a wolf-life ancestor), an optimal diet for them should also be one of raw foods.

Others have argued that domesticated dogs actually have a digestive system that’s different enough from that of wolves that we can’t assume they should be eating the same diet.  Dogs digestive systems are tailored toward a more varied diet, they say.

Many livestock guardian dog owners swear by raw food diets.  The Hoof and Fang Spanish Mastiff breeders worked with their vet to develop a raw food diet for their dogs.  They have an excellent “Raw Food Cheat Sheet” I highly recommended if you’re interested in this approach.  You can check it out at their website here.  They also provide a list of helpful websites and books if you’re interested in learning more about raw food diets.

When it comes to commercial dog food, you get what you pay for.  And yes, that truly is unfortunate because high quality dog food can be pricey.

Negri hypothesized the culprit causing these fights may have been a cheap brand of food.  She recommended the girls be given a high-quality food.  The client followed through and the fighting stopped pretty much immediately.  The girls’ weren’t getting the nutrition they needed out of the cheaper food, and so they were aggressive around the food bowl, trying to digest as much as possible to get the nutrients their bodies were starved for. With the more expensive food, they were getting what they needed and didn’t need to fight for resources.

Livestock Guard Dogs Feeding – How Often To Feed

I recommend feeding adults twice a day and puppies three times a day, although I’ve seen some sources that say four times for puppies up to three months.  I think your best bet is to check with both your dog’s breeder (if he’s not a rescue) and your vet.

I do not recommend free feeding if you can avoid it.  Some ranchers have so many livestock guardian dogs that feeding them twice a day is a major undertaking, so they free feed with food available all the time.  If you are in this position, you need to really keep an eye on your dogs’ weights to make sure that none of them are gaining too much weight.

Guard dogs for sheep and goats

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Final Stages of Dog Diabetes

dog diabetes life expectancy

How Much To Feed LGD’s?

The amount you feed your dog will depend on your dog’s weight and how active she is.  You can use the recommendation given on your dog food bag and double check with your vet.

Keep in mind that dogs in the latter half of pregnancy and lactating dogs will need more food.  Sick and older dogs often have different food requirements.  Be sure to check with your vet to get it right.

Guard dogs for sheep and goats

Guard dogs for sheep and goats - Mongolian banhar

Read all about the bests guard dogs for sheep and goats. A livestock guardian dog (LGD) is a dog type bred for the purpose of protecting livestock from predators.

Guard dogs for sheep and goats

Skip Ahead : For the Five Best Livestock Guard Dogs for Sheep, Goats, and Other Herds : Click Here

Skip ahead : Livestock Guardian Dog Statistic : Click Here

Anyone not in the business of raising sheep and goats cannot understand how hard it is to lose a new lamb or kid. Even small farms with only a few livestock will benefit from keeping a livestock guard dog who can prevent the occasional loss.

Livestock guardian dogs stay with the group of animals they protect as a full-time member of the flock or herd. Their ability to guard their herd is mainly instinctive as the dog is bonded to the herd from an early age. Unlike herding dogs which control the movement of livestock, LGDs blend in with them, watching for intruders within the flock. The mere presence of a guardian dog is usually enough to ward off some predators, and LGDs will confront predators by vocal intimidation, barking, and displaying very aggressive behavior. The dog may attack or fight with a predator if it is unable to drive away the predator

Can Dogs eat Smoked Salmon?

What human food can I feed my diabetic dog

Final Stages of Dog Diabetes

List of breeds – LGD

There are many breeds of LGDs, many of which are little known outside of the regions in which they are still worked. Nevertheless, some breeds are known to display traits advantageous to guarding livestock. Some specialist livestock guarding dog breeds include:

Extant breeds

Alternate name(s)
Country of origin
Abruzzese Mastiff
Pastore abruzzese &
Cane da Pecora
Guard dogs for sheep and goats - Abruzzese Mastiff
Atlas Mountain Dog,
Atlas Shepherd Dog,
Berber Dog,
Chien de l’Atlas &
Chien de Montagne de l’Atlas
Aidi - Guard dogs for sheep and goats
Akbash dog
Akbaş Çoban Köpeği
Akbash dog
Aksaray Malaklisi
Turkish mastiff &
Central Anatolian shepherd
Guard dogs for sheep and goats - Aksaray Malaklisi
Anatolian Shepherd
Anadolulu Karabaş
& Kangal
Anatolian Shepherd
Armenian Gampr
Guard dogs for sheep and goats - Armenian Gampr
Ashayeri Dog
Sage Ashayeri - Guard dogs for sheep and goats
Azerbaijani Shepherd Dog
Azerbaijani Shepherd Dog
Bakharwal dog
Guard dogs for sheep and goats - Bakharwal dog
Bucovina Shepherd
Bucovina Sheepdog &
Southeastern European Shepherd
Romania &
Guard dogs for sheep and goats - Bucovina Shepherd
Buryat-Mongolian Wolfhound
Buryat-Mongolian Wolfhound
Cane di Mannara
Guard dogs for sheep and goats - Cane di Mannara
Cão de Castro Laboreiro
Dog of Castro Laboreiro,
Portuguese Cattle Dog &
Portuguese Watchdog
Cão de Castro Laboreiro
Cão de Gado Transmontano
Transmontano Mastiff &
Transmontano Cattle Dog
Cão de Gado Transmontano
Carpathian Shepherd Dog
Ciobănesc Românesc Carpatin,
Romanian Shepherd,
Romanian Carpathian Shepherd,
Câine Ciobănesc Carpatin,
Carpathian Sheepdog,
Carpatin &
Romanian Carpatin Herder
Carpathian Shepherd Dog
Caucasian Shepherd Dog
Caucasian Mountain Dog &
Caucasian Ovcharka
Georgia &
Caucasian Shepherd Dog
Central Asian Shepherd Dog
Central Asian Ovtcharka &
Uzbekistan &
Central Asian Shepherd Dog
Estrela Mountain Dog
Portuguese Shepherd &
Cão da Serra da Estrela
Guard dogs for sheep and goats - Estrela Mountain Dog
Georgian Shepherd
Georgian Mountain Dog
& Nagazi
Guard dogs for sheep and goats - Georgian Shepherd
Ghadrejani dog
Guard dogs for sheep and goats - Ghadrejani dog
Great Pyrenees
Pyrenean Mountain Dog,
Montañés del Pirineo,
Perro de Montaña de los Pirineos,
Can de Montaña de os Perinés,
Chien des Pyrénées &
Chien de Montagne des Pyrénées
France &
Great Pyrenees - Guard dogs for sheep and goats
Greek Shepherd
Greek Shepherd - Guard dogs for sheep and goats
Himalayan Sheepdog
Himalayan Shepherd &
Himalayan Shepherd Dog
India &
Himalayan Sheepdog - Guard dogs for sheep and goats
Sivas Kangal &
Turkish Kangal
Kangal - Guard dogs for sheep and goats
Karakachansko Kuche &
Karakachanska Ovcharka
Karst Shepherd
Karst Shepherd
Hungarian Komondor,
Hungarian Sheepdog &
Mop Dog
Koyun dog
Bayburt Kelpi
Koyun dog
Sage Kuchi,
Sage Jangi,
De Kochyano Spai,
Jangi Spai &
Afghan Shepherd
Kuchi - Afghan Shepherd
Kumaon Mastiff
Sipro Kukur
Kumaon Mastiff
Kurdish Shepherd Dog
Iraq &
Kurdish Shepherd Dog
Hungarian Kuvasz
Maremma Sheepdog
Cane da Pastore Maremmano-Abruzzese,
Pastore Abruzzese,
Pastore Maremmano,
Abruzzo Sheepdog &
Abruzzese Sheepdog
Maremma Sheepdog
Mazandrani dog
Mazandrani dog
Mioritic Shepherd
Romanian Mioritic Shepherd Dog,
Romanian Mioritic,
Ciobănesc Românesc Mioritic,
Mioritic Shepherd
Mongolian banhar
Mongolian banhar
Persian Mastiff
Sarabi Mastiff
Persian Mastiff
Polish Tatra Sheepdog
Tatra Mountain Sheepdog,
Owczarek Tatrzański,
Owczarek Podhalański &
Polski Owczarek
Polish Tatra Sheepdog
Pyrenean Mastiff
Mastín del Pirineo &
Mostín d’o Pireneu
Pyrenean Mastiff
Rafeiro do Alentejo
Alentejo Mastiff,
Portuguese Mastiff &
Mutt of Alentejo
Rafeiro do Alentejo
Romanian Raven Shepherd Dog
Ciobanesc Romanesc Corb
Romanian Raven Shepherd Dog
Yugoslavian Shepherd Dog
Macedonia &
Serbia (Kosovo)
Shirak Sheepdog
Shirak Sheepdog
Slovak Cuvac
Slovak Chuvach,
Tatransky Cuvac &
Slovak tschuvatsch
Slovak Cuvac
Spanish Mastiff
Mastín español de campo y trabajo,
Mastín ganadero,
Mastín Leonés &
Mastín Extremeño
Spanish Mastiff
Tibetan kyi apso
Apso Do-Kyi
Tibetan kyi apso
Tibetan Mastiff
Tibetan Mastiff
Kazakhstan mountain dog
Uzbekistan mountain dog
& Sarkangik
Bosnian and Herzegovinian Shepherd Dog,
Bosnian Shepherd Dog,
Croatian Mountain Dog &
Bosnian-Herzegovinian and Croatian Shepherd Dog
Bosnia and Herzegovina &
Vikhan Sheepdog
Chitral Watchdog &
Pakistani Vikhan Dog
Vikhan Sheepdog

Navajo sheep and goat guarding dogs: A New World solution to the coyote problem.

Use of donkeys to guard sheep and goats in Texas

Komondor guard dogs reduce sheep losses to coyotes: a preliminary evaluation.

List of extinct breeds

Alternate name(s)
Country or region of origin
Alpine Mastiff
Before 5th century BC to 19th century AD
Livestock guardian
Alpine Mastiff
Southern Europe
Classical antiquity
War dogs, hunting, guard dogs & dog fighting
American Molossus Dog





Guard dogs for sheep and goats – Top 5

Like the names suggests, this dog was originally developed in Anatolia. They are a strong mountain dog bred in an area of Asia where dogs were expected to protect sheep from wolves, jackals, and bears. They will be able to handle foxes, coyotes, and feral dogs easily.

The Anatolian shepherd looks different than most of the other livestock guard dogs. It is not pure white, sometimes has a black mask, and has a thicker neck and broader head than some dogs. They are big, up to about 70 kilograms, and look even bigger because of their thick mane.

- Guard dogs for sheep and goats

Like the Akbash, this dog is not recommended as only a companion dog. They are bred to work, will probably escape and roam if kept without a flock or herd, and unless socialized will be unlikely to accept strangers.

Even if they are kept as a pet, they will probably not want to fetch. They can be obedience trained, but it may be difficult to work with them at times.

Health problems are few, but they have been reported to have hip dysplasia, like most big dogs, eyelid problems (entropion, where the eyelid rolls in and the lashes rub against the eyeball), and a few other unusual problems. They live about 10 or 11 years.


The Komondor has a thick corded coat that looks different than most dogs, so even people that are not familiar with livestock guard dogs have seen these dogs in shows or photos. Few are aware of his personality, however.

The thick coat is supposed to protect the dog from wolves when he is guarding his sheep. He is white, like most livestock guard dogs, taller than most (about 80 centimeters at the withers) and heavy (50–60 kilograms), but not as heavy as some breeds.

Komondor - Guard dogs for sheep and goats

Komondors are said to have the same temperament as most of the livestock guard dogs, but the individuals I have known have been more volatile. This may have been due to lack of socialization and training. They are said to be good with family and children, but like all the livestock guard dogs, he will be happier with a job to do.

Confining these dogs to a life in the city or a suburb is not acceptable.

Komondors are susceptible to the health problems of big breeds, hip dysplasia and bloat. External parasites (like fleas and ticks) are also more of a concern when the dog has that thick corded coat.

Kuvasz – Guard dogs for sheep and goats

This white or light-colored livestock guard dog is also originally from Hungary, like the Komondor. The dog breed may even have been around before coming to that country, though, and some fanciers think it is one of the oldest dog breeds in existence.

The Kuvasz looks similar to the other livestock guard dogs. The eyes are black, he weighs about 50–75 kilograms, but he is not as heavy as some of the livestock guard dog breeds. The main difference is in his personality.

Kuvasz - Guard dogs for sheep and goats

If this dog is to be kept as a companion animal, he should have early socialization and good obedience training. They might be more playful than other livestock guard dogs but are also serious about their work and quite independent. The Kuvasz is known to be good with kids, good around other animals, and protective of his family and owner. They are not known for performing tricks or obeying commands off leash.

Kuvasz are usually healthy, but hip dysplasiacan be a problem in any big dog. If fed correctly (to avoid excessive calories and rapid growth), the dogs can live about 12 years.

If you are interested in this breed of dog, there is another author, Suhail, that keeps one and is knowledgeable on the Kuvasz and other livestock guard dogs. You can search for his great article about his experience with the breed.

Great Pyrenees

This is one of the best-known livestock guard dogs. According to the AKC, their popularity has been decreasing the past few years, but they still are purchased as companion dogs, are a great dog for backyard farms, and are one of the most popular guard dog breeds.

They look fantastic, which is why so many families buy one as a companion dog. They are mostly white, with a thick double coat, a thick mane to keep the wolves off, and black eyes and a button of a nose. They also have double dew claws on their hind legs, an unusual feature.

Great Pyrenees - Guard dogs for sheep and goats

The Great Pyrenees are originally from the Pyrenees mountain region of northern Spain, like their names suggests, and have been guarding sheep in that region for hundreds of years. They bark a lot at night when doing their job, can be difficult to train, and even their fanciers admit that they are not good with strangers.

Like most livestock dogs, this breed is said to be good with kids, however. The dogs’ aggression is mainly to those he feels a threat to his flock: foxes, feral dogs, and coyotes. Despite their size (males get to be over 50 kilos and stand about 70 centimeters), they are not tough enough to handle bears or wolves.

Breeders and fanciers usually say that the Great Pyrenees is healthy, but they can develop hip dysplasia or bloat like any large breed, and some are prone to patellar luxation (a trick knee). If they don’t have any problems, Great Pyrenees usually live about 10 or 11 years, a good life span for such a large dog.

Akbash – Guard dogs for sheep and goats

These white Turkish dogs are still mostly livestock guard dogs and are not kept much as pets. They are even larger than the Great Pyrenees (males may be over 60 kilograms and stand 85 centimeters) and usually have the same dark eyes and nose. Their legs are usually longer, and their tail is a little larger.

Since they are usually working dogs and not companion animals, obedience training is not an issue, which is probably a good thing since they are not into chasing balls like some of the “intelligent” breeds. (If you do purchase one of these dogs just as a companion, he may develop behavioral problems like excessive digging or escaping.) They will get along with most other species if introduced early, and they are usually satisfied when lying in a field watching their charges, whether sheep or goats.

Akbash - Guard dogs for sheep and goats

Akbash fanciers appreciate that the dog has low energy and does well spending the day quietly. They report that the dog is athletic when it needs to be, but it is not hostile and is able to think independently.

Akbash are hardy, like all livestock guard dogs, and do not have a lot of health problems. They can have big dog issues but normally live problem-free to about 10 or 11 years old.









Livestock Guardian Dog Statistics – (Guard dogs for sheep and goats stats)

Effect of LGD longevity annual cost breakeven lambs

Effect of LGD longevity on average annual cost and breakeven additional lambs weaned. Assumes little LGD value for first year – values reflect the end of the second and succeeding years. LGD cost is $1,000 the first year, $500 each succeeding year. Lambs are valued at $140 each.

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Research – Livestock Guardian Dog Stats

In 2002, Dr Laurie Marker of the Cheetah Conservation Fund in Namibia completed her PhD thesis on the biology, ecology and conservation of the cheetah on Namibian farms. It included an investigation of alternative control methods for livestock predation, particularly a study of 157 guard dogs. The research revealed that behavioural problems affected 94,4% of the dogs, and correctional training enabled only 61% of the dogs to be deployed.

The three greatest problems were: 44% of the dogs chased game (there were no statistics on how many animals were killed), 37% stayed at the kraal without accompanying the sheep to the field, and 25% harassed or killed sheep. Some dogs were guilty of more than one of these behaviours. In the end, 43% of the dogs had to be removed from the project because the behavioural problems could not be corrected or the dogs died. Of the dogs that died, 21% were shot by the owner, and a further 6% were shot by a neighbour or other farmer, while the rest died because of accidents, disease or poison.

Marker mentions that studies from the US mirrored local statistics, with about a third of guard dogs being shot by their owners. Remarkably, the average working life of the dogs at the time of death was not even 4½ years.

These conclusions were reinforced with the publication in 2011 of Gail Potgieter’s MSc thesis: The effectiveness of livestock guarding dogs for livestock production and conservation in Namibia [Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University’s Department of Zoology] on the use of Anatolian Shepherd/Kangal dogs to protect livestock from predators in Namibia. Dr Marker was one of Potgieter’s supervisors.

The dogs were placed with commercial as well as with communal farmers. About two- thirds of the guard dogs in the study was accompanied by a shepherd. Although 30% of commercial farmers experienced no difference in predator damage, 76% of all farmers in the study were satisfied that there had been a significant decline in livestock losses.

The question, however, was how predator- friendly the dogs were. About 63% of the Anatolians had killed animals. Thirty-seven of the dogs had killed jackal, nine had killed baboons, three had killed caracal and one had even killed a cheetah. Various other dogs had killed a bat-eared fox and an African wildcat. In all, at least 83 animals had been caught by Anatolian dogs, and this is an underestimate, as some farmers who reported their dogs killing animals could not give numbers.

After the dogs were deployed, the farmers reported that they were killing significantly fewer jackal and caracal themselves. But combining this figure with the dog kills brought the number of jackal and caracal kills to more or less double the number killed before deployment of dogs! The number of cheetah killed had declined sharply, however.

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Livestock Protection Dogs in the 21st Century – Stats

Many species of wildlife in Europe and North America have shared similar fates over the past 200 years. Overharvest and extirpation of some ungulate and large carnivore species characterize both continents, as do the destruction and development of habitats Enserink and Vogel 2006). Over the last 30 years, however, some of these species have demonstrated remarkable resilience in their recovery in several regions of Europe and North America, either through natural recolonization or reintroduction programs

The use of livestock protection (guarding) dogs (LPDs) appeared centuries ago throughout central Europe and Asia to help shepherds protect their goats and sheep from predators, namely brown bears (Ursus arctos) and gray wolves (Canis lupus). With the eradication of many predators from the European landscape, the mass migration of humans to urban settings, and the collectivization agricultural policy under communist regimes, much of the knowledge of the use of LPDs was lost. In North America, European immigrants during the 1800s and 1900s did not bring knowledge of the use of LPDs, nor did they incorporate them into their farming practices, as evidenced by the relatively few producers actively using LPDs before the 1970s. Navajo Indians, though, did employ nonstandard LPDs for guarding livestock, presumably having learned the technique from early Spanish explorers Lyman 1844, Dyk 1938, Black 1981, Black and Green 1985.

Past studies on LPDs, especially those with experimental rigor, are limited. Rigg (2001) presented a general overview of LPDs, and Coppinger and Coppinger (2001) provided a comprehensive review of LPD behavior and selection. Shivik (2006) briefly discussed LPDs in his review of nonlethal tools for managing predators. Smith and colleagues (2000) reviewed the use of guardian animals and focused most of their review on LPDs. All of these reviews have focused rather narrowly on using LPDs for deterring predation on livestock (principally sheep). Our intent is to provide a rigorous, updated overview of the current use of LPDs for protecting livestock from predation and to discuss the potential for using LPDs to reduce disease transmission from wildlife to livestock, as well as for conserving wildlife populations. We provide an overview of the similarities between European and North American livestock production, wildlife conflict, and wildlife conservation. On both continents, society has come to value wild ungulates and large carnivores and to prefer the use of nonlethal management tools for addressing conflicts. We outline the need for effective, nonlethal, producer-based tools to allow producers to manage these conflicts themselves. Livestock protection dogs may also offer a proactive and “green” tool for allowing livestock husbandry and wildlife to coexist (i.e., a unique conservation value). We review the history of the use of LPDs, including the lull in their use following the eradication of wolves in Europe and North America and the paucity of scientific research on their effectiveness. Further, we outline future directions to pursue and the potential for greater conservation value through the use of LPDs

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Similarities between Europe and North America

Producers in Europe and North America are confronted with similar challenges in their efforts to reduce livestock losses to predators and wildlife-transmitted diseases, while doing their part to facilitate human coexistence with wildlife. This is especially true in areas where wolves have recently recovered (e.g., the western Great Lakes region of the United States) or are actively recolonizing (e.g., the western part of the Alps range in Europe, the northern US Rocky Mountains). Effective on-farm methods are needed to reduce deer activity near livestock in order to minimize the transmission, both directly and indirectly, of diseases such as bovine tuberculosis (TB) from infected deer (Odocoileus spp.) to livestock VerCauteren et al. 2008. Other wildlife-transmitted diseases of livestock include brucellosis, keratoconjunctivitis, and neosporosis. Producers in these regions require efficacious tools that they can adapt into their normal husbandry practices in order to reduce economic losses

In the past, lethal control tools (e.g., trapping, shooting) were used extensively to remove predators from areas (e.g., bounty system). Government-funded lethal removal continues to be the primary management tool used in recovered wolf populations in North America within the conflict-management model of reactionary management (i.e., lethal removal after depredation occurs; Musiani et al. 2005). However, lethal methods alone have not eliminated wolf depredations. Musiani and colleagues (2005) reported that lethal control of wolves in Alberta, Canada (applied as reactionary management on individual farms), did not reduce the number of livestock depredations at a regional level. In Spain and Canada, although wolves are hunted, livestock depredation continues to occur and is an important issue. In the case of recovering wolf populations, lethal control may remain a last resort because the goal of current management in many areas is to increase populations to predetermined target levels. Even in areas where wolf populations have surpassed target levels for recovery, the legal challenges to delisting the populations may limit the use of lethal control (e.g., in the western United States and Great Lakes region). Unregulated lethal-control and market-hunting (e.g., unregulated hunting of wildlife for sale in markets) policies played a major role in reducing or eliminating many carnivore and ungulate populations in the 19th century in North America and Europe Trefethen 1961, Landry 2001). Such practices are no longer legally or socially acceptable for managing these conflict issues. Currently, nonlethal control methods are more acceptable to the public than regulated lethal options in both Europe and North America (Reiter et al. 1999, Breitenmoser et al. 2005). However, many of the costs associated with nonlethal management tools are borne by producers.

Current governmental management objectives and laws have relegated producers on both continents to passive and reactionary roles in the management of livestock depredations (Gehring and Potter 2005). In such positions, producers often become overly reliant on government agencies or may fail to become proactive in managing human-wildlife conflict on their property (Gehring et al. 2006, O’Brien et al. 2006). The integration of LPDs might give producers another opportunity to become active managers in protecting their livestock, helping them become integrated and active stakeholders in the wider management process (Gehring and Potter 2005). By employing LPDs, a nonlethal method, producers would also aid the conservation of large predators

The use of LPDs by livestock producers in Europe and North America is primarily an economic and political issue. In Europe, large carnivores are protected by the Bern Convention or local hunting laws. Sheep producers in areas of France and Switzerland where wolves are recolonizing receive government financial support to implement the use of LPDs. Thus, political mandates for large carnivore conservation have forced these producers to implement preventative measures to protect their livestock, and the use of LPDs has allowed wolves to live in these areas (e.g., Ribeiro and Petrucci-Fonseca 2004). Sheep producers in Spain (e.g., Castilla y Leon) have used LPDs for centuries, but still request government support for reducing wolf populations in some regions to reduce risk to their livestock. In North America and some regions of Europe (e.g., the northern part of Castilla y Leon), there is little to no governmental support for using LPDs; producers must bear most or all of the financial costs. Additionally, on both continents and worldwide, wildlife acts as a reservoir of diseases that may be transmitted to livestock. LPDs are beginning to be recognized for their ability to reduce this transmission of disease

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History of use of livestock protection dogs

The far-distant ancestor of LPDs is believed to be a predecessor of the modern-day mastiff that lived on the high Tibetan plateaus during prehistoric times (Guardamagna 1995). However, LPDs most likely originated in Mesopotamia and its peripheral regions, where livestock husbandry was well developed (Landry 1999). The first indications of the domestication of sheep (beginning with the Asiatic mouflon) and goats (starting with the bezoar goat) were found in western Asia (Iraq and Iran) dating back about 7000 or 8000 years BCE (Gauthier 1990). Domestic dogs and sheep appeared together for the first time in archaeological sites dated 3585 BCE (Olsen 1985). It is also likely that Sumerian nomadic shepherds already had dogs with their flocks to protect sheep and goats against predators, during the transhumance between Mesopotamia and the modern-day country of Hungary. In the Old Testament, Job mentions the presence of a dog with its flock (Job 30:1). Very large dogs existed in Assyria in the 13th century BCE, as can be seen in representations of dogs on various bas-reliefs and on terra-cotta from the ruins of Babylon or Niniveh. Chinese chronicles relate that such a dog was offered to the Chinese emperor in 1121 BCE (>Guardamagna 1995). Moreover, Alexander the Great is reported to have received two dogs from an Indian king, which he brought back to Macedonia into the Molosses region in 326 BCE. Since then, these dogs have been given the name of molosses Guardamagna 1995). The Romans used molosses for circus games, combat, and to guard villas and estates. A Roman farm-management treatise (published in 150 BCE) mentioned two types of dogs: One was used to hunt predators and game; the other was used to protect herds of livestock (cited in Coppinger and Coppinger 1993)

It is likely that early LPDs were simply dogs that were raised with and bonded to livestock, and thus available and adapted to the task. The first ancestors of LPDs then most likely spread from their native regions with nomadic tribes along different migration routes or with merchants. The diversity of LPDs originated from these exchanges (especially during the transhumance) and was a result of postzygotic selection (see Coppinger and Coppinger 2001 for a more complete discussion). Shepherds favored and cared for dogs that had morphological or behavioral characteristics that enabled them to outperform other dogs in pastoral tasks. These animals were not sexually isolated from the greater dog population until recent times, and even then, sexual isolation occurs mostly in the West as performed by dog breeding associations (Coppinger and Coppinger 2001). In Spain, shepherds crossbred the Mastíin mastiff with village dogs because the purebred Mastíin mastiff did not satisfactorily meet pastoral needs (e.g., it was too heavy to run after wolves). However, different projects also try to maintain or recover pastoral characteristics of local or national LPDs (e.g., Ribeiro and Petrucci-Fonseca 2005). Today, there are at least 40 “breeds” of LPDs throughout the world (Landry 1999). The use of LPDs in Europe has resurged as large predator species have recovered (Ribeiro and Petrucci-Fonseca 2004); for example, more than 1000 LPDs are now working in the Alps. In North America, the use of LPDs has been a relatively recent phenomenon, initiated only in the 1970s (Linhart et al. 1979). By 2004, 32% of sheep producers were using LPDs to protect their livestock in the United States (NASS 2005), where LPDs are used principally to protect sheep from coyotes (Canis latrans)

Worldwide, there is some variation in how LPDs have been applied by producers relative to geography, the producer’s husbandry practices, and grazing situations. For example, in Sweden and the Great Lakes region of the United States, LPDs are often used in fenced pastures (Levin 2005, Gehring et al. 2006, VerCauteren et al. 2008). In these situations, LPDs are present with livestock on relatively small pastures (> 50 hectares) during summer months and then are brought closer to buildings during winter. LPDs accompany the livestock as they are rotated among pastures and even into barns. In remote and undeveloped regions of North America, Europe, and Asia, transhumances involve the movement of livestock to open range in high country during summer months and relocation back down to fenced pastures and barns during winter, as has been done for centuries. In southern regions of Europe (e.g., France), it is common for sheep to graze outside throughout the year, except during lambing season. In these cases, LPDs continually accompany livestock and shepherds (Lapeyronie et al. 2002).

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How to unblock a website blocked by administrator

How to unblock a website blocked by administrator

Learn how to unblock a website blocked by administrator in this informational article

How to unblock a website blocked by administrator

Remember when you quickly went on to Facebook while on a coffee break at work? How about that time you opened up a Torrent site in the college computer lab? You thought you got away with it and no one noticed? You’re probably wrong, because System Administrators or sys-admins (or sss-admins – because people compare them to snakes) see everything! They’re not too liked because of how rigid they can be.

How to unblock a website blocked by administrator

Websites can be blocked at three levels: Computer level, Network level or the ISP/Governmental level. Some DNS services, such as Open DNS, too provide options to block certain types of websites for different users sharing the computer. Then, there are some software other than the built-in “Restricted Websites” in Internet Options that help in blocking a website.

Websites can be blocked at three levels

Remember, though, don’t hate the person, hate the position, because he or she is just doing their job. That disclaimer aside, it’s time to learn how to stick it to them! Remember, though there can be serious consequences for such actions, and losing your job, or even prosecution and jailtime might be on the cards, depending on where you work. Plus, if you happen to be an actual sys-admin, this article might help you learn how people are bypassing your restrictions. Now that we’ve saved our collective backsides from lawsuits, on with the article!

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How to unblock a website blocked by administrator – Is The Website Down?

You may not be able to access a particular website due to some outage. Check with these website monitors. The check  – Is a website up or down.  It will tell you if a blog or website is working, online, up, down right now or not to anyone or everyone.

Access Website Blocked On a Computer

There are different options to access a website, and they depend on the mode used to block the site.

Access Website Blocked On a Computer

For example, Open DNS employs category system, and if you wish to go to a category that your parents have chosen to block it for you, it will provide a notification.

The Restrictions

Sys-admins are a bunch of tools. No, that came out wrong, what we meant was that they use a bunch of tools. First step in bypassing the tools is leaning about them yourself:

  • Network firewalls – These block incoming and outgoing access to whatever the sss-admin wants to block – websites and IP addresses.
  • Installation access – If you’re unable to install or upgrade things on your system this is because of restrictions on installations.

How to unblock a website blocked by administrator - The Restrictions

  • Process list – You may be barred from being able to view or change the current running processes on your system.
  • Blocked ports – You may be barred from accessing certain TCP/IP ports which some services might require to be open in order to run.
  • There might be a few other restrictions in place as well, but they will be similar to the ones we’ve mentioned here, and you can bypass most with the knowledge you get from this article.

How to unblock a website blocked by administrator – HTTP and HTTPS

The first thing to try is to add or remove an “s” to the “http” preceding the website URL. For example, typing in may open it for you because only “” was blocked.

unblock a website - HTTP and HTTPS

Likewise, if it was “https” blocked, you can try “http” only to see if you can access the website. The term “https” represents a secure connection while the “http” is the unencrypted version of the website URL.

Network Firewalls

One of the most common ways to get around a firewall is to use a proxy website. Of course this is common, so any decent sys-admin will have already blocked all commonly known proxies. Get Firefox installed (even if you have to get it via the sys-admin themselves). Start Firefox and go to Tools > Options > Connection Settings. You can find a list of available proxy IP addresses online as well.

A more reliable option would be to use UltraSurf or JonDo. Both use the self-invented GIFT system which is a high-encryption node-proxy anti-jamming system that allegedly has higher security standards than even financial transactions online. Both UltraSurf and JonDo are simple EXE files that connect automatically to a proxy server. They are portable software and can be run from a USB drive. Some systems have USB access restricted though.

Network Firewalls

You can also use remote access if you have a home PC on an unrestricted connection you can use that as your private proxy server to browse using its connection. Just go to Start > Accessories > Remote Desktop Connection. If your home computer has a static IP address, put that in (if it does not, then sign it up with to associate a name to your computer). Once connected, you can use it like a virtual machine.

Using your phone’s mobile data hotspot is another way of bypassing all internet restrictions. You could also use a VPN service to be able to browse freely, over an encrypted connection.

Internet Options – Restricted Websites & Content Advisor

If toggling between http and https does not help, check the error message you are getting when trying to access. If it says “Due to Restrictions On This Account”, it could be a Family Safety Software. Not much can be done in this case except to try portable browsers that do not need to be installed and offer proxy as well. We’ll get to that in a while.

If there is no account-related message, probably the site has been blocked using Internet Options. Go to Internet Options in Control Panel and on the Security tab, click on Restricted Websites in the Internet Security Zone, and then on the button labeled “Sites” (See image below). Check if the URL of the website you wish to access is listed there. If yes, select the URL and click Remove. You’ll be prompted for confirmation. That done, the website should open without any problems on any of your browsers.

Internet Options – Restricted Websites & Content Advisor

There is yet another method to block certain types of websites from opening – using the same Internet Options dialog box. Click on the Content tab. Based upon your version of Windows, you might see “Content Advisor” or “Family Safety” button. This option is used to restrict certain types of websites from opening for different users. That means you can use the option to block websites at the user level. If you know the password, you can click the button and change settings. If not, you will have to ask permissions from your parents or network admin. Here too, you can use a portable browser to bypass restrictions.

How to unblock a website blocked by administrator – Installation Access

If you are mainly reliant on a school or university computer for projects, research and more work, it can get particularly irritating when you want to use a free and legal tool that is essential for your project and you simply don’t have access to do it. Even on a work PC, getting the admin department to install something for you each time you need it can be a real pain. Besides, what harm can VLC really do to a machine?

One of the simplest ways to get around this is to get portable versions of the applications that you need on a USB drive and run them on your target machine. Contrary to what you expect, portable versions are available for a large number of applications. Head over to portableapps for a full list that contains all the categories and options that you will need.

website blocked by administrator - Installation Access

Another method involves getting the installer file to extract into a folder.What this method does is, it simply gets the files that the installer would normally place in the installation folder, into another folder of your choice by making the installer behave as an archive. Keep in mind that this is trial and error method and may not work with all applications. Once you have the installer files with you, you need to download an application called the “Universal Extractor”.

Once you have the application, run it, and in the window that opens up, choose the correct option to select the installer to be extracted. It also lets you select the target folder, which is the same folder as the installer by default. Once you have done this, you will be prompted to select the extraction method. If you are not sure about the method here, try each choice once until you get the extracted files in that folder. Now you can simply copy these files onto a USB and run them on a computer of your

Using A Portable Proxy Browser To Access Restricted Websites

You can download a portable browser that doubles up as a proxy such as KProxy. This product has both portable and installation type versions.

Portable Proxy Browser To Access Restricted Websites

The best thing about the website browser is that it offers online browsing without actually typing the website address in the main URL bar. Instead, you type the URL in the text box given in the middle of the KProxy website.

Using A Different DNS

When some website is banned in an area, it is the ISP blocking traffic to and from that website. Changing DNS settings from your ISP to something different might help you access the site. For example, you can change your DNS to Google Public DNS.

Unblock Website - Use A Different DNS

To change DNS, right click the network icon in the taskbar and select Open Network and Sharing. In the Window that appears, double-click on your network. It will bring up a dialog box and there you can change the DNS under IPv4.

How to unblock a website blocked by administrator – Unblock Ports

For this one, you will absolutely need admin access, so refer to the earlier part of this article if you skipped it. Once you’re done with that, or if you already have admin rights, there are essentially four ways in which an admin could have blocked your USB ports, and we are quickly going to take all four of them down!

Method 1 – go to Start > Run and type regedit and hit [Enter]. Navigate to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\USBSTOR and on the right pane, click on Start and change the value to 3, then hit OK.
Method 2 – Just check the device manager, as ports can be disabled from here as well. Right click on a selected port and click on Enable

website blocked by administrator - Unblock Ports

Method 3 – If your sys-admin has gone one step further and uninstalled the USB drivers completely, simply plugging your USB device back into the machine should start a search for the right drivers and their subsequent installation.
Method 4 – Get a third party tool to enable USB ports. Such tools are usually one-click solutions to enable/disable ports, and you can find quite a few good ones online.

Use a Proxy To Access Restricted Websites

Proxy websites are accessed only after entering the URL in your browser, and they will allow you to browse other websites by using the internet connection on that website. A Proxy server is like a proxy site – the difference being – you will be given an IP address that will get set up in your browser using which you will be able to surf the internet.

Use a Proxy To Access Restricted Websites

You may use proxy websites or programs to access websites blocked in your area. One such proxy is UltraSurf. This was specifically designed to allow the population of a certain country to access social networking sites. There are some websites who let you easily access and open blocked websites. and are two such websites you may want to check out. They act as free web anonymizers that aim to unblock blocked websites and offer free anonymous web surfing. Also, check out Hola Unblocker.

These are some methods that will help you access websites restricted on your home network, corporate LANs, or the ones banned in your country.

How to unblock a website blocked by administrator – Access the Taskmanager

Thanks to the super efficient operating system that Windows has been, and the tendency of school or work systems to be ‘extremely generous’ with configuratioins (that’s sarcasm), sometimes the only option one is left with is opening up the task manager and killing unnecessary processes. Sadly sss-admins have been known to block this as well. You need one all powerful tool to get beyond this unbreachable wall, and that tool is…(cue drumroll)….Microsoft Word!!!

website blocked by administrator - Access the Taskmanager

No, we’re not kidding, really. There is a loophole in Microsoft’s Office software for creating documents that has associated a ‘Tasks’ property to it, that conveniently returns a list of all the processes running on the computer. There are a number of things you can do with this loophole which involve running some scripts using the command prompt, that lets you do all sorts of things like getting a list of processes, closing a process or even maximising it. Check out the exact process here.

Why filters won’t protect children or adults

Method of and system for controlling internet access

How to make Homemade Brown Gravy with Flour and Water?

How to make Homemade Brown Gravy with Flour and Water

How to make Homemade Brown Gravy with Flour and Water? It can be INTIMIDATING but I will show you how to make homemade gravy (brown gravy recipe) that turns out perfect every single time, just like my Mom taught me.

This Thanksgiving gravy is required at your next feast in just a week!

I really think that a Thanksgiving meal is more than just the turkey… How to make Homemade Brown Gravy with Flour and Water –  It’s the Thanksgiving sides that really take the feast over the top and this gravy is one of my FAVORITE parts of that meal.

There are VARIOUS recipes and methods for making gravy.

I have seen recipes that are made with milk, water, meat drippings, bouillon BUT my family makes brown gravy recipe with beef broth and drippings and I love it

How to make Homemade Brown Gravy with Flour and Water

How to make Homemade Brown Gravy with Flour and Water?

  • Easy to make
  • Uses simple ingredients from your pantry (6 ingredients only!)
  • Pairs very well with many other recipes too
  • Works every times and never fails
  • Tastes incredible
  • Ready in just 15 minutes

How to make Homemade Brown Gravy with Flour and Water

You can serve this homemade brown gravy with:

  • Meatloaf
  • Pot roast
  • Salisbury steak
  • Biscuits
  • Poutine
  • Mashed potatoes

Here are some flavor VARIATIONS you can try with this easy gravy recipe:

  • Add some sliced onions or sliced mushrooms to give it more flavor and this also compliments beef recipes really well.
  • Instead of beef drippings, use different kinds of meat drippings from sausage, bacon, turkey or even chicken.
  • Add some more spices like paprika, red chili flakes or herbs like dried oregano, thyme, dill or garlic to enhance the flavor and give this traditional gravy recipe a twist.

How to make Homemade Brown Gravy with Flour and Water

How to make Homemade Brown Gravy with Flour and Water from Scratch?

Start off by heating butter and beef drippings in a non-stick saucepan. Add flour and mix until golden brown. Add broth gradually, while constantly mixing. Add salt and pepper and let it simmer and thicken to the desired consistency. Remove from heat and stir in some butter to make silky smooth glossy gravy.

How to make gravy with flour and water?

My recipe below uses flour and beef broth but some people use a combination of water and broth instead of all broth. It’s just a personal preference.

Is homemade beef gravy same as homemade white gravy?

Based on my research, they are not the same. White gravy is usually made with a combination of butter, milk and flour with some sausage drippings and no broth is used. It’s also much whiter in color compared to brown gravy.

How to thicken brown gravy? How to make gravy thicker?

Some people use cornstarch and some people use flour. I prefer using flour.

How to make brown gravy without meat drippings?

Some people rave about their gravy recipe without drippings (brown gravy recipe with beef bouilon cubes) but it was not as good as this homemade classic brown gravy.

Are brown gravy and beef gravy the same?

Yes, they are the same.

How do you make gravy from meat juices?

That is the classic way of making gravy. Save the pan drippings from your cooked beef like stew meat or roast or steak and cook it together with flour, butter and broth to make silky smooth gravy.

How to make Homemade Brown Gravy with Flour and Water? – Can you freeze brown gravy?

Since this is NOT a milk-based gravy, it can be frozen in sealed freezer bags for up to 1 month. Milk-based gravy should not be frozen because they will separate when thawing.

Here are some TIPS on How to make Homemade Brown Gravy with Flour and Water:

  • Use UNSALTED butter and LOW SODIUM broth to prevent the gravy from becoming too salty.
  • If you have some extra time, TOAST the flour on the stovetop until it’s golden brown and use that in the recipe. It gives a darker color and better overall flavor (a wonderful nutty flavor!).
  • Beef broth tastes the BEST but chicken broth can be used too.
  • Use NON-STICK saucepan because it prevents the gravy from sticking and burning.
  • You must add the broth SLOWLY and continue whisking constantly to PREVENT lumps from forming.
  • To fix LUMPY gravy, use a hand held blender and that gets rids of most lumps and make the gravy smooth.
  • Gravy tends to THICKEN the longer it sits and that’s why you should consider serving immediately.
  • To fix thick gravy, mix in some water or broth to thin it out to your desired consistency.
  • You can use this recipe to prepare an easy MAKE AHEAD gravy before the big Thanksgiving dinner and save some time.
  • Recipe can be doubled or tripled easily.
  • If you are ever short on time, you can use store-bought brown gravy mix to make thick gravy too but I find this classic homemade brown gravy so much better.

How to make Homemade Brown Gravy with Flour and Water – Nothing makes a meal feel more complete than gravy. It’s the perfect finishing touch to mashed potatoes, a glorious addition to beef, and an absolute must on most holiday tables. Gravy by itself can elevate a meal from boring to amazing, yet a lot of people avoid making it.

How to make Homemade Brown Gravy with Flour and Water – Recipe One


  • 3 Tablespoons oil (olive, bacon grease, canola, etc) I personally use olive.
  • 3 Tablespoons flour
  • 1 tsp pepper
  • 1 chicken, beef or vegetable boullion cube
  • 3/4 cup water


In a pan, heat olive oil. Add pepper and boullion cube. Stir for about a minute. Add flour, quickly stirring to make a paste. If the paste is a little ‘dry’ add a few drops of oil until it’s kind of clumpy. Sautee your lumpy sauce until lightly brown, add cold water to pan, quickly stirring. If you add hot water, your flour will cook fast and you will end up with a hot lumpy mess. Continue to stir until you have a liquid cloudy mixture. Bring to a simmer and reduce heat. If sauce is a little thin, cook at a simmer until you reach desired thickness. Use as you would most gravy.

How to make a Roux for Beef Gravy

How to make Gravy with Flour and Water and Grease

How to Make Brown Gravy Mix Taste Better

How to make gravy with flour and water


How to make Homemade Brown Gravy with Flour and Water – Recipe Two


  • 4 Tablespoons beef fat or reserved beef fat plus enough oil to equal 4 Tablespoons
  • 4 Tablespoons all-purpose flour
  • 2 cups reserved meat juices or reserved juices with enough beef stock to equal 2 cups
  • Salt and pepper to taste
  • 1 Tablespoon unsalted butter Optional


  1. Heat beef fat and oil over medium high heat in a small saucepan. Add flour and stir occasionally until mixture is golden brown and smells nutty.
  2. Pour in 1/2 cup liquid and stir until smooth. Add remaining liquid and stir until combined.
  3. Bring to a boil, stirring constantly. Reduce heat and simmer 2 minutes.
  4. Season to taste with salt and pepper.
  5. Stir in 1 Tablespoon of butter if desired for a silky sheen.
  6. Serve immediately.


How to make a Roux for Beef Gravy

How to make a Roux for Beef Gravy

How to make a Roux for Beef Gravy : There are several ways to make gravy: it can be thickened with a cornstarch slurry, made smooth with the addition of a roux, or served simply as the drippings straight from the pan. Gravy made with a roux—a mixture of fat and flour—is a classic preparation, using the pan drippings from your holiday bird or roast. The roux adds intense flavor and a velvety texture to the gravy. But don’t worry if you aren’t cooking a whole turkey or beef roast in the oven—you can also make a roux gravy with butter or oil to amp up an everyday chicken or to top Salisbury steak.

How to make a Roux for Beef Gravy

How to make a Roux for Beef Gravy

A Roux Defined

A roux combines equal parts fat from either oil, butter, or the renderings of the roasted food, along with some flour. It can be used as the base of a sauce or as a thickener in dishes such as clam chowder and macaroni and cheese.

Roux ranges in color from pale to deep brown, darkening the longer you cook it. A lighter roux preserves the flavor of the fat—whether butter or pan drippings or lard—whereas a darker roux takes on its own nutty, caramelized character. You can decide how long to cook the roux depending on how you plan to use it. For example, you want clam chowder to retain a white, creamy color, so a pale quick-cooked roux works best. Gumbo, on the other hand, can benefit from a deeper, more complex-tasting roux, so cooking it down until darker is best. For a holiday gravy, you might prefer something in between, perhaps in the color range of peanut butter.

The Basic Roux Gravy Formula

How to make a Roux for Beef Gravy – The ratio of fat to flour to liquid is important when making a roux-based gravy, and depending on how thick you like your gravy, you can adjust the amount of fat and flour. To make 1 cup of roux gravy, start with 2 tablespoons of fat, 2 tablespoons of flour, and 1 cup of liquid. (If you would like a thinner gravy, decrease the fat and flour measurements to 1 1/2.) The liquid can be broth, milk, or heavy cream, depending on how rich and decadent you want the finished product. You can also combine smaller amounts of heavy cream or wine with broth for added texture and flavor.

How to make a Roux for Beef Gravy

How to make Gravy with Flour and Water and Grease

How to Make Brown Gravy Mix Taste Better

How to make gravy with flour and water

Slow Cooked Roast Chicken Jamie Oliver

Chicken Soup from Bones in Slow Cooker

The Method for Making Roux Grav – How to make a Roux for Beef Gravy

Making a roux gravy isn’t difficult, you just need to make sure you have all of the correct proportions. First, determine how much gravy you need and then adjust the fat amount up or down if necessary according to the basic formula. Measure the amount of fat or oil in the pan drippings after you cook your turkey or another piece of meat—you can pour all of the drippings into a liquid measuring cup and then remove what you need, or simply scoop out the amount of fat with a tablespoon measuring spoon and set aside. (Discard the remaining drippings or save for another use.) Add butter, cooking oil, rendered bacon grease, or lard if you need to increase the volume of fat.

How to make a Roux for Beef Gravy – You can prepare the gravy right in the roasting pan (making sure to first pour off any extra fat beyond the amount you need for gravy), which allows you to scrape up the brown bits of flavor stuck to the bottom. Or, if you prefer, transfer the drippings to a clean saucepan or skillet. Bring the fat back up to a medium-low temperature if it cooled.

Sprinkle an equal amount of all-purpose or Wondra flour onto the hot fat and cook it, whisking continuously, for at least 5 minutes over low heat to remove the raw flavor of the flour. How to make a Roux for Beef Gravy – Add the corresponding ratio of liquid slowly to the roux while continuing to whisk it. Bring it to a simmer whisking continuously to prevent lumps until it reaches your desired thickness. Keep in mind that the gravy continues to thicken as it stands, so resist the urge to speed up the process by adding additional flour.

Final Adjustments to Roux Gravy

Once the roux gravy is cooked, you may decide to alter the consistency and flavor a bit. To thin the gravy, add a little more broth. To thicken runny gravy, cook it a little longer. Unless you started with a heavily seasoned piece of meat, you probably need to add salt and pepper before you pull the gravy off the stove. As a general rule, stir in 1/2 teaspoon of salt for each cup of liquid, but make sure to taste first.

Use a fat separator if the gravy seems greasy. For an exceptionally smooth gravy, strain it through a sieve into your serving boat or bowl.

How to make a Roux for Beef Gravy – Right Color Roux for Your Recipe

White Roux

White roux is cooked for about 5 minutes, just until the flour has lost its raw smell, but before any golden color or toasted aroma develops. This roux is used to thicken chowders and milk-based sauces. Classic macaroni and cheese, tuna noodle casserole, and New England clam chowder are all based on milk thickened with a white roux.

Blond Roux

Blond, or golden roux, is cooked approximately 20 minutes to a light, golden-brown shade with an aroma resembling popcorn or toasted bread. This is the most commonly-used roux, desired for the richness and a slight nuttiness it provides along with its excellent thickening power. Blond roux is a good, general-purpose roux to keep on hand for thickening gravy, sauces, soups, and stews.

Brown Roux

Brown roux is cooked about 35 minutes until it reaches a peanut butter-brown color. Its aroma is more pronounced and sharper than the nutty smell of blond roux. Cooked to this stage, flour begins to lose its thickening power, requiring more roux to thicken a given amount of liquid.

Dark Brown Roux

Even darker than the preceding brown roux, dark brown roux is cooked approximately 45 minutes until it is the color of melted milk chocolate. Its aroma is mellower than the strong, roasted flavor of brown roux, and will actually smell a little like chocolate. This stage has the least thickening power of all four; its main purpose is as a flavoring agent with thickening being secondary.

Slow Cooked Roast Chicken Jamie Oliver

Slow Cooked Roast Chicken Jamie Oliver

Slow Cooked Roast Chicken Jamie Oliver – Cooking a chicken in a slow cooker makes it very succulent and packed full of flavour. This simple, freezable recipe is perfect for feeding a family

Slow Cooked Roast Chicken Jamie Oliver

Prep: 15 Min

Cook: 5 hrs, 30 mins, Easy, Serves 4

  • Freezable
  • Gluten-free

Slow Cooked Roast Chicken Jamie Oliver – Nutrition: per serving

  • kcal 497
  • fat 30g
  • saturates 10g
  • carbs 7g
  • sugars 6g
  • fibre 2g
  • protein 49g
  • salt 0.5g

Slow Cooked Roast Chicken Jamie Oliver – Ingredients

  • 1 large onion, peeled and cut into thick slices
  • 2 carrots, halved lengthways and chopped
  • 1 small or medium chicken
  • 2 tbsp butter, softened
  • 1 bay leaf

Slow Cooked Roast Chicken Jamie Oliver – Method

Slow Cooked Roast Chicken Jamie Oliver – Preheat the slow cooker if necessary. Put the onion and carrot in the base of the stock pot to form a protective layer to sit the chicken on, and add 100ml boiling water. Gently ease the chicken skin away from the breast. Stir some salt and pepper into the butter and push the butter under the skin. Put the bay leaf in the cavity of the chicken and sit on top of the onion and carrot.

Slow Cooked Roast Chicken Jamie Oliver – Cook on low for 5 hrs, then check that the chicken is cooked by wiggling the wing – it should feel very loose. Tip the chicken up so any liquid inside flows out, then cook on high for 30 mins. If the chicken isn’t cooked through after the initial time, cook for another hour, then turn the heat up.

Slow Cooked Roast Chicken Jamie Oliver – If you want the skin to be browned, grill it for a couple of minutes (make sure your slow cooker insert is flameproof if you keep it in the pot, or transfer it to a roasting tin).
There will be some gravy in the base of the dish with the veg, tip everything through a sieve and press the veg gently to make sure you get every last drop. Serve the veg on the side, if you like.

Slow Cooked Roast Chicken Jamie Oliver

Perfect roast chicken

Serves 4
Cooks In 1H 25M plus resting time
Difficulty Super easy

Nutrition per serving

  • Calories 374 19%
  • Fat 15.8g 23%
  • Saturates 3.9g 20%
  • Sugars 9.3g 10%
  • Salt 1.2g 20%
  • Protein 45.5g 91%
  • Carbs 13.4g 5%
  • Fibre 3.4g –


  • 1 x 1.6 kg higher-welfare chicken
  • 2 medium onions
  • 2 carrots
  • 2 sticks of celery
  • 1 bulb of garlic
  • olive oil
  • 1 lemon
  • 1 bunch of mixed fresh herbs , such as, thyme, rosemary, bay

Chicken Soup from Bones in Slow Cooker

How to make Gravy with Flour and Water and Grease

How to Make Brown Gravy Mix Taste Better

How to make gravy with flour and water

A taste of otherness eating and thinking globally


  1. Remove the chicken from the fridge 30 minutes before you want to cook it, to let it come up to room temperature.
  2. Preheat the oven to 240°C/475°F/gas 9.
  3. Wash and roughly chop the vegetables – there’s no need to peel them. Break the garlic bulb into cloves, leaving them unpeeled.
  4. Pile all the veg, garlic and herbs into the middle of a large roasting tray and drizzle with oil.
  5. Drizzle the chicken with oil and season well with sea salt and black pepper, then rub all over the bird. Place the chicken on top of the vegetables.
  6. Carefully prick the lemon all over, using the tip of a sharp knife (if you have a microwave, you could pop the lemon in these for 40 seconds at this point as this will really bring out the flavour). Put the lemon inside the chicken’s cavity, with the bunch of herbs.
  7. Place the tray in the oven, then turn the heat down immediately to 200°C/400°F/gas 6 and cook for 1 hour 20 minutes.
  8. If you’re doing roast potatoes and veggies, this is the time to crack on with them – get them into the oven for the last 45 minutes of cooking.
  9. Baste the chicken halfway through cooking and if the veg look dry, add a splash of water to the tray to stop them from burning.
  10. When the chicken is cooked, take the tray out of the oven and transfer the chicken to a board to rest for 15 minutes or so. Cover it with a layer of tin foil and a tea towel and leave aside while you make your gravy.
  11. To carve your chicken, remove any string and take off the wings (break them up and add to your gravy, along with the veg trivet, for mega flavour). Carefully cut down between the leg and the breast. Cut through the joint and pull the leg off.
  12. Repeat on the other side, then cut each leg between the thigh and the drumstick so you end up with four portions of dark meat. Place these on a serving platter.
  13. You should now have a clear space to carve the rest of your chicken. Angle the knife along the breastbone and carve one side off, then the other.
  14. When you get down to the fussy bits, just use your fingers to pull all the meat off, and turn the chicken over to get all the tasty, juicy bits from underneath. You should be left with a stripped carcass, and a platter full of lovely meat that you can serve with your piping hot gravy and some delicious roast veg.


Chicken Soup from Bones in Slow Cooker

Chicken Soup from Bones in Slow Cooker

This Chicken Soup from Bones in Slow Cooker recipe is easy as can be. Just toss a chicken carcass in a pot with some aromatics, add water, soy sauce, and apple cider, and forget about it for a while.

Serves 10
Serving Size: 1 portion
Calories Per Serving: 153
% Daily Value
7% Total Fat 4.8g
Saturated Fat 1.3g
Trans Fat 0g
9% Cholesterol 28.2mg
30% Sodium 728.7mg
4% Total Carbohydrate 12.7g
3% Dietary Fiber 0.8g
Sugars 6g
28% Protein 13.9g

Chicken Soup from Bones in Slow Cooker

Chicken Soup from Bones in Slow Cooker Variations

Main recipe lower on page starting with RED heading

Slow Cooker Leftover Roast Chicken Soup

Chicken Soup from Bones in Slow Cooker – Toss your roast chicken carcass and desired aromatics (that means vegetables or herbs) in your slow cooker and cook on slow for 8 hours or overnight. (Trust us, the only thing better than the smell of coffee in the morning is the aroma of chicken soup.) Continue with step 3 in the instructions above. Easy just got even easier.

Leftover Roast Chicken Soup with Carbs

Chicken Soup from Bones in Slow Cooker – If you like rice or pasta, cook some up in a separate pot, stealing some of the broth from the soup pot to use as your cooking liquid.

Egg Drop Soup With Leftover Roast Chicken

Lightly whisk 3 eggs to combine. Stir the finished soup in a clockwise direction and, while still stirring, pour in the eggs in a slow, steady stream. Continue to stir for 1 to 2 minutes, until egg ribbons form. Ladle into bowls and garnish with thinly sliced scallions if you’ve got ’em.

Slow Cooked Roast Chicken Jamie Oliver

How to make Gravy with Flour and Water and Grease

How to Make Brown Gravy Mix Taste Better

How to make gravy with flour and water

Chicken soup revisited: calcium content of soup increases with duration of cooking

Ingredients for Chicken Soup from Bones in Slow Cooker

  • Roast chicken carcass with some meat attached (on the wings, back, etc.)
  • Any aromatics you desire (you know, the usual stuff including garlic, herbs, onion, carrots, ginger, etc.)
  • 1/4 to 1/2 cup soy sauce (Christina Tosi likes Kikkoman)
  • 1/3 to 2/3 cup apple cider or apple juice
  • 1/4 to 1/2 teaspoon black pepper

Directions for Chicken Soup from Bones in Slow Cooker

  • 1. To make the Leftover Roast Chicken Soup in your slow cooker, see the Slow Cooker Variation above. To make the Leftover Roast Chicken Soup on your stove top, combine the chicken carcass and any residual meat and desired aromatics in a large stock pot (5- to 8-quart capacity) and fill the pot with water so the chicken is fully submerged. Set over the lowest of low heat, lid that puppy 3/4 of the way so the water can evaporate a little bit but not too much, and leave it for at least 6 hours, skimming any scum that accumulates on the surface of the stock but leaving any puddles of fat. [Editor’s Note: Christina Tosi leaves the stock simmering overnight. You may or may not wish to do the same. We guess it depends on your level of risk taking and whether your homeowner’s insurance is up to date.]
  • 2. Remove the pot from the heat. Your kitchen smells amazing, right? Strain the liquid from the chicken into another large pot and let the solids rest in the strainer. Walk away for a little while. Brush your teeth. Brush your hair. The chicken should be cool enough to handle at this point.
  • 3. Using your hands, separate the chicken meat from the bones, aromatics, and gelatin. Don’t be grossed out—put your best farm girl face on, roll up your sleeves, and get to work. This should yield 2 to 3 cups light and dark meat, depending on how much chicken you ate the night before. Toss the bones and stuff in the trash. Add the shredded chicken to the pot with the broth. (You can cover and refrigerate the soup until dinnertime.)
  • 4. Bring the soup to a gentle simmer. If you want, you can clean out your fridge by throwing in a handful of baby carrots, chopped onion, Brussels sprouts, spinach, or whatever else you’ve got languishing in your vegetable bin. It’ll taste awesome. Simmer until the soup is warmed through and any vegetables are tender.
  • 5. Stir in the soy sauce, apple cider, and black pepper to taste and ladle into bowls.


What human food can I feed my diabetic dog

What human food can I feed my diabetic dog

What human food can I feed my diabetic dog – Many people are in the view that dogs can eat all of the human food but this is not the case, here is a wise list of human foods that you can serve to your diabetic dog.

What human food can I feed my diabetic dog

Winter Squash

A number of human food squash are good for diabetic dogs like pumpkin, butternut squash, and acorn squash because these squashes are high in fiber content. However, before serving winter squash should be cooked.

Alpha Sprouts

It is a high fiber food that is also safe for dogs and very supportive to cure diabetes in dogs. For a diabetic-friendly dinner mix it with the rice, oats and low-fat meat.

Is Xanthan Gum safe for dogs

Final Stages of Dog Diabetes

dog diabetes life expectancy


Dogs love to eat this human food, according to many of studies naturally occurring sugar like sugar from carrots do not affect the insulin level in the body of dogs. Either you served it in the raw or cooked form, Its beneficial in both ways. To be safely swallowed pulp the carrots, that becomes easy to digest too.


This leafy green vegetable is low in sugar and high in fiber, Its an ideal human food for diabetic dogs.


For diabetic support, you can add garlic in any of good that you cook at home or paste of garlic can be added in commercial food. It’s just an ingredient do not feed as a stand-alone vegetable. A high quantity of garlic may cause anemia in dogs. Consider to serve small dosage of garlic with other foods as a remedy and on the safe side do not cross the limit of three cloves on a daily basis.

Broccoli and Cauliflower

Both are known as low glycemic index human food. These green vegetables contain few sugars and very high in fiber. Both should be well pulped to make these digestions friendly and to get maximum benefits. The nutritional makeup of both vegetables is same and ideal for diabetic dogs.

Green Beans

You can choose this human food to provide fiber to your pooch, it contains a lot of fiber but not good in carbohydrates. You can serve it in raw form, pulped or cooked with other vegetables. It is a must-have vegetable for a diabetic dog because it supports the dog to stay energetic.

Leafy Salad Greens

Kale, collard greens, turnip greens, mustard greens, lettuce and all of your typical green salads are beneficial for diabetic dogs. Avoid spinach and Swiss chard.


To get the maximum benefits of human food you need to feed entire pea in the pod. According to studies, this combination makes them balanced food for carbohydrate and fiber.

Can Dogs eat Smoked Salmon?

Insulin resistance in dogs


When you are cooking a multi-ingredient food for your dog, you can include beets
to make your dog’s food colorful. This human food is high in sugar but good for
moderation. You may add some beet green instead of red to balance the sugar level
in food.

What human food can I feed my diabetic dog

What human food can I feed my diabetic dog – What grains

When your dog is suffering from diabetes, switching to a grain-free food is not a good choice at all. To stay healthy and active in daily activities dogs need vitamins, minerals, and fiber. So instead of starchy food, you should choose while grains from the human foods for your pooch. Because whole grains are rich in fiber, minerals, and vitamins. Processed foods may contain added sugar and other toxic ingredients but in the pure form, these whole grains provide energy as well as supportive towards curing diabetes. You must look for under-listed human food whole grains to include in your dog’s diet.

  • Bulgur (cracked wheat)
  • Brown rice
  • Triticale
  • Whole wheat flour
  • Wild rice
  • Buckwheat
  • Whole oats/oatmeal
  • Whole grain corn
  • Brown rice
  • Triticale
  • Millet
  • Whole rye
  • Whole grain barley
  • Whole farro
  • Quinoa
  • Sorghum
  • Whole rye
  • Whole grain barley
  • Whole farro
  • Wild rice
  • Buckwheat

What human food can I feed my diabetic dog – Some time when your dog has difficulty in digestion along with diabetes eliminating the whole grains can be a solution to keep him regular. But when he returns to the normal health you can include these grains in food.

Many studies conclude that easy to digest starches are a reason to trigger spikes in the blood sugar level right after a meal, it also can lead to weight gain. You can add human food whole grain in your dog’s diet to reach the blood sugar goals.

If you are already feeding a diet that contains whole grains then prefer to feed the same, but prefer to feed only whole grain diets because it also helps your dog in weight management.

There three most important in the list:

  • 1. Quinoa (related to spinach)
  • 2. Buckwheat (related to spinach)
  • 3. Amaranth (related to rhubarb)

These three are not truly grains but these are the best gain like human foods that you can feed to your diabetic dog. All of these foods contain fiber, protein and other important nutrient and the specialty is these will not increase the sugar level as much as true grains.

The list of these three What human food can I feed my diabetic dog may seem strange or new to you but humans are eating them from hundred of years.

What human food can I feed my diabetic dog

Other Foods for Diabetic dog

What human food can I feed my diabetic dog – Protein

High-quality proteins are very essential when managing diabetes in your dog. Meat sources like lamb and beef have the L-Carnitine amino acid which can help enhance fat metabolism and assist in maintaining lean body mass. Other great sources of proteins for a diabetic canine include chicken, fish, and turkey.
Since we’re trying to avoid body fat from adding up, aim for the low-fat foods like lean red meats or chicken breast.

What human food can I feed my diabetic dog – Carbohydrates

When it comes to carbs, you truly have to be careful not to cause a blood sugar spike in your dog. The body usually digests carbs faster than proteins or fats. As you choose the right meal for your pet, you have to avoid simple carbs which are characterized by high glycemic index (GI). High GI food can make the glucose spike very fast, therefore you should stick with wholesome or low GI carb. Some of these foods include whole grains, legumes, brown rice, potatoes, and honey.

Some of the high-glycemic food that you ought to avoid include, white bread, white rice, etc.

What human food can I feed my diabetic dog – Fiber

As of now, fiber has come to prove to be the best meal in a dog living with diabetes. The food helps a lot in digestion and also slows down the emptying of gastric and the digestion of carbs. This, in turn, minimizes the release of glucose and prevent the blood sugar levels from spiking.

Some of the best fiber human fiber foods that you can use to control diabetes in your dog include spinach, broccoli, and cauliflower. Also, fruits like blueberries, raspberries, and pears can be used but in small portions, since they contain high natural sugars.

What human food can I feed my diabetic dog – Fats

As I have suggested earlier, a dog with diabetes requires a low-fat diet to ensure optimal functioning of the insulin. Foods that are rich in omega-3 fatty acids can assist a lot in decreasing blood lipid levels and even regulation of the immune system. So far, fish and fish oils are the best in this role.

Can Dogs eat Smoked Salmon?

Can Dogs eat Smoked Salmon

Can Dogs eat Smoked Salmon? Well, as pet parents, we know that food which is good for us is not always good for our pets.

Salmon is an exceptionally nutritious food for humans as it is low in fat and high in protein. As well as containing essential vitamins and minerals that are vital for good health.

Obviously, we would love our dogs to benefit from this healthy and tasty fish as well!

But can dogs eat salmon?

The good news is, yes! You can feed salmon to dogs if it is properly cooked and prepared.

However, raw and uncooked salmon is extremely poisonous to dogs and can be deadly.

Can Dogs eat Smoked Salmon

Can dogs eat salmon?

Dogs can safely eat salmon so long as it is fresh, boneless, well-cooked and fed in small portions.

Salmon is often the main ingredient in many high quality dry and wet dog food products.

Like many human foods, you should limit giving salmon to your dog no more than once a week.

But, is salmon bad for dogs in any way?

Yes, it can be if not fed correctly.

You should never let dogs eat salmon if it is raw or under-cooked as it contains bacteria and parasites which are harmful to dogs, possibly leading to salmon poisoning disease (SPD) which can be fatal.

So, before you consider feeding salmon to your dog, there are some essential points you need to be aware of to keep your pet safe.

Can Dogs eat Smoked Salmon

Can dogs eat smoked salmon?

Can Dogs eat Smoked Salmon? – So, if cooked salmon is okay, can dogs eat salmon when it’s smoked? No!

You should never give smoked salmon to your dog.

The reason for this is that smoked salmon is cured so contains an excessive amount of salt that is dangerous for dogs.

There is also a small chance that smoked salmon contains parasites which can result in a fatal condition in canines.

Can Dogs eat Smoked Salmon

Is salmon good for dogs?

Salmon is an excellent source of Omega 3 fatty acids, which helps promote a healthy skin and coat for your dog.

As well as being useful for his heart and immune system.

Older dogs and those who have arthritis can benefit from salmon as it assists in the reduction of inflammation and stiffness in the joints.

Feeding salmon to young puppies helps develop their brains as well as assisting older dogs to concentrate better. Especially those that are a little senile.

Salmon is also high in amino acids, essential for keeping your dog healthy and active.

As well as being an excellent food for those dogs with skin irritations and allergies.

Is Xanthan Gum safe for dogs

Final Stages of Dog Diabetes

dog diabetes life expectancy

What human food can I feed my diabetic dog

Potential hazards in smoke-flavored fish

Salmon dog food

There are many commercial brands available producing salmon dog food.

Some products contain only salmon as a meat protein source whereas others have salmon as the primary protein but include additional meat.

So, why would you feed salmon dog food to your pet?

If your dog appears to be healthy and passes his annual vet checks with flying colors, then there is no need to change his feed.

However, if he has the occasional digestive upset, has itchy, flaky skin or his coat appears dull, then it may be an idea to change his diet onto salmon dog food.

It is also a good choice of food if your dog is a picky eater as many cannot resist the taste of salmon!

Can Dogs eat Smoked Salmon? – Your vet can always advise if you are unsure.

If your dog has allergy issues caused by traditional meats such as beef and chicken, then it is vital that you check the ingredients to ensure the food only contains salmon.

But dogs cannot live on salmon alone as it does not fulfill a dog’s essential carbohydrate and vitamin requirements.

Therefore, it is crucial when using a salmon dog food product that you check it is made with real salmon, high-quality ingredients and offers 100% balanced nutrition, consisting of all the necessary vitamins and minerals.

The label should reveal the food is “complete and balanced” and approved by the AAFCO (Association of American Feed Control Officials) or other.

Salmon poisoning in dogs

Salmon poisoning in dogs is potentially fatal if it is left untreated.

Can Dogs eat Smoked Salmon? – The problem is that it can take up to a week before a dog displays any clinical signs, so you and your vet may not even consider salmon poisoning.

As a result, this can make diagnosis and treatment difficult, which is not good news for your dog.

Also, it is possible for dogs with salmon poisoning to spread the infection to other dogs via their feces.

The most common dog salmon poisoning symptoms include:

  • Diarrhea
  • Vomiting
  • Lack of appetite
  • Rapid weight loss
  • Lethargy
  • Fever
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Dehydration

What do to if you think your dog has salmon poisoning

Take your dog immediately to your veterinarian if he displays any of these symptoms.

Inform your vet if you know, or suspect that your dog has eaten raw salmon.

A fecal sample, detecting the parasite’s eggs within the feces, or a needle sample from a swollen lymph node reveals the diagnosis for salmon poisoning.

Treatment for salmon poisoning is quite straightforward if detected in time.

Your veterinarian will most likely prescribe an antibiotic to kill the rickettsial organisms that caused the poisoning and a wormer to kill the parasite.

If your dog is dehydrated, then your veterinarian will give him intravenous fluid.

The good news is, that once treatment has started, dogs usually show rapid improvement within a couple of days.

Jewish population in NYC

Jewish population in NYC

What about the Jewish population in NYC you ask?

Jewish population in NYC

About 1 in 10 New Yorkers is Jewish

Jewish population in NYC – New York state has about 1.75 million Jews, comprising approximately 9 percent of its total population of 20 million. Nearly all the Jews live in or around New York City, with 1.1 million in the five boroughs — 561,000 in Brooklyn, 240,000 in Manhattan, 198,000 in Queens, 54,000 in the Bronx and 32,000 on Staten Island, according to a landmark 2011 population study by UJA-Federation of New York. That’s more Jewish population in NYC than in any other city in the world, including in Israel. Another 450,000 live in suburban Westchester and Long Island’s Nassau and Suffolk counties, according to the study, and at least 130,000 Jews live in nearby Rockland and Orange counties, according to locals’ estimates and census data. Approximately one of every three non-Hispanic whites living in New York City is Jewish.

Jewish population in NYC

Jewish population in NYC – The Orthodox are growing – fast

Of the New York metro area’s 1.55 million Jews, 493,000 identify as Orthodox (that’s 32 percent), 396,000 are denominationally or religious unaffiliated (26 percent), 303,000 are Reform (20 percent) and 280,000 are Conservative (19 percent), according to the 2011 study. While the proportion of Orthodox households among Jewish households in the New York area is surging, from 13 percent in 1991 to 20 percent in 2011, the shares of Conservative and Reform households are falling – for Conservative, from 34 percent in 1991 to 19 percent in 2011, and for Reform from 36 percent in 1991 to 23 percent in 2011. Astoundingly, 61 percent of all Jewish children in the New York metro area are being raised in Orthodox households. Reflecting the growth of the Orthodox, who have an average of 4.1 children, the New York metro area has about 500,000 Jews under age 25.

Jewish population in NYC

New York Jews are less Democratic than Jews nationally

In almost every presidential election for the past few cycles, about 70-80 percent of the nation’s Jewish vote has gone to the Democratic candidate, and 20-30 percent to the Republican. Barack Obama won in 2012 with 69 percent of the national Jewish vote after taking 78 percent in ’08. George W. Bush won 24 percent of the Jewish vote in ’04, a rise from his 19 percent four years earlier. Nationally, 70 percent of Jews identify as Democratic or Democratic-leaning, and 22 percent as Republican or Republican-leaning.

In metropolitan New York, however, only 55 percent of Jews say they lean Democratic and 31 percent lean Republican. That’s largely because of New York’s large Orthodox population, which is more Republican than the rest of the Jewish community. Nationally, about 58 percent of haredi Orthodox and 56 percent of modern Orthodox Jewish population in NYC identify as Republican, compared to 27 percent of Conservative Jewish population in NYC and 17 percent of Reform Jewish population in NYC, according to the Pew Research Center’s 2013 survey of U.S. Jews.

New York Jews tend to be registered Democrats, even those who favor Republicans

The vast majority of New York City’s Jews — like all New Yorkers — are registered Democrats. That’s because in this heavily Democratic city, which hasn’t seen a competitive presidential primary election since 1988, many local elections are competitive only in the Democratic primary. With the Democratic primary winner almost guaranteed victory in the general election, registering as a Republican doesn’t really give one a chance at a meaningful vote.

This is generally true for elections for City Council (of 51 members, only three are Republicans), State Assembly (of 65 New York City districts, only one is Republican) and State Senate (of 25 New York City districts, only two are represented by Republicans). Registered Democrats outnumber Republicans by about 9 to 1 in Brooklyn, 7 to 1 in Manhattan, 6 to 1 in Queens and 13 to 1 in the Bronx. Staten Island is the exception, with only about 30 percent more Democrats than Republicans. But with just 6 percent of city residents (3 percent of the city’s Jews), this oft-forgotten borough matters little.

So even though a Republican candidate in a general election might do better among New York Jews in November than among Jews nationally, because of the high number of Orthodox Jewish population in NYC here (who tend to vote Republican), during the primary many of those Orthodox votes will be cast for a Democrat. Even in the city’s second-most Republican congressional district, the 10th, which includes the Hasidic stronghold of Borough Park in Brooklyn, there are 5.5 registered Democrats for every registered Republican (227,505 active registered Democrats compared to 41,640 Republicans).

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Jewish population in NYC – Which Democrat will win among Jews?

A Wall Street Journal/NBC/Marist College poll of 2,679 New York adults April 10-13 found Hillary Clinton at 65 percent and Bernie Sanders at 32 percent among likely Jewish voters. Jewish population in NYC comprised about 16 percent of the Democrats in that poll, and about 16 percent of all New York Democrats are Jews.

Overall, Clinton leads Sanders by about 26 points in the city and 24 points in the suburbs; they’re running roughly even upstate. Clinton enjoys a large lead among Democrats over 45, while Sanders enjoys an advantage among those under 45, first-time voters and those who describe themselves as liberal, according to the Marist poll. Overall, Clinton is favored to win the state by about 15 points, recent polls suggest.

Rabbi Menachem Genack, the CEO of the Orthodox Union’s kosher division and a well-known Orthodox proponent of Clinton, predicts that much of the Hasidic community will vote for the former secretary of state. He noted that as New York’s U.S. senator for eight years, Clinton has relationships in the community and is familiar with communal concerns.

“She was helpful to us as senator. All 14 Jewish city councilmen endorsed her. She’ll get a real commanding win in those districts with Hasidic Jewish population in NYC,” Genack said. “It’s about ‘hakaras hatov’” – recognizing the good she’s done for the community.

Jewish population in NYC – Which Republican will win the Jewish vote?

Each of the Republican candidates has spent time in recent days courting the Orthodox Jewish vote, which could play an outsize role in districts with few Republicans. Sen. Ted Cruz, R-Texas, baked matzah with Chabad, Ohio Gov. John Kasich visited a Jewish bookstore, school and matzah factory in Borough Park (and talked about matzah’s tie to Jesus’ blood) and synagogue and Donald Trump invited a group of Orthodox Jewish reporters to his office.
The politics blog FiveThirtyEight noted that an Optimus poll of New York Republican voters shows Trump’s lead in districts with large Orthodox populations as significantly smaller than his lead among Republicans in places like Staten Island, which are more reflective of the rest of the country. In JTA interviews with about a dozen or so Orthodox voters over the last couple of weeks, Cruz appeared to be Trump’s biggest competition.

Brooklyn native Frida Schapiro, holding a rock she says was thrown and narrowly missed her grandson’s head during the 1991 Crown Heights riots, supports Ted Cruz for president. (Uriel Heilman)
“I vote for my values, and Cruz is my guy – definitely,” Frida Schapiro, a 68-year-old mother of 10 in Crown Heights, told JTA. “He’s as close to Torah values as I can see.”

Though New York’s Hasidic communities often are thought of as a bloc vote, insiders say that’s a myth that may be true only in more tightly controlled communities outside the city, like the all-Skverer Hasidic shtetl of New Square, in Rockland County.

“It’s not like there’s a magic button and the rebbe nods his head and 100,000 votes fall into place. It’s more nuanced that that,” said Hasidic political consultant Ezra Friedlander, who took Kasich on his Jewish Brooklyn tour. “People do have their own opinions. But there’s a certain consensus when voters see a candidate engaged and their surrogates reach out to the community.”

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New York’s Jewish community is the most diverse in the world outside of Israel

While many politicians may think of Brooklyn Hasidim when they think New York Jews, the state’s Jewish population is incredibly diverse. Jewish population in NYC are Hasidic, secular, atheist, hipster, gay, straight, transgender, Syrian, Bukharan, Russian, Israeli, rich, homeless, middle-class, poor, urban, suburban, rural, doctors, lawyers, teachers, policemen, construction workers, yeshiva students, drug addicts, in-married, out-married, unmarried, Republican, Democrat, libertarian, socialist and a million other things. One thing is certain: They are not to be ignored.

The Jewish population in the New York area has grown by 9 percent in the past ten years, according to a new survey quoted by the ‘New York Times’. This reverses the previous trend of decline, a survey found. The New York community also remains highly concentrated, with four distinct areas that would each qualify as one of America’s 20 most-populous areas.Some of the city’s more affluent areas, like Brownstone Brooklyn and the Upper East Side, still saw a decline in their Jewish population, according to the Geographic Profile Report which is part of a study entitled ‘The Jewish Community Study of New York: 2011’ that was commissioned by the UJA-Federation of New York.

A total of 1,086,000 Jews live in the New York City area (which includes the Bronx, Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan and Staten Island), up from 1,027,000 in 1991 and 972,000 in 2001. A further 452,000 Jews live in the counties Nassau, Suffolk and Westchester. “There is no typical Jewish community. We found significant differences from area to area,” Pearl Beck, lead author of the paper, told the ‘New York Times’.

Brownstone Brooklyn was the most secular of the region’s Jewish neighborhoods with 43 percent of Jewish respondents defining themselves as not religious or secular Jewish population in NYC. At 59 percent that area also had the highest rate of intermarriage between Jews and non-Jews in the entire NYC region, Long Island and Westchester, and it had the lowest percentage of children receiving any form of Jewish education. Only 15 percent of Jews surveyed there said they felt “a lot” connected to the Jewish community.

In the he observant enclaves of Borough Park and Williamsburg nearby, however, less than one percent of Jewish children receive no Jewish education, the study found. In those neighborhoods, where lifelong religious study by men is prized, many adult men reported no employment, and up to three quarter of all Jewish households earned less than $50,000 a year.

About three-quarters of the 1.8 million people who live in Jewish households in the New York area live in one of 30 distinct geographic areas, the study found. There are as many Jews on the Upper West Side (70,000) as there are in all of Cleveland, Ohio, the study found, and more Jews in central Brooklyn than in all of Baltimore, Maryland.

The area with the largest increase in Jews over the last decade was Washington Heights and Inwood in Upper Manhattan, with a 144 percent increase. But there were still fewer than 24,000 Jews there. On Long Island, the Huntington area had the largest Jewish population increase, 50 percent.

The study was based on nearly 6,000 telephone interviews with Jewish families across the region, followed a previous report, based on the same survey, that showed that the New York area has growing numbers of both Orthodox Jews and those considering themselves partially Jewish. However, New York still has strong enclaves of Conservative and Reform Jewry, according to the latest report.

Of the 30 areas studied, six had Jewish communities where at least 30 percent of families described themselves as Conservative, including Kew Gardens, Roslyn, Plainview and Great Neck, and in five areas, more than 40 percent of the Jewish population identified as Reform, including in north central and northwestern Westchester County, as well as on the Upper East Side of Manhattan.

Traditional Jewish values appeared to extend even to places where identification with the Jewish community had grown weak. Brownstone Brooklyn, for example, had the lowest level of philanthropic giving to Jewish causes: 29 percent, but about half of families did volunteer for charities, even if not always Jewish ones.

Is Xanthan Gum safe for dogs

Is Xanthan Gum safe for dogs

In this article we will answer the question: “Is Xanthan Gum safe for dogs?”

Is Xanthan Gum safe for dogs

Xanthan gum is something humans should try to avoid in their own food and their pet’s food as well.

Xanthan gum is a “Generally Recognized as Safe” (GRAS) food additive in the US, Canada, Europe, and many other countries.

Yet it is known to be potentially as irritating as gluten for some with Celiac disease, causing gas, bloat and diarrhea; and for causing flare-ups for those with Crohn’s disease or Ulcerative Colitis (inflammatory bowel disease).

Is Xanthan Gum safe for dogs

In fact, “the rapid increase in the incidence and prevalence of IBD in recent decades strongly suggests an environmental trigger for IBD, one of which may be dietary patterns. There are several pathways where diet may influence intestinal inflammation, such as direct dietary antigens, altering the gut microbiome, and affecting gastrointestinal permeability.

A review article, “Evidence-based dietary advice for patients with inflammatory bowel disease” indicates that emulsifiers in processed foods have been indicated in Crohn’s disease.

What is Xanthan Gum?

Xanthan gum is a polysaccharide (sugar like compound) produced by bacterial fermentation of a sugar-containing medium.  Nutritionally speaking, it is a carbohydrate with about seven grams of fiber per tablespoon.

Xanthan gum is a powdery, sugar like substance that is used as a thickening or stabilizing additive in foods, toothpastes and medicine. It can be used to treat lower blood sugar and cholesterol in people with diabetes. While it is FDA approved as a food additive, it is created in a laboratory and is a soluble fiber adding no nutritional value to any sort.

It helps ingredients blend together and to stay blended. Think of canned pet food with chunks of carrots throughout.

Xanthan gum is a laboratory creation. It is a product:

– fermented on potential allergens
– when fermented on corn or soy (as it often is), GMO concerns exist
– cannot be manufactured without the use of toxic carcinogens

Is Xanthan Gum safe for dogs – Why it is in pet food?

Xanthan gum is gaining in popularity with pet food manufacturers because it has a low glycemic index and food containing it can be marketed as ‘gluten free’ which is certainly a buzz word in the nutrition business these days. It is used almost exclusively in wet food.

Xanthan gum is used as a thickening and suspending agent in wet or canned dog foods. It has little nutritional value.

What is Xanthan Gum substitute

Final Stages of Dog Diabetes

Are there any risks to feeding your pet xanthan gum?

Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) is the voluntary association of local, state, and federal agencies that oversees pet food and they have issued preliminary approvals for the use of xanthan gum in canned cat and dog food. That being said, it is not a natural substance and how your pet reacts should always be monitored.

Is Xanthan Gum safe for dogs – Benefits or risks

Several studies have shown that xanthan gum is  ‘safe’ in normal doses, for humans and pets.  That said, xanthan gum requires a ‘medium’ to grow and often the medium of choice is a carbohydrate like corn, soy, dairy, or wheat, all of which are potentially allergenic substances, especially if fed over long periods of time.

Xanthan gum: Safety evaluation by two-year feeding studies in rats and dogs and a three-generation reproduction study in rats

Miscellaneous facts about Xanthan Gum

Xanthan gum is used to stabilize and bind cosmetic products.

In human foods, xanthan gum is most often found in salad dressings and sauces because it helps to prevent oil separation.

Xanthan Gum was “discovered” by a team of USDA researchers in the 1960’s. In 1968 it was approved for use as a food additive in the US and Europe.

Some common foods that contain xanthan gum are salad dressings, sauces, beverages, syrups, baked goods, cookies, candy and low fat spreads.

Xanthan gum can also be found in lipsticks, lotions, toothpaste and some medicines.

Is Xanthan Gum safe for dogs – Common names

The most commonly used name is xanthan.  Other names include xantham gum, corn sugar gum and bacterial polysaccharide.

What is Xanthan Gum substitute

What is Xanthan Gum substitute?

Find out all about what is Xanthan Gum substitute/s in this article.

What is Xanthan Gum substitute?

To replace xanthan gum in recipes, first you have to understand its purpose. This powder is a natural, gluten-free compound that adds viscosity to recipes that eliminate gluten. When mixed with water, it forms a gel that binds ingredients together and provides a decent elastic texture for breads and cakes. It also forms air pockets that give bread and cakes their characteristic crumb texture.

What is Xanthan Gum substitute?

When used in liquid recipes, such as salad dressings, it helps keep the mixture blended and emulsified. While you can find a number of good substitutes, it will take practice to determine the right proportions so that your baked goods turn out the way you want them.

Is Xanthan Gum safe for dogs


Arrowroot has a similar appearance and consistency to cornstarch. The arrowroot plant is native to South America where historically it served many purposes. When used as a thickening agent, it coagulates at a lower temperature than cornstarch. However, more arrowroot powder is needed to produce the same effect as xanthan gum.

Arrowroot Powder

What is Xanthan Gum substitute – Agar Agar

Agar agar is a vegan alternative to gelatin (and less expensive!). It is derived from seaweed and is a common food additive in food processing plants. Much like gelatin, agar agar can be found in a flavorless variety and it acts as a thickener, stabilizer, texturizer, forming a gel-like substance when mixed with water.

What is Xanthan Gum substitute - Agar Agar

Guar Gum

Guar gum is another natural gluten-free alternative to xanthan gum. It is a white powdery substance similar in consistency to cornstarch. It is derived from a legume plant found in East India. Guar gum functions as a binder that works well in creamy dishes and sauces. However, it can have laxative properties in some people. Use 1 1/2 times the amount of guar gum in a recipe that calls for xanthan gum.

Guar Gum

What is Xanthan Gum substitute – Gelatin

Gelatin is made from boiled animal bones and other tissues (kosher gelatin can be produced from fish bones). This product is most often associated with colorful desserts and store-bought pastry fillings. While gelatin is a viable substitute for xanthan gum, vegetarians and vegans tend to avoid it because it’s an animal product.

What is Xanthan Gum substitute - Gelatin


Psyllium Fiber (Psyllium Husk Powder)

Psyllium fiber is found in most health stores as a dietary fiber supplement. It’s popular among bodybuilders and athletes as it helps maintain their digestive health while actively helping to reduce cholesterol. So that’s why it may come as a bit of a surprise that psyllium husk powder has been shown to be a great binding agent which improves the baking quality of bread.

Psyllium Fiber (Psyllium Husk Powder)

What is Xanthan Gum substitute – Chia Seeds

Chia seeds are used for everything from sprinkling into flour mixes to add a nutritional boost to substituting for an egg. From a nutritional perspective, chia seeds are as close to a ‘super food’ as you can get. They are rich in Omega 3 fatty acids (more than 2.5 times that of flax seed), protein and fiber, just to mention a few. On top of all that, they can be used as a binding agent too.

What is Xanthan Gum substitute - Chia Seeds

Besides being very high in soluble fiber, they are also hydrophilic (water absorbing). Chia seeds can absorb up to 12 times their own weight in water, forming a gel like substance which locks in moisture.

Egg Whites

Egg whites are both a binder and a leavening agent, which means that not only can they be used to help bind foods together, they can also help them rise. Egg whites make an excellent substitution for xanthan gum in cakes and quick and batter breads. They do not work as well in kneaded breads. Use one egg white for every tablespoon of xanthan gum in a recipe. Keep in mind that your finished product will be very light and airy and may need a larger pan.

Egg Whites

What is Xanthan Gum substitute – Ground Flax Seeds

Flax seeds are far more common than their chia counterparts. While we tend to associate them with baking, flax seeds are healthy too.

In gluten-free baking, ground flax seeds do a great job of binding ingredients together and mimicking that desirable ‘gluten effect’ by adding moisture and softness to your baking.

What is Xanthan Gum substitute - Ground Flax Seeds


With a similar consistency to xanthan gum, cornstarch is a great filler for your recipes if you need more volume.



Obtained from the red algae, Irish moss, carrageenan is a plant-based product that can be used in place of gelatin or xanthan gum in cakes, pastries, dairy products, and more.


read more about Xanthan Gum on Google Scholar

How to calculate leap year

How to calculate leap year

This article will explain how to calculate leap year as well as some other interesting facts about leap years.

How to calculate leap year

Very simple to see if a specific year is a leap year or not. To calculate if a specific year is a leap year:

Take the year and divide it by 4.

If the answer of division is equal to a whole number, the year is a leap year.

If the answer to the division is not equal to a whole number, the year is not a leap year.

Example One:

Year : 1983 :

1983/4 = 495.75

495.75 is not a whole numbers as .75 is a fraction.

Thus 1983 is not a leap year.

How to calculate leap year - Example One

Example Two:

Year : 2004 :

2004/4 = 501

501 is a whole number

Thus 2004 is a leap year.

How to calculate leap year - Example Two

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Leap year rules and calendar accuracy

How to calculate leap year Formula:

How to calculate leap year Formula

What Is a Leap Year?

Leap years are years where an extra, or intercalary, day is added to the end of the shortest month, February. The intercalary day, February 29, is commonly referred to as leap day.

Leap years have 366 days instead of the usual 365 days and occur almost every four years.

Why do we need leap years?

The Gregorian calendar, which now serves as the standard calendar for civil use throughout the world, has both common years and leap years. A common year has 365 days and a leap year 366 days, with the extra–or intercalary–day designated as February 29. A leap year occurs every four years to help synchronize the calendar year with the solar year, or the length of time it takes the earth to complete its orbit around the sun, which is about 365¼ days.

The length of the solar year, however, is slightly less than 365¼ days-by about 11 minutes. To compensate for this discrepancy, the leap year is omitted three times every four hundred years.

In other words, a century year cannot be a leap year unless it is divisible by 400. Thus 1700, 1800, and 1900 were not leap years, but 1600, 2000, and 2400 are leap years.

How to calculate leap year: Divide by 4: Whole number is leap years: Fractions is not leap years

What are your chances of being born on leap day?

About 1 in 1,500.

How to calculate leap year – When is the birthday party?

If you are born on a Leap Year, can you get your driver’s license as early as February 28th? Well, each state decides whether or not February 28 or March 1 will be the day you are eligible to get your license. Most states, however, consider March 1st the official day. For instance, the Michigan Vehicle Code states that people born on February 29th “are deemed to have been born on March 1st.” Another fun fact: Leap year babies yet their driver’s licenses when they are officially four years old (16)! There are no rules on when you have a party, however, so really in day in February or March is fair game to celebrate a leap year birthday.

How many people were born on leap day?

There are about 187,000 people in the US and 4 million people in the world who were born on Leap Day.

The rules for determining a leap year

Most years that can be divided evenly by 4 are leap years.

Exception: Century years are NOT leap years UNLESS they can be evenly divided by 400.

How to calculate leap year – When did leap year originate?

The Gregorian calendar is closely based on the Julian calendar, which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 45 BC. The Julian calendar featured a 12-month, 365-day year, with an intercalary day inserted every fourth year at the end of February to make an average year of 365.25 days. But because the length of the solar year is actually 365.242216 days, the Julian year was too long by .0078 days (11 minutes 14 seconds).

This may not seem like a lot, but over the course of centuries it added up. Until in the 16th century, the vernal equinox was falling around March 11 instead of March 21. In 1582, Pope Gregory XIII adjusted the calendar by moving the date ahead by 11 days and by instituting the exception to the rule for leap years. This new rule, whereby a century year is a leap year only if divisible by 400, is the sole feature that distinguishes the Gregorian calendar from the Julian calendar.

Following the Gregorian reform, the average length of the year was 365.2425 days, an even closer approximation to the solar year. At this rate, it will take more than 3,000 years for the Gregorian calendar to gain one extra day in error.

How to calculate leap year: Divide by 4: Whole number is leap years: Fractions is not leap years

How to calculate leap year – A Quick History Lesson

The Egyptians were the first to come up with the idea of adding a leap day once every four years to keep the calendar in sync with the solar year. Later, the Romans adopted this solution for their calendar, and they became the first to designate February 29 as the leap day.

But Wait! It’s Not Quite that Simple!

The math seems to work out beautifully when you add an extra day to the calendar every four years to compensate for the extra quarter of a day in the solar year. As we said earlier, however, the solar year is just about 365 ¼ days long, but not exactly! The exact length of a solar year is actually 11 minutes and 14 seconds less than 365 ¼ days. That means that even if you add a leap day every four years, the calendar would still overshoot the solar year by a little bit—11 minutes and 14 seconds per year. These minutes and seconds really start to add up: after 128 years, the calendar would gain an entire extra day. So, the leap year rule, “add a leap year every four years” was a good rule, but not good enough!

Calendar Correction, Part II

To rectify the situation, the creators of our calendar (the Gregorian calendar, introduced in 1582) decided to omit leap years three times every four hundred years. This would shorten the calendar every so often and rid it of the annual excess of 11 minutes and 14 seconds. So in addition to the rule that a leap year occurs every four years, a new rule was added: a century year is not a leap year unless it is evenly divisible by 400. This rule manages to eliminate three leap years every few hundred years.

It’s Smooth Sailing for the Next 3,300 Years

This ingenious correction worked beautifully in bringing the calendar and the solar year in harmony, pretty much eliminating those pesky extra 11 minutes and 14 seconds. Now the calendar year and the solar year are just about a half a minute off. At that rate, it takes 3,300 years for the calendar year and solar year to diverge by a day.

Shopping Centre in Cape Town

Shopping Centre in Cape Town

Find every Shopping Centre in Cape Town with the help of Strydom Web Directory.

This is THE page for Cape Town Shopaholics.

Shopping Centre in Cape Town – Cape Quarter Lifestyle Village

The Cape Quarter is the most unique retail experience in Cape Town.
Come over and wonder between our rare delights as you fall in love with the boutique shopping experience in the historic De Waterkant district. You’ll leave knowing why we are the home of rare delights.
Our carefully curated tenant list includes over 100 unique stores and restaurants.

Shopping Centre in Cape Town - Cape Quarter Lifestyle Village

But even better news is that we are open 7 days a week (Monday – Friday 9 am – 6 pm, Saturday 9 am – 4 pm, Sunday 10 am – 2 pm) with 900 parking bays.

TRADING HOURS: Monday – Friday 9 am – 6 pm | Saturday 9 am – 4 pm | Sunday & Public Holidays 10 am – 2 pm

ADDRESS: 27 Somerset Road, Green Point, Cape Town | EMAIL: | TEL: 021 421 1111

Phone: 021 421 1111

Spar trading hours are Mon – Fri: 10am – 6pm, Sat & Public Holidays: 10am – 3pm, Sun: Closed

Lou Lou’s trading hours are Monday – Saturday 11am – 2am


Victoria and Alfred Waterfront

The Victoria and Alfred Waterfront is one of Africa’s most visited destinations and attracts 24 million people every year. Its setting, in the oldest working harbour in the southern hemisphere, is simply spectacular: it has Table Mountain as a dramatic backdrop as well as extensive views of the ocean, city bowl and the mountain peaks of the Hottentots-Holland Mountains.

Victoria and Alfred Waterfront

This 123-hectare mixed-use development, which caters to both local and international visitors, has everything on offer from residential to commercial property, which includes hotels, retail districts, and extensive dining, leisure and entertainment facilities. Its many heritage sites and tourism landmarks make it both exceptional and unique, as does the recently opened Zeitz Museum of Contemporary Art Africa (MOCAA), which hosts the world’s largest collection of contemporary art from Africa.

Victoria Wharf Parking Garage

The V&A Waterfront has more than 7500 open-air and underground parking bays situated around the property. Each parking garage is patrolled and monitored around the clock, giving visitors peace of mind while they visit.

Click on the relevant parking garage tab below for parking rates. For any parking queries, please call our Info Desk at +27 21 408 7600 between 09:00 and 21:00.

0 – 1 HR R10
1 – 1.5 HRS R15
1.5 – 3 HRS R20
3 – 4 HRS R30
4 – 5 HRS R40
5 – 6 HRS R50
6 – 8 HRS R60
8 – 10 HRS R70
10 – 12 HRS R90
12 – 24 HRS R100

Contact Us

tel: +27 21 408 7600


Operating Hours
9AM – 9PM
The Watershed 10AM – 7PM (Oct-Apr)>
10AM – 6PM (May-Sep)

V&A Waterfront Head Office

19 Dock Road, V&A Waterfront Cape Town

Website :

Shopping Centre in Cape Town – Gardens Shopping Centre

Gardens Shopping Centre is the City Bowl’s most popular shopping oasis. Quite fittingly, this one-stop source of life’s little luxuries and daily necessities, is just a stone’s throw from Cape Town’s original 17th Century provisioning hub, the Company Gardens.

Shopping Centre in Cape Town - Gardens Shopping Centre

It is also one of the city’s most established shopping centres and as quintessentially Cape Town as Table Mountain. It’s the rendezvous of a cosmopolitan café society and a quiet, personable shopping alternative to those sprawling malls elsewhere in Cape Town.

Park. Meet. Shop. Eat. Get things done. This is the life

Regular customers visit the centre for its unique high-street, boutique-style offerings – such as food outlets, arts and crafts supplies, and health and beauty stores. There are some 85 specialist shops – from a tobacconist, fashion, homeware décor and gift stores whose goods often grace the pages of fashion and lifestyle magazines.

Physical Address Cnr. Mill and Buitenkant Streets, Gardens, Cape Town

Postal Address P.O. Box 12007, Mill Street, 8010

Telephone Number (021) 465 1842

Fax Number (021) 465 2097


09h00 – 19h00
09h00 – 17h00
Sundays and public holidays:
09h00 – 14h00

Tyger Valley Shopping Centre


Whether you’re looking for fashion, a fun night out or simply want to relax, browse or shop – Tyger Valley Centre is your perfect destination. Discover a unique shopping experience – offering the greatest variety in fashion, health & beauty, the latest in Athleisure & Sporting, or spoil yourself with the latest Homeware trends & comforts.

Tyger Valley is the leading regional shopping destination in the Northern Suburbs – just a 15-minute drive from Cape Town CBD and moments from the beautiful winelands. Tyger Valley is conveniently located just off from the N1, with easy access from Willie Van Schoor off ramp.

Tyger Valley Shopping Centre

Shop at over 250 stores with everything from flagship retailers, trendy eateries and decor to furniture, toys, medical care and much more.

Experience modern, stylish shopping centred around YOU! You’re perfect choice and family shopping destination.

Food, Sport & Fun Court

Tyger Valley offers a vibrant Food & Entertainment Court which is a great place to have fun or relax with your perfect treat. Discover the delicious fast food choices and experience a selection of mouth-watering moments.

Funky Frogs located next to Dion Wired is the perfect place to keep our young shoppers entertained.

Big Screen Sport: The big screen will keep you updated with the latest in sport so that you don’t miss a single score.

The food court is the ideal place for family fun and entertainment.

Tyger Valley prides itself on providing our valued shoppers with the best shopping experience. To add to your wishes we have provided the following services:

Information Desks

Our team of well-trained customer care representatives are available to handle any queries you may have. Information desks are located in the Game and House and Home Courts.


Tyger Valley has several wheelchairs available for your convenience. These can be booked at the information kiosks.


Monday – Saturday
09:00 – 19:00
09:00 – 17:00
Public Holidays
09:00 – 19:00

Tel: (021) 914 1822 | Fax: (012) 914 1318
Security direct line: (012) 918 6802

Website :

Shopping Centre in Cape Town – Golden Acre Shopping Centre

SHOP YOUR WAY, CAPE TOWN STYLEGolden Acre Shopping Centre is the bustling hub where the people of the Mother City connect.

Catching a train, taxi or bus? Or some quality time with friends? This is the perfect place for shopping on the move.

Choose from over 100 shops – including food, fashion, groceries, furniture, services and essentials like cell phones and airtime.

Quick. Easy. And on your way.

Quality shopping meets convenience in the heart of Cape Town.

Shopping Centre in Cape Town - Golden Acre Shopping Centre


9 Adderley St, Foreshore, Cape Town, 8001


Mon – Fri: 09:00 – 17:30
Sat: 09:00 – 14:00
Sun: 09:00 – 13:00 ( Optional Trade )
Public Holidays: 09:00 – 13:00 ( Optional Trade )

Willowbridge Shopping Centre

Nestled on the edge of picturesque river parkland in the heart of Cape Town’s Northern Suburbs is Willowbridge Shopping Centre, an elegant piazza which caters to the most discerning shopper.

Willowbridge has all the anchor stores you can expect i.e. Pick ‘n Pay,  Woolworths, Dis-Chem and @Home, but offers the ultimate lifestyle centre experience with its open air and modern design. In addition to its incomparable setting, Willowbridge Shopping Centre offers free play areas for children, a green belt for the active as well as a Slowmarket every Saturday and Sunday.

Willowbridge Shopping Centre

The 90 stores in the unique retail mix include Harley-Davidson and the first Yuppiechef physical store. Choose from 13 top quality restaurants, overlooking safe play areas or perfect for a romantic date.

Shopping at its best – The Willowbridge Way!


General Manager
Salome Thonnard
Salome Thonnard
Financial Manager
Francois Du Plessis
Marketing Manager
Lizelle Louw
Office Administrator
Theresa Boks


Willowbridge Shopping Centre offers baby changing facilities in the P1 foyer below Woolworths and on the first level above Dischem.



Willowbridge Shopping Centre has wheel chairs available to shoppers. Shoppers can contact Centre Management offices at 021 914 7218 or ask Security for assistance and a wheel chair will be delivered to the closest entrance.

Disabled Parking

Willowbridge Shopping Centre has parking facilities for the disabled at all of our entrances for your convenience. These allocated bays are marked with the disabled icon, which is easily recognised by shoppers.
Please ensure that your disabled disk is visible at all times.

Please note that illegally parked vehicles will be clamped and a Clamping Fee of R250 is payable at the Parking Office on P2.

Toilets for the Disabled

Willowbridge Shopping Centre offers toilets for our disabled customers. The toilets are unisex and are positioned in the P1 foyer below Woolworths, on the first level above Dischem and at the common toilets at Willowbridge North.


Parking Office                +27 21 914 7219     

Willowbridge Centre has 903 under cover parking bays on P1 and P2 and 472 open bays located at the front of the Centre. Card payments are accepted at all paystations.

0 – 30 min


30min – 1 hour


1 – 3 hours


3 – 4 hours


4 – 5 hours


+ 5 hours


Lost Ticket



Control Room                +27 21 914 7219     

Willowbridge Shopping Centre is committed to making your visit to the Centre a safe and secure one. Security coverage for the Shopping Centre is scheduled on a 24 hour-a-day basis, 7days a week, 365 days a year using surveillance cameras. This is to ensure that our customers are constantly provided with assistance by Willowbridge Shopping Centre friendly and helpful security officers who are constantly patrolling the entire shopping facility.

Website :

Shopping Centre in Cape Town – Bayside Mall

Bayside Mall is conveniently situated in the heart of the Blaauwberg area, a mere five minute walk from the Bayside BRT Station with a friendly offering of variety, expertise and convenience all on one level with fashion, entertainment and quality services.

Bayside Mall’s fashion offering includes most of South Africa’s major retailers, as well as a number of quality specialty stores. Bayside Mall offers a large variety of eateries, including loads of coffee shops and restaurants. Ster Kinekor, situated at the heart of the food court offers 8 spacious cinemas and the latest sound technology.

Bayside Mall

Whilst enjoying the casual atmosphere of the mall, stock up on your health and beauty requirements, or spoil yourself with a gift from one of our specialised jewellery stores. Be sure to visit Bayside Mall for convenience and pleasure.

Monday – Friday: 09h00 – 19h00 | Saturday: 09h00 – 19h00 | Sunday: 09h00 – 17h00 | Public Holidays: 09h00 – 17h00

Cinemas and some of the restaurants are open until later | Optional trading days: New Year’s Day, Good Friday, Christmas Day


Physical Address:
Bayside Mall
Corner of West Coast Road
and Blaauwberg Road
Postal Address:
PO Box 1
021 557 4350
021 557 4521
GPS Co-Ordinates: