How to make Slime Activator with Salt – This is our number one favorite on the slime activator list because it makes an awesome stretchy slime. It’s also more easily available for UK, Australian and Canadian residents.
How to make Slime Activator with Salt : SALINE SOLUTION
This slime activator is also commonly used as a contact solution, but I highly recommend picking up the lesser expensive saline solution instead.
Also, on our slime activators list is salt. So how to make slime activator with salt. You have to make a saline solution first by mixing salt with water. To make this saline solution use one cup of water and half a teaspoon of salt and place this in a pan. Boil this for approximately fifteen minutes and keep the pan lid on to avoid evaporation. You will then need to allow the pan to cool until it is at room temperature. Finally, carefully pour this solution into a bottle and jar which has a lid. You are now ready to start combining it with the glue to make some gooey fun stuff!
How to make Slime Activator with Salt – Salt is a good option as an activator for slime as it is readily available and it is also cheap to purchase. The volume of salt that you can purchase can produce a large quantity of slime which is useful if you need to make a large amount or if you plan to make it on a few occasions.
Food coloring, confetti, glitter, and other fun mix-ins (CHANGE FOR RECIPE)
STEP 1: In a bowl mix 1/2 cup water and 1/2 cup of glue well to combine completely.
STEP 2: Now’s the time to add (color, glitter, or confetti)! Remember when you add color to white glue, the color will be lighter. Use clear glue for jewel toned colors!
STEP 3: Stir in 1/4- 1/2 tsp baking soda.
Baking soda helps to firm and form the slime. You can play around with how much you add but we prefer between 1/4 and 1/2 tsp per batch. I get asked all the time why do you need baking soda for slime. Baking soda helps to improve the firmness of the slime. You can experiment with your own ratios!
This slime recipe is also called BAKING SODA SLIME!
STEP 4: Mix in 1 tbsp saline solution and stir until slime forms and pulls away from sides of the bowl. This is exactly how much you will need with the Target Sensitive Eyes brand, but other brands may differ slightly!
If your slime still feels too sticky, you may need a few more drops of saline solution. As I mentioned above, start by squirting a few drops of the solution onto your hands and kneading your slime longer. You can always add but you can’t take away. Saline solution is preferred over contact solution.
STEP 5: Start kneading your slime! It will appear stringy at first but just work it around with your hands and you will notice the consistency changes. You can also put it in a clean container and set it aside for 3 minutes, and you will also notice the change in consistency!
SLIME TIP: We always recommend kneading your slime well after mixing. Kneading the slime really helps to improve its consistency. The trick with this slime is to put a few drops of the saline soluti9n onto your hands before picking up the slime.
You can knead the slime in the bowl before you pick it up as well. This slime is stretchy but can be stickier. However, keep in mind that although adding more activator (saline solution) reduces the stickiness, and it will eventually create a stiffer slime.
You will love how easy and stretchy this saline slime is to make, and play with too! Once you have your desired slime consistency, time to have fun! How big of a stretch can you get without the slime breaking?
SLIME TIPS AND TRICKS on How to make Slime Activator with Salt
Baking soda helps to firm and form the slime. You can experiment with your own ratios!
BAKING SODA SLIME TIP: Clear glue slime usually doesn’t need quite as much baking soda as white glue slime!
The saline solution is the slime activator and helps the slime to get its rubbery texture! Be careful, adding too much saline solution can make for a slime that’s too stiff and not stretchy!
Give this slime a fast stir to activate the mixture. You will notice the thickness change as you stir it. You will also notice the volume of your mixture changes as you whip it up.
Slime is awesome for tactile sensory play, but make sure to wash hands and surfaces after making and playing with slime.
Make a few batches in different colors and swirl them together as shown in the cover photo or below! Think of what other color combinations your kids would enjoy. Slime making is only limited by the imagination of the hands creating it!
Learn how to unblock a website blocked by administrator in this informational article
How to unblock a website blocked by administrator
Remember when you quickly went on to Facebook while on a coffee break at work? How about that time you opened up a Torrent site in the college computer lab? You thought you got away with it and no one noticed? You’re probably wrong, because System Administrators or sys-admins (or sss-admins – because people compare them to snakes) see everything! They’re not too liked because of how rigid they can be.
Websites can be blocked at three levels: Computer level, Network level or the ISP/Governmental level. Some DNS services, such as Open DNS, too provide options to block certain types of websites for different users sharing the computer. Then, there are some software other than the built-in “Restricted Websites” in Internet Options that help in blocking a website.
Remember, though, don’t hate the person, hate the position, because he or she is just doing their job. That disclaimer aside, it’s time to learn how to stick it to them! Remember, though there can be serious consequences for such actions, and losing your job, or even prosecution and jailtime might be on the cards, depending on where you work. Plus, if you happen to be an actual sys-admin, this article might help you learn how people are bypassing your restrictions. Now that we’ve saved our collective backsides from lawsuits, on with the article!
How to unblock a website blocked by administrator – Is The Website Down?
You may not be able to access a particular website due to some outage. Check with these website monitors. The check – Is a website up or down. It will tell you if a blog or website is working, online, up, down right now or not to anyone or everyone.
Access Website Blocked On a Computer
There are different options to access a website, and they depend on the mode used to block the site.
For example, Open DNS employs category system, and if you wish to go to a category that your parents have chosen to block it for you, it will provide a notification.
Sys-admins are a bunch of tools. No, that came out wrong, what we meant was that they use a bunch of tools. First step in bypassing the tools is leaning about them yourself:
Network firewalls – These block incoming and outgoing access to whatever the sss-admin wants to block – websites and IP addresses.
Installation access – If you’re unable to install or upgrade things on your system this is because of restrictions on installations.
Process list – You may be barred from being able to view or change the current running processes on your system.
Blocked ports – You may be barred from accessing certain TCP/IP ports which some services might require to be open in order to run.
There might be a few other restrictions in place as well, but they will be similar to the ones we’ve mentioned here, and you can bypass most with the knowledge you get from this article.
How to unblock a website blocked by administrator – HTTP and HTTPS
The first thing to try is to add or remove an “s” to the “http” preceding the website URL. For example, typing in https://www.facebook.com may open it for you because only “http://www.facebook.com” was blocked.
Likewise, if it was “https” blocked, you can try “http” only to see if you can access the website. The term “https” represents a secure connection while the “http” is the unencrypted version of the website URL.
One of the most common ways to get around a firewall is to use a proxy website. Of course this is common, so any decent sys-admin will have already blocked all commonly known proxies. Get Firefox installed (even if you have to get it via the sys-admin themselves). Start Firefox and go to Tools > Options > Connection Settings. You can find a list of available proxy IP addresses online as well.
A more reliable option would be to use UltraSurf or JonDo. Both use the self-invented GIFT system which is a high-encryption node-proxy anti-jamming system that allegedly has higher security standards than even financial transactions online. Both UltraSurf and JonDo are simple EXE files that connect automatically to a proxy server. They are portable software and can be run from a USB drive. Some systems have USB access restricted though.
You can also use remote access if you have a home PC on an unrestricted connection you can use that as your private proxy server to browse using its connection. Just go to Start > Accessories > Remote Desktop Connection. If your home computer has a static IP address, put that in (if it does not, then sign it up with dyndns.org to associate a name to your computer). Once connected, you can use it like a virtual machine.
Using your phone’s mobile data hotspot is another way of bypassing all internet restrictions. You could also use a VPN service to be able to browse freely, over an encrypted connection.
Internet Options – Restricted Websites & Content Advisor
If toggling between http and https does not help, check the error message you are getting when trying to access. If it says “Due to Restrictions On This Account”, it could be a Family Safety Software. Not much can be done in this case except to try portable browsers that do not need to be installed and offer proxy as well. We’ll get to that in a while.
If there is no account-related message, probably the site has been blocked using Internet Options. Go to Internet Options in Control Panel and on the Security tab, click on Restricted Websites in the Internet Security Zone, and then on the button labeled “Sites” (See image below). Check if the URL of the website you wish to access is listed there. If yes, select the URL and click Remove. You’ll be prompted for confirmation. That done, the website should open without any problems on any of your browsers.
There is yet another method to block certain types of websites from opening – using the same Internet Options dialog box. Click on the Content tab. Based upon your version of Windows, you might see “Content Advisor” or “Family Safety” button. This option is used to restrict certain types of websites from opening for different users. That means you can use the option to block websites at the user level. If you know the password, you can click the button and change settings. If not, you will have to ask permissions from your parents or network admin. Here too, you can use a portable browser to bypass restrictions.
How to unblock a website blocked by administrator – Installation Access
If you are mainly reliant on a school or university computer for projects, research and more work, it can get particularly irritating when you want to use a free and legal tool that is essential for your project and you simply don’t have access to do it. Even on a work PC, getting the admin department to install something for you each time you need it can be a real pain. Besides, what harm can VLC really do to a machine?
One of the simplest ways to get around this is to get portable versions of the applications that you need on a USB drive and run them on your target machine. Contrary to what you expect, portable versions are available for a large number of applications. Head over to portableapps for a full list that contains all the categories and options that you will need.
Another method involves getting the installer file to extract into a folder.What this method does is, it simply gets the files that the installer would normally place in the installation folder, into another folder of your choice by making the installer behave as an archive. Keep in mind that this is trial and error method and may not work with all applications. Once you have the installer files with you, you need to download an application called the “Universal Extractor”.
Once you have the application, run it, and in the window that opens up, choose the correct option to select the installer to be extracted. It also lets you select the target folder, which is the same folder as the installer by default. Once you have done this, you will be prompted to select the extraction method. If you are not sure about the method here, try each choice once until you get the extracted files in that folder. Now you can simply copy these files onto a USB and run them on a computer of your
Using A Portable Proxy Browser To Access Restricted Websites
You can download a portable browser that doubles up as a proxy such as KProxy. This product has both portable and installation type versions.
The best thing about the website browser is that it offers online browsing without actually typing the website address in the main URL bar. Instead, you type the URL in the text box given in the middle of the KProxy website.
Using A Different DNS
When some website is banned in an area, it is the ISP blocking traffic to and from that website. Changing DNS settings from your ISP to something different might help you access the site. For example, you can change your DNS to Google Public DNS.
To change DNS, right click the network icon in the taskbar and select Open Network and Sharing. In the Window that appears, double-click on your network. It will bring up a dialog box and there you can change the DNS under IPv4.
How to unblock a website blocked by administrator – Unblock Ports
For this one, you will absolutely need admin access, so refer to the earlier part of this article if you skipped it. Once you’re done with that, or if you already have admin rights, there are essentially four ways in which an admin could have blocked your USB ports, and we are quickly going to take all four of them down!
Method 1 – go to Start > Run and type regedit and hit [Enter]. Navigate to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\USBSTOR and on the right pane, click on Start and change the value to 3, then hit OK. Method 2 – Just check the device manager, as ports can be disabled from here as well. Right click on a selected port and click on Enable
Method 3 – If your sys-admin has gone one step further and uninstalled the USB drivers completely, simply plugging your USB device back into the machine should start a search for the right drivers and their subsequent installation. Method 4 – Get a third party tool to enable USB ports. Such tools are usually one-click solutions to enable/disable ports, and you can find quite a few good ones online.
Use a Proxy To Access Restricted Websites
Proxy websites are accessed only after entering the URL in your browser, and they will allow you to browse other websites by using the internet connection on that website. A Proxy server is like a proxy site – the difference being – you will be given an IP address that will get set up in your browser using which you will be able to surf the internet.
You may use proxy websites or programs to access websites blocked in your area. One such proxy is UltraSurf. This was specifically designed to allow the population of a certain country to access social networking sites. There are some websites who let you easily access and open blocked websites. OpenBlockedWebsite.com and HideMyAss.com are two such websites you may want to check out. They act as free web anonymizers that aim to unblock blocked websites and offer free anonymous web surfing. Also, check out Hola Unblocker.
These are some methods that will help you access websites restricted on your home network, corporate LANs, or the ones banned in your country.
How to unblock a website blocked by administrator – Access the Taskmanager
Thanks to the super efficient operating system that Windows has been, and the tendency of school or work systems to be ‘extremely generous’ with configuratioins (that’s sarcasm), sometimes the only option one is left with is opening up the task manager and killing unnecessary processes. Sadly sss-admins have been known to block this as well. You need one all powerful tool to get beyond this unbreachable wall, and that tool is…(cue drumroll)….Microsoft Word!!!
No, we’re not kidding, really. There is a loophole in Microsoft’s Office software for creating documents that has associated a ‘Tasks’ property to it, that conveniently returns a list of all the processes running on the computer. There are a number of things you can do with this loophole which involve running some scripts using the command prompt, that lets you do all sorts of things like getting a list of processes, closing a process or even maximising it. Check out the exact process here.
How to make Homemade Brown Gravy with Flour and Water? It can be INTIMIDATING but I will show you how to make homemade gravy (brown gravy recipe) that turns out perfect every single time, just like my Mom taught me.
This Thanksgiving gravy is required at your next feast in just a week!
I really think that a Thanksgiving meal is more than just the turkey… How to make Homemade Brown Gravy with Flour and Water – It’s the Thanksgiving sides that really take the feast over the top and this gravy is one of my FAVORITE parts of that meal.
There are VARIOUS recipes and methods for making gravy.
I have seen recipes that are made with milk, water, meat drippings, bouillon BUT my family makes brown gravy recipe with beef broth and drippings and I love it
How to make Homemade Brown Gravy with Flour and Water?
Easy to make
Uses simple ingredients from your pantry (6 ingredients only!)
Pairs very well with many other recipes too
Works every times and never fails
Ready in just 15 minutes
You can serve this homemade brown gravy with:
Here are some flavor VARIATIONS you can try with this easy gravy recipe:
Add some sliced onions or sliced mushrooms to give it more flavor and this also compliments beef recipes really well.
Instead of beef drippings, use different kinds of meat drippings from sausage, bacon, turkey or even chicken.
Add some more spices like paprika, red chili flakes or herbs like dried oregano, thyme, dill or garlic to enhance the flavor and give this traditional gravy recipe a twist.
How to make Homemade Brown Gravy with Flour and Water from Scratch?
Start off by heating butter and beef drippings in a non-stick saucepan. Add flour and mix until golden brown. Add broth gradually, while constantly mixing. Add salt and pepper and let it simmer and thicken to the desired consistency. Remove from heat and stir in some butter to make silky smooth glossy gravy.
How to make gravy with flour and water?
My recipe below uses flour and beef broth but some people use a combination of water and broth instead of all broth. It’s just a personal preference.
Is homemade beef gravy same as homemade white gravy?
Based on my research, they are not the same. White gravy is usually made with a combination of butter, milk and flour with some sausage drippings and no broth is used. It’s also much whiter in color compared to brown gravy.
How to thicken brown gravy? How to make gravy thicker?
Some people use cornstarch and some people use flour. I prefer using flour.
How to make brown gravy without meat drippings?
Some people rave about their gravy recipe without drippings (brown gravy recipe with beef bouilon cubes) but it was not as good as this homemade classic brown gravy.
Are brown gravy and beef gravy the same?
Yes, they are the same.
How do you make gravy from meat juices?
That is the classic way of making gravy. Save the pan drippings from your cooked beef like stew meat or roast or steak and cook it together with flour, butter and broth to make silky smooth gravy.
How to make Homemade Brown Gravy with Flour and Water? – Can you freeze brown gravy?
Since this is NOT a milk-based gravy, it can be frozen in sealed freezer bags for up to 1 month. Milk-based gravy should not be frozen because they will separate when thawing.
Here are some TIPS on How to make Homemade Brown Gravy with Flour and Water:
Use UNSALTED butter and LOW SODIUM broth to prevent the gravy from becoming too salty.
If you have some extra time, TOAST the flour on the stovetop until it’s golden brown and use that in the recipe. It gives a darker color and better overall flavor (a wonderful nutty flavor!).
Beef broth tastes the BEST but chicken broth can be used too.
Use NON-STICK saucepan because it prevents the gravy from sticking and burning.
You must add the broth SLOWLY and continue whisking constantly to PREVENT lumps from forming.
To fix LUMPY gravy, use a hand held blender and that gets rids of most lumps and make the gravy smooth.
Gravy tends to THICKEN the longer it sits and that’s why you should consider serving immediately.
To fix thick gravy, mix in some water or broth to thin it out to your desired consistency.
You can use this recipe to prepare an easy MAKE AHEAD gravy before the big Thanksgiving dinner and save some time.
Recipe can be doubled or tripled easily.
If you are ever short on time, you can use store-bought brown gravy mix to make thick gravy too but I find this classic homemade brown gravy so much better.
How to make Homemade Brown Gravy with Flour and Water – Nothing makes a meal feel more complete than gravy. It’s the perfect finishing touch to mashed potatoes, a glorious addition to beef, and an absolute must on most holiday tables. Gravy by itself can elevate a meal from boring to amazing, yet a lot of people avoid making it.
How to make Homemade Brown Gravy with Flour and Water – Recipe One
3 Tablespoons oil (olive, bacon grease, canola, etc) I personally use olive.
3 Tablespoons flour
1 tsp pepper
1 chicken, beef or vegetable boullion cube
3/4 cup water
In a pan, heat olive oil. Add pepper and boullion cube. Stir for about a minute. Add flour, quickly stirring to make a paste. If the paste is a little ‘dry’ add a few drops of oil until it’s kind of clumpy. Sautee your lumpy sauce until lightly brown, add cold water to pan, quickly stirring. If you add hot water, your flour will cook fast and you will end up with a hot lumpy mess. Continue to stir until you have a liquid cloudy mixture. Bring to a simmer and reduce heat. If sauce is a little thin, cook at a simmer until you reach desired thickness. Use as you would most gravy.
How to make a Roux for Beef Gravy : There are several ways to make gravy: it can be thickened with a cornstarch slurry, made smooth with the addition of a roux, or served simply as the drippings straight from the pan. Gravy made with a roux—a mixture of fat and flour—is a classic preparation, using the pan drippings from your holiday bird or roast. The roux adds intense flavor and a velvety texture to the gravy. But don’t worry if you aren’t cooking a whole turkey or beef roast in the oven—you can also make a roux gravy with butter or oil to amp up an everyday chicken or to top Salisbury steak.
A Roux Defined
A roux combines equal parts fat from either oil, butter, or the renderings of the roasted food, along with some flour. It can be used as the base of a sauce or as a thickener in dishes such as clam chowder and macaroni and cheese.
Roux ranges in color from pale to deep brown, darkening the longer you cook it. A lighter roux preserves the flavor of the fat—whether butter or pan drippings or lard—whereas a darker roux takes on its own nutty, caramelized character. You can decide how long to cook the roux depending on how you plan to use it. For example, you want clam chowder to retain a white, creamy color, so a pale quick-cooked roux works best. Gumbo, on the other hand, can benefit from a deeper, more complex-tasting roux, so cooking it down until darker is best. For a holiday gravy, you might prefer something in between, perhaps in the color range of peanut butter.
The Basic Roux Gravy Formula
How to make a Roux for Beef Gravy – The ratio of fat to flour to liquid is important when making a roux-based gravy, and depending on how thick you like your gravy, you can adjust the amount of fat and flour. To make 1 cup of roux gravy, start with 2 tablespoons of fat, 2 tablespoons of flour, and 1 cup of liquid. (If you would like a thinner gravy, decrease the fat and flour measurements to 1 1/2.) The liquid can be broth, milk, or heavy cream, depending on how rich and decadent you want the finished product. You can also combine smaller amounts of heavy cream or wine with broth for added texture and flavor.
The Method for Making Roux Grav – How to make a Roux for Beef Gravy
Making a roux gravy isn’t difficult, you just need to make sure you have all of the correct proportions. First, determine how much gravy you need and then adjust the fat amount up or down if necessary according to the basic formula. Measure the amount of fat or oil in the pan drippings after you cook your turkey or another piece of meat—you can pour all of the drippings into a liquid measuring cup and then remove what you need, or simply scoop out the amount of fat with a tablespoon measuring spoon and set aside. (Discard the remaining drippings or save for another use.) Add butter, cooking oil, rendered bacon grease, or lard if you need to increase the volume of fat.
How to make a Roux for Beef Gravy – You can prepare the gravy right in the roasting pan (making sure to first pour off any extra fat beyond the amount you need for gravy), which allows you to scrape up the brown bits of flavor stuck to the bottom. Or, if you prefer, transfer the drippings to a clean saucepan or skillet. Bring the fat back up to a medium-low temperature if it cooled.
Sprinkle an equal amount of all-purpose or Wondra flour onto the hot fat and cook it, whisking continuously, for at least 5 minutes over low heat to remove the raw flavor of the flour. How to make a Roux for Beef Gravy – Add the corresponding ratio of liquid slowly to the roux while continuing to whisk it. Bring it to a simmer whisking continuously to prevent lumps until it reaches your desired thickness. Keep in mind that the gravy continues to thicken as it stands, so resist the urge to speed up the process by adding additional flour.
Final Adjustments to Roux Gravy
Once the roux gravy is cooked, you may decide to alter the consistency and flavor a bit. To thin the gravy, add a little more broth. To thicken runny gravy, cook it a little longer. Unless you started with a heavily seasoned piece of meat, you probably need to add salt and pepper before you pull the gravy off the stove. As a general rule, stir in 1/2 teaspoon of salt for each cup of liquid, but make sure to taste first.
Use a fat separator if the gravy seems greasy. For an exceptionally smooth gravy, strain it through a sieve into your serving boat or bowl.
How to make a Roux for Beef Gravy – Right Color Roux for Your Recipe
White roux is cooked for about 5 minutes, just until the flour has lost its raw smell, but before any golden color or toasted aroma develops. This roux is used to thicken chowders and milk-based sauces. Classic macaroni and cheese, tuna noodle casserole, and New England clam chowder are all based on milk thickened with a white roux.
Blond, or golden roux, is cooked approximately 20 minutes to a light, golden-brown shade with an aroma resembling popcorn or toasted bread. This is the most commonly-used roux, desired for the richness and a slight nuttiness it provides along with its excellent thickening power. Blond roux is a good, general-purpose roux to keep on hand for thickening gravy, sauces, soups, and stews.
Brown roux is cooked about 35 minutes until it reaches a peanut butter-brown color. Its aroma is more pronounced and sharper than the nutty smell of blond roux. Cooked to this stage, flour begins to lose its thickening power, requiring more roux to thicken a given amount of liquid.
Dark Brown Roux
Even darker than the preceding brown roux, dark brown roux is cooked approximately 45 minutes until it is the color of melted milk chocolate. Its aroma is mellower than the strong, roasted flavor of brown roux, and will actually smell a little like chocolate. This stage has the least thickening power of all four; its main purpose is as a flavoring agent with thickening being secondary.
Slow Cooked Roast Chicken Jamie Oliver – Cooking a chicken in a slow cooker makes it very succulent and packed full of flavour. This simple, freezable recipe is perfect for feeding a family
Prep: 15 Min
Cook: 5 hrs, 30 mins, Easy, Serves 4
Slow Cooked Roast Chicken Jamie Oliver – Nutrition: per serving
Slow Cooked Roast Chicken Jamie Oliver – Ingredients
1 large onion, peeled and cut into thick slices
2 carrots, halved lengthways and chopped
1 small or medium chicken
2 tbsp butter, softened
1 bay leaf
Slow Cooked Roast Chicken Jamie Oliver – Method
Slow Cooked Roast Chicken Jamie Oliver – Preheat the slow cooker if necessary. Put the onion and carrot in the base of the stock pot to form a protective layer to sit the chicken on, and add 100ml boiling water. Gently ease the chicken skin away from the breast. Stir some salt and pepper into the butter and push the butter under the skin. Put the bay leaf in the cavity of the chicken and sit on top of the onion and carrot.
Slow Cooked Roast Chicken Jamie Oliver – Cook on low for 5 hrs, then check that the chicken is cooked by wiggling the wing – it should feel very loose. Tip the chicken up so any liquid inside flows out, then cook on high for 30 mins. If the chicken isn’t cooked through after the initial time, cook for another hour, then turn the heat up.
Slow Cooked Roast Chicken Jamie Oliver – If you want the skin to be browned, grill it for a couple of minutes (make sure your slow cooker insert is flameproof if you keep it in the pot, or transfer it to a roasting tin).
There will be some gravy in the base of the dish with the veg, tip everything through a sieve and press the veg gently to make sure you get every last drop. Serve the veg on the side, if you like.
Perfect roast chicken
Cooks In 1H 25M plus resting time
Difficulty Super easy
Nutrition per serving
Calories 374 19%
Fat 15.8g 23%
Saturates 3.9g 20%
Sugars 9.3g 10%
Salt 1.2g 20%
Protein 45.5g 91%
Carbs 13.4g 5%
Fibre 3.4g –
1 x 1.6 kg higher-welfare chicken
2 medium onions
2 sticks of celery
1 bulb of garlic
1 bunch of mixed fresh herbs , such as, thyme, rosemary, bay
Remove the chicken from the fridge 30 minutes before you want to cook it, to let it come up to room temperature.
Preheat the oven to 240°C/475°F/gas 9.
Wash and roughly chop the vegetables – there’s no need to peel them. Break the garlic bulb into cloves, leaving them unpeeled.
Pile all the veg, garlic and herbs into the middle of a large roasting tray and drizzle with oil.
Drizzle the chicken with oil and season well with sea salt and black pepper, then rub all over the bird. Place the chicken on top of the vegetables.
Carefully prick the lemon all over, using the tip of a sharp knife (if you have a microwave, you could pop the lemon in these for 40 seconds at this point as this will really bring out the flavour). Put the lemon inside the chicken’s cavity, with the bunch of herbs.
Place the tray in the oven, then turn the heat down immediately to 200°C/400°F/gas 6 and cook for 1 hour 20 minutes.
If you’re doing roast potatoes and veggies, this is the time to crack on with them – get them into the oven for the last 45 minutes of cooking.
Baste the chicken halfway through cooking and if the veg look dry, add a splash of water to the tray to stop them from burning.
When the chicken is cooked, take the tray out of the oven and transfer the chicken to a board to rest for 15 minutes or so. Cover it with a layer of tin foil and a tea towel and leave aside while you make your gravy.
To carve your chicken, remove any string and take off the wings (break them up and add to your gravy, along with the veg trivet, for mega flavour). Carefully cut down between the leg and the breast. Cut through the joint and pull the leg off.
Repeat on the other side, then cut each leg between the thigh and the drumstick so you end up with four portions of dark meat. Place these on a serving platter.
You should now have a clear space to carve the rest of your chicken. Angle the knife along the breastbone and carve one side off, then the other.
When you get down to the fussy bits, just use your fingers to pull all the meat off, and turn the chicken over to get all the tasty, juicy bits from underneath. You should be left with a stripped carcass, and a platter full of lovely meat that you can serve with your piping hot gravy and some delicious roast veg.
This Chicken Soup from Bones in Slow Cooker recipe is easy as can be. Just toss a chicken carcass in a pot with some aromatics, add water, soy sauce, and apple cider, and forget about it for a while.
Serving Size: 1 portion
Calories Per Serving: 153
% Daily Value
7% Total Fat 4.8g
Saturated Fat 1.3g
Trans Fat 0g
9% Cholesterol 28.2mg
30% Sodium 728.7mg
4% Total Carbohydrate 12.7g
3% Dietary Fiber 0.8g
28% Protein 13.9g
Chicken Soup from Bones in Slow Cooker Variations
Main recipe lower on page starting with RED heading
Slow Cooker Leftover Roast Chicken Soup
Chicken Soup from Bones in Slow Cooker – Toss your roast chicken carcass and desired aromatics (that means vegetables or herbs) in your slow cooker and cook on slow for 8 hours or overnight. (Trust us, the only thing better than the smell of coffee in the morning is the aroma of chicken soup.) Continue with step 3 in the instructions above. Easy just got even easier.
Leftover Roast Chicken Soup with Carbs
Chicken Soup from Bones in Slow Cooker – If you like rice or pasta, cook some up in a separate pot, stealing some of the broth from the soup pot to use as your cooking liquid.
Egg Drop Soup With Leftover Roast Chicken
Lightly whisk 3 eggs to combine. Stir the finished soup in a clockwise direction and, while still stirring, pour in the eggs in a slow, steady stream. Continue to stir for 1 to 2 minutes, until egg ribbons form. Ladle into bowls and garnish with thinly sliced scallions if you’ve got ’em.
Ingredients for Chicken Soup from Bones in Slow Cooker
Roast chicken carcass with some meat attached (on the wings, back, etc.)
Any aromatics you desire (you know, the usual stuff including garlic, herbs, onion, carrots, ginger, etc.)
1/4 to 1/2 cup soy sauce (Christina Tosi likes Kikkoman)
1/3 to 2/3 cup apple cider or apple juice
1/4 to 1/2 teaspoon black pepper
Directions for Chicken Soup from Bones in Slow Cooker
1. To make the Leftover Roast Chicken Soup in your slow cooker, see the Slow Cooker Variation above. To make the Leftover Roast Chicken Soup on your stove top, combine the chicken carcass and any residual meat and desired aromatics in a large stock pot (5- to 8-quart capacity) and fill the pot with water so the chicken is fully submerged. Set over the lowest of low heat, lid that puppy 3/4 of the way so the water can evaporate a little bit but not too much, and leave it for at least 6 hours, skimming any scum that accumulates on the surface of the stock but leaving any puddles of fat. [Editor’s Note: Christina Tosi leaves the stock simmering overnight. You may or may not wish to do the same. We guess it depends on your level of risk taking and whether your homeowner’s insurance is up to date.]
2. Remove the pot from the heat. Your kitchen smells amazing, right? Strain the liquid from the chicken into another large pot and let the solids rest in the strainer. Walk away for a little while. Brush your teeth. Brush your hair. The chicken should be cool enough to handle at this point.
3. Using your hands, separate the chicken meat from the bones, aromatics, and gelatin. Don’t be grossed out—put your best farm girl face on, roll up your sleeves, and get to work. This should yield 2 to 3 cups light and dark meat, depending on how much chicken you ate the night before. Toss the bones and stuff in the trash. Add the shredded chicken to the pot with the broth. (You can cover and refrigerate the soup until dinnertime.)
4. Bring the soup to a gentle simmer. If you want, you can clean out your fridge by throwing in a handful of baby carrots, chopped onion, Brussels sprouts, spinach, or whatever else you’ve got languishing in your vegetable bin. It’ll taste awesome. Simmer until the soup is warmed through and any vegetables are tender.
5. Stir in the soy sauce, apple cider, and black pepper to taste and ladle into bowls.
Leap years are years where an extra, or intercalary, day is added to the end of the shortest month, February. The intercalary day, February 29, is commonly referred to as leap day.
Leap years have 366 days instead of the usual 365 days and occur almost every four years.
Why do we need leap years?
The Gregorian calendar, which now serves as the standard calendar for civil use throughout the world, has both common years and leap years. A common year has 365 days and a leap year 366 days, with the extra–or intercalary–day designated as February 29. A leap year occurs every four years to help synchronize the calendar year with the solar year, or the length of time it takes the earth to complete its orbit around the sun, which is about 365Â¼ days.
The length of the solar year, however, is slightly less than 365Â¼ days-by about 11 minutes. To compensate for this discrepancy, the leap year is omitted three times every four hundred years.
In other words, a century year cannot be a leap year unless it is divisible by 400. Thus 1700, 1800, and 1900 were not leap years, but 1600, 2000, and 2400 are leap years.
How to calculate leap year: Divide by 4:Whole number is leap years: Fractions is not leap years
What are your chances of being born on leap day?
About 1 in 1,500.
How to calculate leap year – When is the birthday party?
If you are born on a Leap Year, can you get your driver’s license as early as February 28th? Well, each state decides whether or not February 28 or March 1 will be the day you are eligible to get your license. Most states, however, consider March 1st the official day. For instance, the Michigan Vehicle Code states that people born on February 29th “are deemed to have been born on March 1st.” Another fun fact: Leap year babies yet their driver’s licenses when they are officially four years old (16)! There are no rules on when you have a party, however, so really in day in February or March is fair game to celebrate a leap year birthday.
How many people were born on leap day?
There are about 187,000 people in the US and 4 million people in the world who were born on Leap Day.
The rules for determining a leap year
Most years that can be divided evenly by 4 are leap years.
Exception: Century years are NOT leap years UNLESS they can be evenly divided by 400.
How to calculate leap year – When did leap year originate?
The Gregorian calendar is closely based on the Julian calendar, which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 45 BC. The Julian calendar featured a 12-month, 365-day year, with an intercalary day inserted every fourth year at the end of February to make an average year of 365.25 days. But because the length of the solar year is actually 365.242216 days, the Julian year was too long by .0078 days (11 minutes 14 seconds).
This may not seem like a lot, but over the course of centuries it added up. Until in the 16th century, the vernal equinox was falling around March 11 instead of March 21. In 1582, Pope Gregory XIII adjusted the calendar by moving the date ahead by 11 days and by instituting the exception to the rule for leap years. This new rule, whereby a century year is a leap year only if divisible by 400, is the sole feature that distinguishes the Gregorian calendar from the Julian calendar.
Following the Gregorian reform, the average length of the year was 365.2425 days, an even closer approximation to the solar year. At this rate, it will take more than 3,000 years for the Gregorian calendar to gain one extra day in error.
How to calculate leap year: Divide by 4:Whole number is leap years: Fractions is not leap years
How to calculate leap year – A Quick History Lesson
The Egyptians were the first to come up with the idea of adding a leap day once every four years to keep the calendar in sync with the solar year. Later, the Romans adopted this solution for their calendar, and they became the first to designate February 29 as the leap day.
But Wait! It’s Not Quite that Simple!
The math seems to work out beautifully when you add an extra day to the calendar every four years to compensate for the extra quarter of a day in the solar year. As we said earlier, however, the solar year is just about 365 ¼ days long, but not exactly! The exact length of a solar year is actually 11 minutes and 14 seconds less than 365 ¼ days. That means that even if you add a leap day every four years, the calendar would still overshoot the solar year by a little bit—11 minutes and 14 seconds per year. These minutes and seconds really start to add up: after 128 years, the calendar would gain an entire extra day. So, the leap year rule, “add a leap year every four years” was a good rule, but not good enough!
Calendar Correction, Part II
To rectify the situation, the creators of our calendar (the Gregorian calendar, introduced in 1582) decided to omit leap years three times every four hundred years. This would shorten the calendar every so often and rid it of the annual excess of 11 minutes and 14 seconds. So in addition to the rule that a leap year occurs every four years, a new rule was added: a century year is not a leap year unless it is evenly divisible by 400. This rule manages to eliminate three leap years every few hundred years.
It’s Smooth Sailing for the Next 3,300 Years
This ingenious correction worked beautifully in bringing the calendar and the solar year in harmony, pretty much eliminating those pesky extra 11 minutes and 14 seconds. Now the calendar year and the solar year are just about a half a minute off. At that rate, it takes 3,300 years for the calendar year and solar year to diverge by a day.
How to make Gravy with Flour and Water and Grease – This is been going on since the invention of bacon. This is a way to get the flavors of bacon in the food when you don’t have bacon. Oh I almost forgot the byproduct is edible it’s the crispy bacon.
How to make Gravy with Flour and Water and Grease – Harvesting Bacon Drippings
2/3 pound smoked bacon
Heat a skillet. This is optional you can spray nonstick spray or use a nonstick pan. Or a well seasoned cast iron skillet.
Add the bacon and start rendering the fat of the bacon. If it starts to smoke a bit turn down the heat or add more bacon. This will cool the pan and the drippings.
Turn often the bacon will have a tendency to stick no matter what pan or skillet you have. Just slide a meat fork or spatula under it to turn.
When the last of the bacon is done immediately turn off the heat have the jar ready. Put some type of paper products under the jar to insulate under it. Especially if you have stone countertops because hot and cold may cause the soon to be hot jar to explode, due to quickly changing temperatures. This is true with anything. Also the paper products will catch any spillage of bacon drippings when pouring.
Get a jar that has a lid and is sterile. Add the bacon drippings to it the jar will be hot for a while. Make sure you have a food grade jar that can or has had food in it.
Store and use as needed.
How to make Gravy with Flour and Water and Grease – Old Fashioned Country Bacon Gravy
2 (12 ounce) packages of bacon, fried – RESERVE ALL THE DRIPPINGS
1/2 cup plus 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour
4 to 6 cups milk/water (depending on how thick you like your gravy)
1 teaspoon salt
1/2 teaspoon black pepper
Pour reserved bacon drippings into a large skillet.
On medium high heat the drippings.
Sprinkle flour over hot drippings.
Whisk until the flour is brown.
Add milk/water about a half a cup at a time, whisking the whole time until 4 cups have been added.
Season with salt and pepper.
TIP: If the gravy is too thick continue adding more milk ONLY 1/2 cup at a time until the right thickness is reached.
How to make Gravy with Flour and Water and Grease – Turkey (or Chicken) Gravy
How to make Gravy with Flour and Water and Grease – There are many ways to make gravy for a turkey or chicken dinner, including some shortcuts using butter instead of pan drippings along with chicken or turkey stock.
This is a recipe for a classic turkey gravy made with pan drippings, flour, and water or stock. Purchased chicken or turkey stock may be used, but it should be a good quality stock and low in sodium or unsalted.
Use this recipe for roasted turkey, chicken, or Cornish game hens and even turkey hash. How to make Gravy with Flour and Water and Grease – The recipe can easily be scaled up or down for a large roasted turkey or smaller hens. It depends on how much fat you have in the drippings. A small amount of butter can be added to the turkey or chicken fat if you do not have 1/4 cup.
1 to 2 cups pan drippings (from roasted turkey or chicken or Cornish hens)
1/4 cup all-purpose flour
1 to 2 cups water (or low sodium or unsalted stock)
Kosher salt (to taste)
Black pepper (to taste)
Steps to Make It
Gather the ingredients.
Pour the turkey or chicken pan drippings into a 2-cup measuring cup or gravy separator and skim the fat off.
Put about 1/4 cup of the fat into a saucepan.
Stir in 1/4 cup of all-purpose flour.
Cook, stirring for 2 minutes.
Discard any remaining skimmed fat. Add enough water to the liquids left in the measuring cup to make 2 cups of liquid. Pour the 2 cups of liquid into the flour and fat mixture. Cook, stirring, until thickened and bubbling. Continue cooking for about 1 minute, stirring constantly.
Add kosher salt and freshly ground black pepper to taste.
How to Make Brown Gravy Mix Taste Better – Making gravy freaks out a lot of people — oh, the lumps! — which is the very reason bottled versions exist. Relax. There’s no pre-made gravy shaming here, we’re all about serving up a few ingredients to help turn that convenient shortcut into something with a little more character.
7 Ways How to Make Brown Gravy Mix Taste Better
Something that tastes more like homemade. Here’s a short list of add-in’s. Remember to go slowly when experimenting, adding a little bit at a time, and tasting along the way, especially before ladling over that pile of mashed potatoes.
1. Add Herbs – How to Make Brown Gravy Mix Taste Better
Try thyme, sage, chopped parsley, a teeny bit of tarragon, some chives. When using fresh herbs, add toward the end of cooking.
Garden Herbs for Simple Syru, Lemon verbena, lavender, rosemary, basil, and mint for simple syrups.
2. Add a Splash of Wine – How to Make Brown Gravy Mix Taste Better
A couple of tablespoons of dry white wine brightens up lighter poultry gravy, while red wine adds complexity to beef and pork gravy. Not a wine fan? Go with beer or hard cider.
3. Mustard Adds Character – How to Make Brown Gravy Mix Taste Better
Half a teaspoon of mustard brings in that rustic character, with Dijon-style and coarse ground topping the list. In a pinch, the yellow stuff you love to slather on top of hot dogs works, too.
How to Make Brown Gravy Mix Taste Better – Cook’s notes: The exact ounce weight of brown-gravy mixes will vary slightly from brand to brand, but that won’t affect the dish. Just make sure to choose a brand that makes at least 1 cup finished gravy. (Some mixes make up to 1 1/2 cups gravy, which is fine, too.) We tested this recipe with Knorr-brand brown-gravy mix, but any good-quality gravy mix will work. Sherry is a fortified wine that can usually be found in the wine section. We do not recommend cooking sherry. Cider can also be substituted.
Prepare the mashed potatoes, rice or pasta according to the package instructions.
Meanwhile, prepare the gravy mix according to the package directions and set aside.
Combine the flour, garlic powder, onion powder, salt and pepper in a 1/2-gallon-size zipper-top plastic bag and shake to mix. Drop the chicken into the bag and shake to coat it well with the flour mixture.
Heat the oil in a 12-inch skillet over medium heat. Add the chicken and cook until brown on the first side, 3 to 4 minutes. Meanwhile, peel the onion, and cut it into thin slices. Add the onion to the skillet, separating it into rings. Turn the chicken tenders over and cook until they are browned on the second side and the onion rings soften, about 3 to 4 minutes more.
Add the sherry to the skillet with the chicken, stirring and scraping to loosen any bits stuck to the pan bottom. Add the prepared brown gravy and stir well to mix in the sherry and coat the chicken. Serve at once over mashed potatoes, rice or pasta, as desired.
Approximate values per serving: 252 calories (28 percent from fat), 8 g fat (2 g saturated), 66 mg cholesterol, 26 g protein, 12 g carbohydrates, 1 g dietary fiber, 594 mg sodium.
How to make bath bombs harder? – Why is my bath bomb crumbly or cracking?
If you find that your bath bomb is crumbly, the mixture may be too dry. Adding more witch hazel or oils will give the mixture a more moist texture, which will be less likely to crumble and crack once removed from the mold. If your fizzy is cracking after it’s been in the mold, it’s possible that it was too wet and the mixture is expanding as it sits in the mold.
How to make bath bombs harder? – Why is my bath bomb soft? If your bath bomb is soft, the mixture may have too much moisture. If you add too much witch hazel or oil during the mixing process, add more dry ingredients to balance the texture. If you live in a humid, wet climate, the moisture in the air can prevent the bath bombs from becoming hard. Adding a small amount of clay (like kaolin clay) or cornstarch can help the bath bombs harden. They also make the bath bombs a bit more sturdy.
Why does my bath bomb have lumps, warts or bumps on the surface? A bumpy texture on your bath bomb is usually a result of clumps in the dry ingredients or not fully mixing the fragrance oil. Baking soda in particular tends to clump together. Before adding oil, color, fragrance or other additives, break up large clumps with your hands. To remove and break up smaller clumps, pour the dry ingredients through a fine mesh sifter. This extra step gives a smooth texture. Bath bomb warts can also occur when the fizzy contains too much moisture. Usually the culprit is fragrance or essential oil so mix extra well to ensure the wet is fully incorporated into the dry.
How long should bath bombs stay in the mold? I recommend leaving your bath bomb in the mold for at least several hours, up to overnight. If you try to remove the bath bomb while it’s still soft, it can crumble. Allowing the bath bomb to dry thoroughly in the mold will make it easier to remove and handle.
Why are my bath bombs not sticking together in stainless steel bath bomb mold? Sometimes it can be a little tricky to get the two halves of the bath bombs to stick together. Instead, the bath bomb mixture tends to stick to the mold. To help, add 5-10 drops of cyclomethicone in both sides of the mold and swirl it around. Then, let the molds drain on a paper towel. It makes removing the mold extremely easy! The texture of your fizzies is also important. For the stainless steel molds, you want the bath bomb mixture to be a bit more wet so the mixture holds its shape.
How to make bath bombs harder? – How To Dry Bath Bombs (Quickly!)
When we first started making bath bombs, one of our biggest challenges was getting the darned things to dry! Most of the time we simply had to leave them on the counter overnight, and hope they’d be ready by morning. But once we started getting busier, we needed a way to make the bath bombs dry FAST. Below are a few different approaches you can take to help your bath bombs dry.
Ah, the old standard, Air Drying. This is typically the first method every bath bomber uses when starting out. It’s easy, free, and reliable. This works particularly well if you’re using clam shell molds for your bath bombs, as you can just leave them in the mold over night and in the morning have a nice round dry bath bomb. This is ideal for new bath bombers who only have a handful of bombs they need to make at a time, though it can become prohibitive once your sales start to increase as you’ll have to buy more and more molds to hold bath bombs, and even the cheap little plastic clam shells started to get really expensive once your sales pick up. Additionally, because most e-commerce sites penalize you if your ship times are too long, it can become troublesome having to wait 24 hours before you can ship your bath bombs once your business starts to grow.
Which brings us to option 2.
Oven Drying Your Bath Bombs
The next method we moved on to when we were starting out was drying our bath bombs in the oven. This is a great option for you bath bombers out there that only need a few oven’s worth of bath bombs at a time. It’s effective, easy, and doesn’t cost anything (aside from electricity). To dry your bath bombs in the oven, simply turn the oven to the ‘warm’ setting, let it come up to temp, and then leave them in there to dry for 1-4 hours.
This is a great solution for when you have a specific type you need to make in the morning and need to be able to ship it later that day. If it’s an absolute emergency, you can usually get away with only drying it for about an hour, but remember, the longer you leave it in there the better the odds of it showing up to your customer in one piece!
Another benefit is that when we baked our bath bombs they would come out and almost have something of a ‘shell’ on the exterior. It felt very hard, and made a satisfying clicking sound when you tap your fingernail against it.
The main drawback with oven baking is that for it to be effective, the bath bombs should be removed from their molds and placed onto an oven rack. This can be challenging if you’re using clam shell molds and your bath bombs are fragile right after you’ve made them. That was one of our biggest challenges when we first started making our own bath bombs. This is mainly due to your baking soda and the citric acid mix being too dry, so if this is a problem you encounter, the best course of action is to continue to experiment with your recipe until your bath bombs come out perfect and durable every time.
And one of the best ways to achieve that result is…
How to make bath bombs harder? – Kaolin Clay
At the end of the day, if you’re going to grow your bath bomb business, you should really consider adding Kaolin Clay to your recipe. When we first started using it, it proved to be a real game changer for us. Our bath bombs became instantly more durable when removed from the mold, and were dry enough to ship within 3 hours if needed. We could make our bath bombs in the morning, and know that they’d be ready to ship by the afternoon whenever we needed them.
The only real drawback to adding the kaolin clay was the added upfront cost, though when I worked out the numbers at the end of the month it turned out that what we spent on the Kaolin clay was offset by the amount of product we didn’t lose to crumbled bath bombs. So for us it was a no brainer, and we’ve been using it in every bath bomb we’ve made since. how to make bath bombs harder – One (very important) caveat, is that the Kaolin Clay comes in powdered form, so as with all powdered ingredients you want to make sure you’re always wearing a dust mask or a respirator when handling it so that you don’t breathe the powder into your lungs.
How does a Bath Bomb Work – The part that makes them fizz is the same as an Alka Seltzer or soluble aspirin tablet: sodium bicarbonate and citric acid. These chemicals are inert when they are dry powders, but in water they dissolve and the citric acid reacts with the sodium bicarbonate to form sodium citrate and carbon dioxide.
The sodium citrate stays in solution and you don’t really notice it, but the carbon dioxide bubbles out as a gas that helps the bath bomb break up. This lets the detergents, perfumes and oils that make up the rest of the bath bomb mix with the bathwater.
How does a Bath Bomb Work – Bath bombs are awesome balls of fizzy goodness, with some interesting science behind them! They were invented in 1989 by Mo Constantine, one of Lush’s founders. Bath bombs contain the chemical sodium bicarbonate, also known as baking soda, as their key ingredient
Bath bombs are awesome balls of fizzy goodness, with some interesting science behind them! They were invented in 1989 by Mo Constantine, one of Lush’s founders. Bath bombs contain the chemical sodium bicarbonate, also known as baking soda, as their key ingredient.
Some of you might remember that baking soda isn’t good for your skin because it’s a base, with a high pH. High pH (alkaline or basic) products disturb the skin’s acid mantle, which protects your living tissue from the environment, particularly bacteria, like acne-causing Propionibacterium acnes.
But don’t fret! The second key ingredient in a bath bomb is a solid acid, such as citric acid or tartaric acid (cream of tartar). This lowers the pH by reacting with the baking soda when water is added to the mixture. Unless the maker of the bath bombs has really messed up their proportions, the final pH should be reasonably neutral. Until the water dissolves the acid and baking soda and allows them to mix at a microscopic level, nothing happens.
Aside from neutralisation, the acid + base reaction with sodium carbonate also produces tiny bubbles of carbon dioxide gas, which is what causes the fizzing:
How does a Bath Bomb Work – This is almost the same reaction as the one commonly used in volcano science projects to create foaming “lava” (they usually use vinegar as the acid). Of course, in bath bombs, there’s also fragrance and colours and glitter – the fizzing helps the bath bomb disperse faster, and combined with heat from the hot water, spreads the scent faster and makes the whole bathroom smell amazing.
Bath bombs can slowly absorb water from the air, using up the acid and sodium carbonate and releasing carbon dioxide prematurely – this is why bath bombs get less fizzy as they get old! Make sure you keep your bath bombs in a dry place until you’re ready to use them.
How does a Bath Bomb Work – When the weather outside is frightful, soaking in a hot bath can sound especially appealing. And adding a bath bomb to the water can elevate the experience. But what exactly is in these scented spheres, and what makes them so fizzy?
Bath bombs are usually made from three key ingredients: baking soda, citric acid and cornstarch, said Frankie Wood-Black, an instructor in chemistry at Northern Oklahoma College and an experienced bath-bomb maker. Often, bath bombs also include dyes and perfumes, and sometimes they have epsom salt.
How does a Bath Bomb Work – The fizziness of bath bombs comes from the chemical reactions that happen when the baking soda and citric acid come into contact with water, Wood-Black told Live Science. Baking soda, or sodium bicarbonate, has the chemical formula NaHCO3. In water, baking soda quickly dissolves, and the positively charged sodium (Na+) breaks apart from negatively charged bicarbonate (HCO3-).
Meanwhile, the citric acid also dissolves, with a single hydrogen ion (H+) separating from the rest of the molecule, Wood-Black said. Then, that positively charged hydrogen from the citric acid and the negatively charged bicarbonate from the baking soda mingle, very quickly undergoing a series of reactions. One of the end products is carbon dioxide (CO2). Because carbon dioxide is a gas, it forms small bubbles in the bath water, creating a delightful fizz.
If there are perfumes or scented oils in the bath bomb, they are released into the air with the carbon dioxide bubbles, Wood-Black said. The sodium from the baking soda and the rest of the citric acid molecule (minus the hydrogen that it lost when it dissolved) simply remain in the water.
The cornstarch in a bath bomb has just one job: It slows down the reaction.
By binding to the baking soda as well as the citric acid, the cornstarch slows down the rate at which both of them dissolve. The effect is that the fizziness may last 3 or 4 minutes, instead of only seconds, Wood-Black said.
Making bath bombs is not difficult, she said. She mixes 1 cup of baking soda, one-half cup of citric acid and one-half cup of cornstarch together in a bowl. All three items can be found at grocery stores. Citric acid is found in soda and candy and can also be used to make cheese, Wood-Black noted. After mixing the three ingredients, she adds about 1 teaspoon of water, which is enough to just barely moisten the ingredient mixture so that the powder sticks together. She then scoops the mixture into a mold (such as a Santa or a star candy mold) to form a shape and lets the shapes dry overnight.
But you can also just mix together the three key ingredients and skip the water. Leave the mixture in a jar, and then scoop it into your bath, she said.
Food coloring can be used to dye bath bombs, she said. But she doesn’t dye the ones she makes. “I opt not [to do that],” she said. “I’m a chemist by profession, but with food coloring, I just get it all over the place.”
Building a root cellar with concrete blocks – I should have been a mole ” it feels so safe and cool and quiet to be underground. So when my house burned down 20 years ago and the backhoe man was on site digging new holes for foundation footings, I asked him to dig a 12x16x8-foot deep hole in the ground so I could build a large fire-resistant root cellar. I planned on using it mainly for storing all my photographs, negatives, CDs, videos, and 70 photo albums ” from a lifetime of photography and videography. But it could also be used for a bomb shelter, hurricane safe-place, food storage room, or anything else a fellow mole might need ” customized accordingly.
In our county, we can build a structure under 200 square feet without a permit (building a root cellar with concrete blocks but no plumbing and wiring) so I started to research underground construction. I have a tendency to build everything even sturdier than code would require so I was determined that this cellar would be safe and sound and overbuilt like all my other projects.
I first contemplated using pressure-treated lumber and treated plywood so I could work alone at a snail’s pace, but quickly changed my mind to using concrete instead, and got my good-natured boyfriend Kirt involved to help every step of the way. We were a team!
Because we wouldn’t have to pay for any manual labor, I researched prices, and estimated that the cost of the dig, plus the materials and concrete, would total about $5,000 ” not bad for a permanent and useful “Room-Without-A-View.”
First we leveled the bottom of the hole, laid 6-8 inches of gravel down, and leveled it again. Then we set up a plumb, level, and square 2×8 frame around the perimeter, braced across the corners at 45 degrees, and pounded in spikes to hold the sides from spreading during the 8-inch-thick floor-pour. All around the perimeter on the lower inside of the 2×8 frame we fastened 2x4s laid flat with rows of holes drilled 16 inches apart down the middle to support the …” rebar sticking up inside the yet-to-be-formed wall cavity and to keep it spaced in the middle of that cavity. Before forming up the walls, we also wired horizontal rebar to the verticals at 16 inches apart to create a 16-inch grid inside the walls.
We strategically placed spacers on the gravel (half bricks) to hold the rebar up 2 inches off the bottom, and laid down a 12-inch grid of #5 rebar (…”). (We rented a manual rebar cutter to cut as needed.) Then we called Ready Mix to come up and do the pour. They recommended fiberglass be added to the mix to help protect against cracking at a later date, so of course I said yes and paid the nominal extra charge.
Forms, wales, and snap ties
Once the floor was troweled, screeded, “floated” perfectly level, and had set up as hard as a rock, we built the wall forms (like pallets) out of 2×4 studs and 4×8-foot sheets of ¾” plywood and laid them down lengthwise so each pour would be 4 feet high. There is so much weight and pressure pushing out as the concrete is pumped in, so 4 feet tall is maximum for a pour.
We bolstered up each pair of forms set 8 inches apart, with double decker 2x4s running horizontally ” on each side ” and held them tightly together with snap ties using cones and metal wedges made just for that purpose. These rows of horizontal members, called “walers,” were set only one foot apart to keep the walls from “blowing out” during the pour, and the bottom of the form was doubly braced. The long snap ties are sandwiched between the doubled up 2x4s and go all the way through each wall (via holes predrilled in the plywood) and are held firmly in place by cones or washers and metal wedges on each side ” every 18-22 inches along the walers. (The snap ties have button ends that fit into keyhole slots on the metal wedges.)
After the first 4-foot pour, we methodically moved the forms up and called for the second pour, to bring the walls up to 8 feet. (The forms came off easily because we had previously sprayed them lightly with Thompson’s Water Seal.) Then we snapped off all the protruding snap ties left sticking out of the exposed concrete walls by twisting them off using a piece of small diameter pipe long enough for good leverage.
Before the second pour, we stuck a 2-inch PVC pipe through the wall as a conduit for a power cord later.
Building a root cellar with concrete blocks – Floating roof
After the second pour, we screeded the top 8-inch wide perimeter all around and poked in rebar every 3 feet or so for roof anchor bolts. Then we put a 1.5-inch diameter piece of pipe over each …” rebar stub to create some wiggle room for the roof to move a little if it ever needed to, such as from an earthquake or just normal expansion and contraction from heat and cold.
Our objective was to enable the roof to “float” independently on top of the walls. To prevent it from adhering to the walls during the pour we laid down an 8-inch-wide strip of tarpaper (30# felt) on top of the walls all around the perimeter.
Note: An old retired water-tank builder from bygone days advised us to do this to prevent the “lid” from ever cracking. An ingenious trick of the trade.
All went exceedingly well. We built the frame for the roof, and also framed in the opening for the stairs, and braced everything securely to prevent back pressure from bulging the frame out. We laid down plywood which was supported underneath by heavy duty scaffolding with adjustable casters cranked up firmly against it. To make the unsupported roof design extra strong, we installed a tight 6-inch grid of rebar held up off the plywood by “rebar chairs” this time (professional spacers are more accurate than half bricks). I cut a 12-inch hole in the plywood and put in a 12-inch-diameter wind turbine over to the side opposite the stair opening ” for future air circulation ” and then called for the 8-inch-thick roof-pour.
We spent quite a while screeding and troweling the final pour and finishing the surface with a “bull float” as perfectly as we could. Son Eric and friend Vadim rushed over to help; it was hot, and we had to hurry with the fine-finish work.
When the roof was hard but still “green,” we pulled the short pipes off the rebar sticking up, then cut the stubs flush with a Sawzall, and caulked them with silicon to prevent rust.
After the roof finally set up and cured for a long time while being supported by the scaffolding, we figured it was strong enough to park a car on!
Building a root cellar with concrete blocks – Backfilling and drainage
When all was done we sprayed the outside of the walls with a masonry waterproofing sealer, and protected them further with 1-inch rigid foam insulation, then called the gravel-shooter guy to come up and fill in the sides with gravel. The company is called CAD (Conveyor Aggregate Delivery) and they do a great job of completely backfilling around a structure by accurately shooting the gravel from a distance, monitoring it by remote control. I don’t remember what the charge was but I do remember it was worth every penny!
Building a root cellar with concrete blocks – Before CAD arrived I put a 10-foot by 12-inch diameter black corrugated drainage pipe vertically down the wall on the lower side of the hill so if water ever accumulated we could lower a little sump pump 8 feet down the hole and pump it out. But in the past 20 years I have never had to do that. Building a root cellar with concrete blocks – This particular root cellar has no drainage provisions except for a 4-inch-diameter perforated/corrugated French drain on the upper side of the cellar. It’s buried 12 inches and laid down in a big arc so it daylights on each side beyond the cellar. If it ever floods, I’ll dig a deeper trench.
I guess we lucked out with the location. Most root cellars are dug into a hill so one side is at ground level with a door in it, Building a root cellar with concrete blocks, not dug straight down on all sides like a basement. A builder has to take flooding into serious consideration and plan for drainage. I took a chance on this dry location, and figured if all else failed we could use it as an indoor swimming pool!
I built the 12-foot-long stair horses and 4-foot-wide stair treads from 2x12s and installed them at a comfortable angle of “rise and run” (8 inches in 11 inches). We dismantled the scaffolding and hauled it out up the stairs.
Next, Kirt built a cute “little house” over the stairwell to match the other structures on the property, and put white translucent polycarbonate panels on the shed part of its roof to let light in. I made the board ‘n batt “hobbit” door for it, then carried on with trying to beautify the inside of the place. Building a root cellar with concrete blocks – I lined the interior walls and ceiling with 1×12 small-knot pine boards run horizontally. I had to rent a concrete nail gun that used .22 caliber bullets to fasten the 2×4 vertical furring strips to the concrete. (Earplugs mandatory!) Then I attached the beautiful boards with nice looking screws, and snapped a few pictures. Once it got filled up I knew it would never look this clean and spacious again. I installed glue-down carpet, and temporarily moved a bed and a table and chairs into it for sipping coffee or taking a nap.
Costs and calculations
The completed root cellar took approximately 21 cubic yards of concrete, and two months to complete. I had to pay an extra pumping fee for the narrow walls because the barrel rig had to use a pump hose, but for the floor and roof they used a chute.
To calculate how many cubic yards of concrete you’ll need: multiply length in feet x width in feet x thickness in a fraction of a foot, and divide by 27 (27 cubic feet = 1 cubic yard).
Nationwide, the average cost of concrete is now about $100/cubic yard. Twenty years ago it was $85 so it hasn’t gone up much at all. It’s still affordable! All told, the whole project did indeed cost $5,000 (concrete cost $2,000) and is a great addition to the property. I can escape down there when it’s either searing hot or freezing cold outside, and the temperature is between 50 and 70 degrees year round. Moles have it made.
Can I add, and how to build a cellar under your house?
Begin by seeing whether your plot or property is reasonable for a cellar. Ground and site conditions may all be able to imply that building another storm cellar is unimaginable. These conditions include:
a high water table
existing structures and administrations
Surveying and Managing Risks
Regardless of whether your site is practical, development work in the ground conveys chance, somewhat on the grounds that you don’t know precisely what is beneath the surface. You can lessen the dangers by:
Doing soil examinations.
Burrowing investigation pits to affirm the dimension of the water table before affirming the sort and extent of works.
Affirming ground conditions and soil types. Chalky soil, for instance, will deplete much superior to anything a clay-based soil.
In urban regions, the dirt may contain hints of substantial metals, for example, lead and arsenic and different dangerous materials, for example, asbestos. The kind of development utilized will likewise have an orientation on the decision of storm cellar course.
Going subterranean likewise implies that any administration pipes or links additionally should be recognized. This is the place land pursuits are fundamental. These will incorporate looks for resources claimed by utility suppliers, specialist organizations, for example, BT Openreach, rail systems and then some.
What Construction Methods are Best Suited to Basements?
The development strategy will in general be chosen by the financial backing, soil type and states of the site. Numerous storm cellar masters will offer a total framework including configuration, arranging and production, based around the site.
The technique utilized will likewise rely upon whether you are uncovering and working underneath a current structure, or building another home. In the event that you are working under a current structure, it will be difficult to utilize strategies where pre-assembled components need extending into position.
Prevalent development strategies include:
Precast waterproof solid boards, produced off-site and lifted into spot (fit to new forms with storm cellar levels where boards can be moved).
Block and blockwork.
ICF (protected cement formwork) or covered cement can be utilized anyplace you can enable access for cement to be siphoned nearby.
The most effective method to Waterproof cellar under your house
Waterproofing/failing is fundamental when making another storm cellar. Any structure subterranean that is utilized for private space requires waterproofing. This guarantee there is a dry situation that can be constrained by residential warming and ventilation cooling (HVAC) establishments.
Subterranean storm cellar development is for the most part of mass cement supporting and piece development:
the solid is blended by a grouping plant
touches base at a structure site in a blender lorry
is siphoned into the site as indicated by basic supporting calendars.
While numerous individuals feel that solid is waterproof, it’s not except if it is treated with the use of added substances. These added substances must be blended at the bunching plant, checked and guaranteed to the planned detail to give the dimension of security required for the application (storm cellars for this situation). Remember this is only one stage in the waterproofing procedure and is in no way, shape or form appropriate as an independent arrangement. In any occasion, this procedure without anyone else’s input would not get Building Regulations endorsement.
Building the storm cellar structure, alluded to in the exchange as ‘shell and center’, can be done by a fundamental contractual worker or master storm cellar temporary workers. The waterproofing must dependably be completed by qualified/enrolled installers of the waterproofing frameworks and items.
Various Types of Waterproofing Protection
Type A: This alludes to a waterproof material or film (frequently called failing). This is connected to either within or outside of the storm cellar structure and incorporates the two dividers and ground section. These frameworks can incorporate bending over, for example both inward and outer film insurance.
Instances of this sort of waterproofing are:
positive weight films connected to the outer substance of the solid, for example, Bentonite (a mud based layer)
a PVC sheet film, (for example, DualProof). This can either be connected utilizing a glue or as a feature of the throwing/covering process.
Type B: This alludes to basically essential security where the structure of the storm cellar must give the waterproofing assurance and strengthened water-safe cement is utilized. The checking of the two materials and work at the clustering and development stage is urgent to the achievement of the establishment. Joints between cement pours should be deliberately arranged and jointed to maintain a strategic distance from water drainage through poor workmanship of breaking after development.
Type C: This consolidates a water the board framework and is normal in numerous advanced storm cellars. The framework permits the ground water to infiltrate the structure and channel behind the layer at both divider and floor. The water redirects into a controlled seepage sump chamber where a siphon removes it from the structure into either mains waste or a constriction tank.
The most widely recognized waterproofing framework is Type C. In the event that the layer is undermined amid development almost certainly, the water will harm the inner completions of the storm cellar room. Fixing a film to a completed space is meddling. It could likewise be exorbitant if the exact area of a trade off can’t be found effectively.
Administration entrances through storm cellar dividers are likewise normal. These administrations should be fittingly fixed, so experts may need to come back to the site to redesign benefits after the shell structure has been fabricated.
Development work ought to be observed. On the off chance that a break of the layer is discovered, the experts will make a fix which keeps up the establishment and item guarantees.
Guarantees for cellar under your house
Both item guarantee and establishment guarantee is significant and an authority will guarantee that it is given to the right norms and without trade off. In spite of the fact that not an administrative prerequisite, much of the time it is a need for auxiliary guarantee protection. This is required for all new form properties and the change of properties to new units.
To acquire a basic guarantee, a cellar must be effectively waterproofed, just as gathering the Building Regulations for every single other work.
Fake light is fine for capacity utilizes, yet on the off chance that you are anticipating investing extensive energy down there, normal light is ideal. Sun burrows/sun powered funnels are a simple method to acquire light and genuinely reasonable. In any case, where the structure permits, utilize a light well or depressed yard which sits past the back rise of the property.
Obviously, the entire storm cellar does not need to be subterranean. Where the roof is over the ground level, you can incorporate a column of clerestory windows to get characteristic light from the highest point of the room.
On the off chance that you are expanding on a slanting site, you viably make a semi-storm cellar, with light originating from the front or back and maybe additionally the sides. Anyplace that does not get characteristic light can be held for use as utility rooms, possibly a home film, a plant room or even a washroom.
Is my home suitable to build a cellar under your house?
Only one out of every odd property is directly for a storm cellar expansion. When in doubt, it’s smarter to stretch out over the ground if conceivable in light of the fact that it’s simpler to give ventilation and normal light, in addition to it’s generally less expensive.
Prime possibility for cellars are houses situated in zones with high land esteems, for example, close downtown areas and the London rural areas.
Gardens in these properties will in general be littler, so reaching out probably won’t be a choice. Additionally land is costly, so the option of an entire additional floor can be a less expensive method for getting all the more living space contrasted with moving to a bigger property.
How to measure Chainsaw Bar is totally different than the actual bar size. The bar measurement is vital to know if you’re changing a series or buying a substitute bar. The bar measurement expresses the efficient slicing size of the chainsaw, not the complete length of the bar, which is actually just a few inches longer than the chopping size. If you wish to know the bar’s true size, you may want greater than a tape measure.
How to measure Chainsaw Bar
Flip the chainsaw off and remove the spark plug wire from the plug itself. Grasp the boot that covers the spark plug and remove the wire by pulling gently on the boot. This prevents any risk of the chainsaw unintentionally starting.
Butt the top of a tape measure in opposition to the casing on the point where the bar emerges.
Stretch the tape to the alternative finish of the bar and browse the measurement on the farthest cutter at the tip of the bar.
Round the measurement to the nearest inch. For example, in case you measured 15 7/8 inches from the casing to the cutter, you’ve got a sixteen-inch chainsaw.
Take away the nuts securing the casing to the chainsaw body utilizing a socket and ratchet.
Pull the cover off completely, exposing the complete chainsaw bar.
Stretch the tape measure from one end of the bar to the opposite end. This measurement is the precise size of the chainsaw bar, which is often 2 to 3 inches longer than the chainsaw measurement you took in Steps 1 to 4.
How to measure Chainsaw Bar explained
If you’re looking for a replacement bar for your chainsaw, you’ll need to determine the size of your bar.
You’ll be measuring the useable length of the bar, also called the cutting length or the called length.
How to measure Chainsaw Bar, measure it from its front tip all the way back to the cutter closest to the body of the saw.
Round this measurement up to the nearest even number in inches. For example, a bar that measures 18 3/4″ will actually have a called length of 20″.
You then could look for a new bar with a 20″ bar length. You also could enter that measurement into the Bar and Chain Calculator to find the right bar replacement for your chainsaw.
How to measure Chainsaw Bar, or effective cutting length, is shorter than the actual length of the bar. This is the simplest measurement to take. All you’ll need is a standard tape measure. This length is also sometimes referred to as the chainsaw length.
Since you’re going to be handling the chain itself, a couple of safety steps are prudent before beginning the measuring process. Turn the chainsaw off. Grasp the rubber boot that covers the spark plug and remove the wire from the spark plug by gently pulling on it until it comes free. This will prevent the chainsaw from coming on, even by accident.
Lay the chainsaw down and place the end of the tape measure against the body of the chainsaw where the bar emerges from the casing. Stretch the tape out to the end of the bar and slightly past the end. You want to measure to the tip of the cutter that sticks the furthest out from the tip of the bar. If the chain is missing, you can estimate about 1/2″ further from the tip of the bar.
How to Cut Down a Tree Chainsaw, felling a tree means inflicting a tree to fall down by either sawing with a handsaw or slicing with a chainsaw.
Felling a tree with chainsaws takes planning and ought to be properly thought by. If you are a newbie, it is a good idea to have somebody who is an experienced chainsaw user with you to assist.
Earlier than felling any trees, make sure you have gotten the entire crucial permits and/or permission. Some areas have strict environmental laws.
How to Cut Down a Tree Chainsaw – Preparation
Think about security first and the prevention of accidents when preparing to fell a tree. Look at where the tree is positioned and what objects are around it. Homes, barns, power traces, fences and different constructions will be damaged as a consequence of falling timber or limbs.
If there are roads situated within the fall zone, set up warning indicators. In case you are a beginner and there are objects near, get an experienced person to assist with the felling.
Pay particular attention to other trees as properly. How to Cut Down a Tree Chainsaw – Making a tree fall can have a domino effect on other bushes that may be smaller or weakened by tree rot and leaning.
Even when you don’t think the tree you are planning to chop down will strike an object, a tree that’s hit by the tree you narrow down might fall in an sudden approach, so it is best to imagine all doable situations earlier than reducing.
Decide What Direction to Fell a Tree
Once you have a good idea of surrounding objects, look at the tree itself to determine what direction through which to fell the tree. If the tree is of course leaning in a single course, it could be higher to fell the tree that approach as long as there are not any objects throughout the fall zone.
How to Cut Down a Tree Chainsaw – If there are objects within the fall zone and the tree is leaning in that direction, you might want to get an skilled tree service to come and remove the tree professionally. Wind speed also can impact directional felling.
Finally, take into account the work concerned in eradicating the tree once it has fallen and how easy or difficult it will be for you to entry the world within the fall zone.
How to Cut Down a Tree Chainsaw – Getting Away
Make sure undergrowth around the tree has been cleared before you begin sawing. Take away all branches, fallen limbs or other obstacles on the ground around the tree. You need to be able to walk away from the tree at any angle with out having to dodge or step over anything.
Clearing Tree Limbs and Buttress Roots from a Tree
If the lower a part of the tree trunk has small branches or buttresses growing on it, clear them away with your chainsaw. To clear branches or limbs, use a pulling chain. Cut from the highest and use a downward stroke along the lower edge of the chainsaw.
Work at an angle that places the tree trunk between yourself and the chainsaw. By no means minimize tree limbs at a degree larger than your shoulders, as that is an unsafe method to make use of a chainsaw.
How to Cut Down a Tree Chainsaw – Directional Felling
Find out how to make the tree fall in the course you want comes right down to the directional notch, or the primary series of cuts you have to make when felling a tree. There are a selection of ways to make a directional notch. How to Cut Down a Tree Chainsaw – The type of notch described right here is an open directional notch. The directional notch determines for probably the most half in what path the tree will fall.
Observe these steps to make an open directional notch in a small-to-medium sized tree using a chainsaw:
· Pinpoint the exact path during which you want the tree to fall. Discover a landmark from your surroundings to use as a guide, and use the sights on the highest of your chainsaw to line up the angle to the directional notch you intend to chop.
· Make a prime cut into the trunk of the tree at a couple of 60 diploma angle, sawing to a depth of about 20 – 25% of the tree’s diameter
· Make a horizontal undercut that meets the top minimize. You must now have a notch carved out of the aspect of the tree facing the felling course.
· Make certain there aren’t any individuals or animals throughout the security radius of the tree felling zone. That is no less than 2 instances the length of the tree you might be felling.
· On the alternative facet of the tree trunk, noticed a horizontal felling reduce a few inches above the level of the undercut. Stop reducing just a few inches earlier than you reach the directional notch. This can create a hinge on which the tree will fall in a managed manner. The width of the hinge ought to be about 10% of the diameter of the tree trunk.
· Use a felling wedge as a lever to make the tree start to fall.
How to Cut Down a Tree Chainsaw – Watch and retreat. Preserve your eyes on the falling tree as you progress away shortly but calmly. You should attempt to move away from the felling direction at a ninety diploma angle. This will help you avoid both the felling zone as well as the opposite aspect the place the trunk separates from the stump.
Cutting Down Large Trees
In some ways, your chainsaw How to Cut Down a Tree Chainsaw cutting technique can be decided by the diameter of the tree trunk. For bigger bushes whose diameter is larger than the size of the chainsaw bar, you’ll need to make use of a plunge cut.
You will also need a breaking bar and a few felling wedges readily available.
These are tree felling tools used to ensure bushes fall in the right path and can either stop the tree from pinching the chainsaw blade while chopping or provide help to get your chainsaw un-caught.
· Pinpoint the exact direction by which you want the tree to fall. Discover a landmark out of your surroundings to make use of as a information, and use the sights on the top of your chainsaw to line up the angle to the directional notch you intend to cut.
· Because the tree trunk is wider than your chainsaw bar, you will have to chop the directional notch from two sides. Make a high cut into the trunk of the tree at a couple of 60 degree angle, sawing to a depth of about 20 – 25% of the tree’s diameter. Transfer to the opposite facet of the tree to finish the directional notch, ensuring to line up the cuts as carefully as potential in order that the notch can be even.
· Make a horizontal undercut that meets the top minimize. Once more, if the tree is simply too thick, make the horizontal undercut from either side of the tree, aligning the two cuts so as to create one straight undercut. You need to now have a notch carved out of the aspect of the tree facing the felling direction.
· Ensure that there are no individuals or animals within the security radius of the tree felling zone. This is not less than 2 times the length of the tree you’re felling.
· Make a plunge minimize by inserting the decrease part of the chainsaw bar nostril into the tree trunk behind where you want the hinge to be. Avoid chill. Don’t permit the upper part of the chainsaw bar nostril to come into contact with the tree.
· Upon getting inserted the tip of the chainsaw into the tree trunk, turn the chainsaw till it is parallel with the directional notch.
· Apply strain to the chainsaw bar into the tree.
· Noticed away from the hinge concerning the width of the chainsaw bar. This may preserve you from sawing into the hinge once you turn the chainsaw around.
· Noticed around the trunk rigorously. When you could have sawed via the center of the tree trunk, insert the felling wedge to forestall the burden of the trunk from pinching the chainsaw and inflicting it to get stuck within the tree.
· If the chainsaw bar will get stuck within the tree trunk, do not try to pull out the chainsaw. Cease the engine and use a breaking bar or wedge to work open the trunk until you may pull the chain noticed out easily.
· Noticed till the chainsaw bar is parallel with the directional notch on the other facet of the tree
· It’s possible you’ll need to hammer the felling wedge into place to get the tree to fall. Sometimes multiple wedge is required. Use a breaker bar to work the tree till it begins to fall.
As with How to Cut Down a Tree Chainsaw – a small tree, watch and retreat. Maintain your eyes on the falling tree as you move away shortly however calmly out of the protection zone. You need to attempt to transfer away from the felling course at a ninety diploma angle. This will allow you to keep away from both the felling zone as well as the other side where the trunk separates from the stump.
How to Cut Down a Tree Chainsaw – Rotten or Dead Trees
Use extra caution when felling a rotten or lifeless tree. Get the help of an skilled chainsaw consumer or tree elimination service if you are a beginner. If the tree trunk appears to be like discolored, feels tender or appears abnormal in any other way, there could be rot on the within. Rotten bushes require a a lot larger hinge to fall safely and are inherently unstable.
How to Cut Down a Tree Chainsaw – When a Tree is Lodged
If a tree becomes lodged or caught in another tree on the way in which down, it’s best not to depart the tree unattended. Get assist from an experienced individual. Should you must go away the tree to call for help, rope off the realm in order that passersby are conscious of the hazard.
We all know the wrestle of getting to replace your chainsaw’s chain right in the midst of a undertaking and trying to figure out the Direction of Chain on Chainsaw.
It gets in the way in which of progress and generally is a ache having to take your chainsaw apart and put all of it back collectively. What’s an even bigger ache is getting all the pieces put back together, trying to work with a backwards chain, and having to take your machine apart once more.
Putting a sequence on a chainsaw the precise manner is a fairly necessary step in correctly using your chainsaw.
For those who don’t get the chain on the right manner, you’ll end up with a seemingly dull blade and must take it all apart once more to reverse the chain.
So, let’s try to stop this little mistake by placing the chain on the correct means the first time.
Direction of Chain on Chainsaw – Set The Bar
The best technique to exchange or correct a chain on a chainsaw after you’ve taken the machine aside is to start by reattaching the chain bar to the body of the chainsaw .
As soon as connected, adjust the bar so it’s not so long and the chain will fit more loosely and be easier to placed on. In the event you don’t do this, you can be fighting the chain your complete time.
After your bar is in place, it is time to mount your chain.
Check Blade Direction
The essential a part of mounting your chain is to ensure the blades are dealing with the correct path (Direction of Chain on Chainsaw).
Again, if the blades of the chain are usually not going through the correct manner, you’ll think the blade is dull as a result of it’s slicing in the unsuitable path.
The right Direction of Chain on Chainsaw to face is with the sharp edge of the blade enamel dealing with towards the best way the blade rotates.
Primarily, you need the sharp edges of the blades rotating on high of the chain bar, transferring toward the tip of the bar, and away from the physique of the machine.
Now that you just received it stepping into the fitting path rotate your chain and get it set in place.
Direction of Chain on Chainsaw – Tighten the Blade
After you’ve rotated your chain and your drive links settled into place on the chain bar, it is time to tighten it so you can get again to work.
Don’t over tighten your chain, but don’t underneath tighten it both.
You want the perfect tension for the chain to rotate easily and on your safety as well.
Though it doesn’t take a lot time to reset or change a chain, it’s all the time much easier to only do it proper the primary time. So take your time and do it right.
All types of chainsaws will finally need their chains changed, so develop into accustomed to the method.
5 Signs a chainsaw chain is dull
You have to push the chainsaw to make a minimize (the chain should do the give you the results you want).
The chainsaw makes high quality sawdust, as an alternative of enormous wooden chips.
Things start smoking (despite correct lubrication and chain stress).
The chainsaw “pulls” in one route, creating a crooked cut.
The chainsaw shakes or bounces while slicing.
Direction of Chain on Chainsaw – Wrap-up
Alright, there you have it. By using the techniques above, you should be able to quickly get your Direction of Chain on Chainsaw right, every time. And with the other steps, you should have everything you need to fix that backwards, dull, or broken chain.
How to make gravy with flour and water – Slurry vs. Roux method of making gravy
Slurry vs. Roux method of making gravy
I usually use the slurry method with flour which I believe is the easiest and most consistent for the home cook.
The slurry method uses flour (although cornstarch and arrowroot also can be used). The flour is mixed with a cold liquid, usually water, and combine until there are no lumps. I like using a Tupperware shaker, but just a bowl and whisk will do.
With this method, the flour starch is hydrated enough to prevent lumps before sturred into the drippings and liquid slowly. It is then brought to a boil which will help the liquid absorb and cook the “raw” out of the flour.
You can add more thickener if needed or dilute the gravy with some broth or water if needed. I like about 2 tablespoons of flour to thicken 1 cup of gravy. I prefer a little fat in the drippings.
The roux method starts with fat in a pan. Flour is added, and it is cooked until browning some to cook out the raw flour taste, usually only a few minutes. A ratio of 2 tablespoons of flour to 2 tablespoons of fat will thicken 1 cup of liquid.
I find the slurry method easier for home. Leave the drippings in the pan. Add some broth if you need to and thicken away. No need to get all the bits of meat or veggies out of the drippings.
With the slurry method, you add more flour mixture to thicken. With the roux method, you don’t add all the liquid at the start and then add more liquid to thin.
How to make gravy with flour and water – Instructions for Gravy with the Slurry Method
Key ratio: for 1 cup of gravy you will need 1 cup of broth and 2 tablespoons flour. Drippings from cooking and 2 tablespoons per cup of gravy is very good.
Equipment: Tupperware Quick Shaker is recommended, but a bowl and whisk will do, stove top pan with a large bottom, a large slotted spoon or whisk.
Combine about equal amounts of AP flour and COLD water or broth in your Tupperware Quick Shaker (or a bowl and whisk). I generally make about 50% more than I estimate I need so I can thicken a bit more if needed later.
Shake vigorously and continuously. Get it all mixed. You want about 2 tablespoons of flour per cup of gravy you are making.
You need fluid from your meat with some fat in it. You could add broth or other liquid to get to the volume you want to make. You can also add soup base or bullion for more flavor.
The liquid needs to be in a stovetop-safe pan. Now over medium-high heat, bring the liquid to a boil. Turn on two burners if the pan will cover them.
Slowly add the flour mixture to the area of hardest boil SLOWLY while VIGOROUSLY stirring with a slotted spoon or whisk. Turn the heat down a bit.
Pay attention to the thickness and stop adding the flour mixture when you get almost to the consistency you want. It will thicken a little with the cooking in the next step.
Continue to cook for another 2-3 minutes while still stirring continuously then remove from heat and serve immediately. This will cook the “raw” taste out of the flour.
How to make gravy with flour and water – NOTES: The Tupperware Quick Shaker is great in this technique. These are about $13 on Amazon, eBay, a Tupperware dealer or a mall kiosk near you. Google is your friend again.
How to make gravy with flour and water – Instructions for the Roux Method of Making Gravy
Key ratio: for 1 cup of gravy you will need 1 cup of broth, 2 tablespoons fat and 2 tablespoons flour.
Over medium-high heat, heat your fat (butter, drippings from meat, etc.). When hot add an equal amount of flour slowly while stirring or whisking continuously.
Cook until browning some. Then slowly add the liquid for the gravy. Add most of the liquid but not all.
Cornstarch versus Flour for Gravy
How to make gravy with flour and water – What’s the difference between using cornstarch or flour to make your gravy? Cornstarch does have more thickening power than wheat flour (because it’s pure starch, while flour has some protein in it). So usually you need a little less cornstarch than flour for the equivalent thickening power.
That said, we are using equal amounts for either flour or cornstarch in this method because we vary the amount of liquid we add and we reduce the gravy by simmering it, to get to the desired thickness.
Cornstarch also has this property that if you cook it in the gravy too long, it will lose its thickening power and the gravy will become thin again. It will also lose some thickness if refrigerated and reheated. If that happens, you’ll have to add more cornstarch slurry and heat the gravy to thicken it up again.
If you use flour, you’ll want to brown the flour a bit in the fat before adding liquid. Browning adds more flavor to the gravy and gets rid of the raw flour taste. You’re basically making a roux.
We find that a flour-based gravy holds up better and reheats better later, which is why we tend to prefer using flour over cornstarch to make gravy, unless we have a guest who is eating gluten-free.
How to stop hosting on Twitch – How To Hosting On Twitch. In this tutorial, I present you the way to host channels in your Twitch channel.
In addition, you should use it to maintain contents flowing into your channel even when you’re unable to produce your own. To auto host someone you need to go to click on your identify within the prime right corner of your browser and click Dashboard. Then, on the left-hand facet beneath Settings, click Channel. Scroll down a bit till you see “Auto Hosting.” Make positive that auto internet hosting is enabled, and then go to your internet hosting listing and add whatever channels you need to add. It’s nonetheless your stream, so all of the viewers will depend in the direction of the hosted channel’s depend.
Add whatever channels you need hosted in your stream whereas it’s offline to this listing. To auto-host those who host you go to your twitch channel, select the drop down on the right, click on dashboard, then click on on the raid and host tab, click on auto hosts you and choose those you wish to host. As on desktop, type /Host XX, replacing XX with the username of the channel you’d wish to host. It is very a lot necessary to remain in the Live Hosts Category of the Twitch app and web site.
How to stop hosting on Twitch – /unhost
To exit host mode, type into your chat (host mode will remain enabled until this command is executed):
You will receive a notification in chat saying you have exited host mode.
In this blog we will discover ways to cease hosting on twitch .Now a days its extremely popular topic but nobody gave a complete ans to researcher however i will share this informative matter good reply with you . Host Mode permits the viewers of your channel to watch another channel without having to go away your channel’s chatroom. This wikiHow teaches you how to host another streamer’s Twitch channel by yourself channel.
Method 1 Hosting Twitch on a Desktop
Host mode gives a broadcaster the power to host another channel’s live broadcast on his or her own channel web page. Any broadcaster can host one other channel, and any channel can be hosted.
Asking viewers is a viable approach to obtain this feat. Apart from reminding them about observe and subscribe you, also ask them to host you. You might be stunned by the end result. A giant number of Twitch users are actually very a lot interested in helping the streamers they follow themselves.
There are two strategies used to host on Twitch. The first is by way of the chat box with a command and the second is Auto Hosting that can mechanically host your favourite Twitch channels. Hosting is a great way to help different Twitch channels and likewise give your channel more publicity.
To cease internet hosting a channel or unhost on Twitch merely sort “/unhost” in to the message box and press enter. Ask your viewers. In addition to reminding viewers to comply with and subscribe during your broadcast, make a point of asking them to host you as properly. Many Twitch users are very passionate in regards to the streamers they comply with and would love to support their favorites in as some ways as possible.
This apply is significantly beneficial for all streamers who take part in the apply of hosting channels on their very own streams. The simplest way to start hosting one other consumer on your own stream is using your channel’s Twitch chat. To accomplish that, while your individual stream is offline, simply sort /host followed by the username of no matter Twitch channel you want to host in your stream into your channel’s chat, and press Enter. For example, if you wish to host the official PAX Twitch channel’s stream on your channel, you’d kind /host pax into your channel’s chat and press Enter. If you’re hosting channels in your stream via Twitch chat, you’ll be able to change the channel being hosted as much as thrice every half hour, and internet hosting by way of chat could be disabled by typing /unhost (How to stop hosting on Twitch) into your channel’s chat and urgent Enter.
This is the problem I’m hoping to solve with the customized auto-host. Quackthing can select one of the best host based mostly on your preferences – priority listing based mostly on streamers or video games, choose who can be interrupted, and so forth. In addition, there will be a characteristic (either choose-in or decide-out) by which when no streams match your preferences, he’ll choose his own stream to host; this will be one of many channels he is watching (i.e. someone who has Quackthing on their channel) and who doesn’t have many viewers.
Then if you end up offline, your channel will select channels from the list automatically. The channels can get chosen so as or at random. Are you a Twitch streamer?
Type /unhost when you want to cease hosting a selected channel. There are two major benefits to hosting different streamers in your Twitch.
Okay this half is all social science mumbo jumbo, so I’m basing all of this off of non-public expertise.
The streamer who initiates the raid will also immediately started hosting the opposite particular person’s channel.
Twitch’s VOD characteristic records all of a streamer’s streams and shops them for 14-60 days depending on the sort of Twitch account the streamer has, and these recordings are played or their stream whereas they are not broadcasting.
I count on a paused stream to stay paused.
search bar next to Host List.
The return on investment your Twitch channel yields – in terms of both fame and fortune – relies upon closely on the quantity and quality of the content material you are offering to your viewers.
There is not any limit to what number of channels you possibly can add.
The wikiHow teaches you the way to host one other channel’s reside stream on your Twitch channel, and publish their reside video to your individual viewers, using a desktop web browser. Twitch has varied features that permit you to host others on your channel, together with an autohost characteristic, by which you choose a pre-approved set of channels to add to your autohost list, after which have them chosen either in priority order or at random. Twitch will decide one (if none are online, Twitch will pick the first one to come back online) and host it until it goes offline once more. I’m hoping this can help construct a collection of streamers that can share viewers and construct their channels together, serving to you escape from the underside of the channel list and getting some visibility.
How to stop hosting on Twitch – How To Host A Channel On Twitch – Full Tutorial. Taking all of that into consideration, if you’ll find channels that broadcast content much like yours when it comes to both nature and quality with house owners who’re gracious sufficient and would be prepared to work with you in direction of a mutually beneficial professional relationship, internet hosting different channels on your stream can positively be price it.
Quackthing received’t autohost
Click the “Send a message” field at the backside of the chat panel on the proper-hand aspect of your display screen, and enter this chat command right here. Quackthing received’t autohost while you’re streaming, and when you manually host someone he’ll honour your selection and await that stream to finish earlier than resuming autohost. Twitch’s auto-host works, however is lacking plenty of options. If nobody in your auto-host record is streaming (and you are not both), the first particular person on the list to begin streaming will get your host; that is fantastic. However, they hold your host until they go offline, even if someone you’d much somewhat host starts streaming 15 seconds later.
How to stop hosting on Twitch
This is ridiculous. I anticipate a paused stream to remain paused. I expect to be able to not have hosted streams intrusively thrust upon me. This is something Twitch could have excused 5 years in the past, but not now. Twitch shows an appalling disregard for it is clients – the viewers, not the streamers, are the supply of all of your income.
You can then host someone immediately and pass on the viewers who are nonetheless in your channel. Once you could have a list of channels in your auto host listing you can configure their internet hosting priority by shifting them up and down within the host record utilizing the arrows subsequent to their name. The channels on high have higher auto host priority.
“It’s about time Twitch provides precise instruments to do [raids], as they’ve turned out to be a significant part of streaming tradition,” she mentioned. And she’s not alone. Other streamers, together with speedrunners, have admitted to being enthusiastic about with the ability to raid more easily. The Game Directory, Twitch’s primary page for looking up online game streams, is organized by current viewer account.
This, in flip, will attract other people who would be interested as nicely when they see the dynamic vary of people that are already internet hosting you. This is an effective way to finish off your own stream. In common, most of the streamers host others on the end of their present by telling viewers to take a look at the opposite streamers channel as properly. This is termed as ‘raiding’ and is a widely well-liked follow.
I’m very thankful that Better Twitch TV has the option to disable host streams. I don’t need to be woken up/aggravated by someone I’m not used to watching. It’s obnoxious, and it isn’t even the streamer’s fault – it’s on your end. Not solely does it make me much less likely to go to that host stream ever again, it also puts me off viewing the channel I get pleasure from watching.
Two years later and Twitch STILL sticks to this BS response. If they’re concerned about “settings bloat” they should not have added auto internet hosting.
Replace [channel title] with the name of a channel. Delete “[channel title]” within the chat command, and kind the title of the channel you want to host right here. Type /host [channel title] into the chat box.
How to tell if your Lymph Nodes are Swollen – If close by or distant nodes present cancer, the N is assigned a quantity similar to 1, 2 or typically three, relying on how many nodes are affected, how much most cancers is in them, how massive they are, and the place they are. More most cancers within the nodes might imply that the most cancers is quick growing and/or more prone to unfold to other places within the physique.
When you discover these indicators of How to tell if your Lymph Nodes are Swollen, it might be time to call your health care supplier. So signs of swollen lymph nodes rely upon the cause and the area where the nodes are positioned. So when you could have an an infection similar to a flu or chilly, it is not uncommon for the lymph nodes round your neck area to swell up. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) – a viral an infection that weakens the immune system as a result of it destroys the white blood cells responsible for combating off infections. Your lymph nodes might turn out to be swollen if they are uncovered to viruses or bacteria.
How to tell if your Lymph Nodes are Swollen – Mayo Clinic Marketplace
Sexually transmitted infections, corresponding to syphilis or gonorrhea, can result in lymph node swelling in the groin area. Any cancers that unfold within the body can cause the lymph nodes to swell. When most cancers from one area spreads to the lymph nodes, the survival rate decreases. Lymphoma, which is a most cancers of the lymphatic system, also causes the lymph nodes to swell.
But if there are only a few cancer cells in a lymph node, it might look and feel normal. In that case, the physician must verify for cancer by eradicating all or part of the lymph node. Some areas the place lymph nodes generally swell are in the neck, groin, and underarms. In most cases, only one area of nodes swells at a time.
Effects of eradicating lymph nodes
The secondary lymphoid organs consist of the spleen and the lymph nodes. The spleen produces lymphocytes which help battle off antigens. It also removes pathogens and aged pink blood cells. The lymph nodes are responsible for serving to the immune system maintain proper perform by filtering out most cancers cells and overseas particles.
The lymph nodes are filled with white blood cells. They filter the lymph fluid coming from sure parts of the body. They battle infections.
Common imaging exams
Common imaging exams used to verify lymph nodes embrace CT scans, MRI scans, X-rays, and ultrasound. In some circumstances, the swollen lymph node will get smaller as different symptoms go away. If a lymph node is swollen and painful or if the swelling lasts more than a few days, see your physician. If you expertise any of those symptoms, or when you have painful swollen lymph nodes and no different symptoms, seek the advice of your doctor. Lymph nodes that are swollen but not tender could be signs of a serious problem, corresponding to cancer.
Lymph nodes are positioned in sure components of the physique, together with your neck, groin, and armpits. They’re shaped like beans and measure not more than 2.5 centimeters long.
They become swollen in response to an infection and tumors. HIV is a persistent, or ongoing, condition. This doesn’t imply swollen lymph nodes will occur the entire time.
They are simple to seek out within the neck and groin. Normal Nodes. Lymph nodes can at all times be felt in the neck and groin. They are about the measurement of a bean. They never go away.
The lymph fluid slowly flows in from all around the body, making its means again to the chest. At the end of its journey, the filtered fluid, salts, and proteins are dumped again into the bloodstream. Swelling of a lymph node positioned deep inside the body might have completely different consequences from swelling of those just below the skin.
When the trigger is a bacterial or viral an infection, the situation is called lymphadenitis. Your lymphatic vessels may turn into swollen as nicely as a result of infections and this situation is known as lymphangitis. The lymphatic tissue includes the spleen, thymus, bone marrow, and the lymph nodes. The lymphatic vessels are answerable for transporting the lymph fluid from numerous physique tissues to the circulatory system.
Other remedies could assist soothe swollen lymph nodes. For instance, heat from warm compresses together with medications may make you extra comfortable and cut back ache. Getting plenty of relaxation could scale back swelling and ache as well. Usually, wholesome lymph nodes aren’t seen.
They may double in measurement. They may also turn out to be tender. Treatment for swollen lymph nodes vary depending on the cause. In some situations, therapy will not be essential. But when your lymph nodes become swollen due to a critical infection or sickness, you might notice other symptoms.
Some minor viral infections, such because the flu, simply need to run their course.
People who were appropriately handled for an infection however have persistent swollen lymph nodes ought to see their doctor.
Lymph nodes become swollen for a lot of causes.
Your lymph nodes, also referred to as lymph glands, play a significant role in your physique’s capability to fight off infections. They operate as filters, trapping viruses, bacteria and other causes of diseases earlier than they will infect different elements of your physique.
If swollen lymph nodes are associated with fevers, evening sweats, or weight reduction, and the person does not have any obvious an infection, she or he may need a thorough evaluation by a healthcare skilled. There are many causes for swollen lymph nodes, sometimes referred to as “swollen glands” (lymphadenopathy or lymphadenitis). In common, lymph nodes turn out to be swollen when they’re energetic because of both a bacterial, viral, or fungal infection, irritation, or cancer. Usually lymph nodes usually are not seen.
Many completely different circumstances cause the lymph nodes to swell, particularly the nodes in the head and neck. These circumstances embody autoimmune problems, specific types of cancer, and common infections, such as the flu. Certain drugs, such as antimalarials and antiseizure drugs, can also cause swelling.
Your lymph nodes are answerable for filtering lymph and producing mature immune cells. Swollen nodes which are close to your collarbone or the decrease part of your neck whenever you’re over forty usually tend to be most cancers. On the best side, associated to the lungs and esophagus; on the left, organs in your belly. Swollen lymph nodes in your armpit when you do not have a rash or sores in your arm are also suspect.
How to tell if your Lymph Nodes are Swollen
How to tell if your Lymph Nodes are Swollen, concerning the functions of the lymphatic system, its components and potential causes for swollen lymph nodes. If essential, your GP might request some checks to assist identify the trigger. These can include blood exams, an ultrasound scan or computerised tomography (CT) scan, and/or a biopsy (the place a small sample of fluid is taken from the swelling and examined). Swollen lymph glands are often an indication of infection and tend to go down when you recover. However, they will generally have a more critical cause and will need to be seen by a doctor.
How to tell if your Lymph Nodes are Swollen, these conditions, their analysis, and what signs to look out for. Learn when to see a health care provider and tips on how to do away with lumps behind the ear. Lymph node swelling will often disappear once the an infection clears. The swelling can also go away when the individual takes prescribed medicines, such as antibiotics or antivirals.
What infections and viruses cause swollen lymph nodes?
If a node has cancer in it, the report describes what it looks like and how a lot was seen. Lymph fluid flows out from capillary partitions to wash the physique’s tissue cells. It carries oxygen and different nutrients to the cells, and carries away waste products like carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) that flow out of the cells. Lymph fluid additionally incorporates white blood cells, which assist battle infections.
Swollen lymph nodes underneath the jaw or on both facet of the neck could damage if you turn your head in a sure method or whenever you’re chewing food. They can typically be felt just by operating your hand over your neck slightly below your jawline. They may be tender.
Symptoms of swollen lymph nodes
Lymph vessels are a lot like the veins that collect and carry blood by way of the body. But as an alternative of carrying blood, these vessels carry the clear watery fluid referred to as lymph. Lymph nodes can also turn into enlarged if cancer cells lodge in them. In this case, they are usually painless.
It may be fairly massive; over 1 inch (25 mm) across. This is in regards to the size of a quarter. Most typically, it’s the node that drains the tonsil.
The main lymphoid organs consist of the bone marrow and the thymus. The bone marrow is liable for producing the white blood cells (lymphocytes) which assist fight off ailments and infections.
How long does it take to become a Lawyer : Generally, to become a lawyer, you have to take a four-year baccalaureate degree and three years of Law School are required to earn a degree in Law. Then you have to obtain a license by gaining admittance to the Bar in the jurisdiction in which you wish to practice.
Four years to earn an undergraduate degree, the major can be almost anything but most students choose Criminal Justice or Political Science; some institutions offer a Bachelor’s Degree in pre-law. Before being accepted to law school you must take the LSAT which is a test for admittance. If the law student carries a full credit load they can conceivably finish in three years.
After graduating from law school the person will have a Juris Doctor (a doctorate of law) and may then take the bar exam in the state where they choose to be licensed. This usually occurs a few months after graduation. Most states offer the Bar exam in February and July, about two months after most schools graduate their classes. Results can take many months before they are announced. (July exam results are typically published in November!)
In the U.S., it takes about 7 years to become a lawyer; the times vary from state to state due to various bar rules and regulations. You need a Bachelor’s degree before attending law school for 3 years. A Bachelor’s degree takes about 4 years to complete, and you apply to lots of law schools a year before you plan to attend. In order to be considered for admission to law school, you must first write and pass the Law School Admissions Test (LSAT).
Once you have your Bachelor’s degree and have completed law school, you need to write your state’s bar exam for admittance. Usually, law school finishes in May or June and you take the summer to study for the Bar exam. There are courses that specifically teach you how to write the exam. In some states, you can be practicing law as soon as October of the same year.
In Canada, you aren’t admitted to the Provincial Bar until approximately 2 years after completion of your law degree. One year is spent articling; working for a law firm as a student lawyer and provincial bar have a limited amount of sittings per year. In addition, the individual provinces have their own formal education to be admitted to the bar.
For either country, it is a long haul. For people with law degrees from a foreign country, there is a whole set of criteria that must be met before practicing law is allowed; criteria vary according to which country your degree comes from.
How long does it take to become a Lawyer
Most people who pursue a career as a lawyer generally take the traditional path of earning a bachelor’s degree followed by three years of law school. The amount of time this actually will take you depends on whether you attend school full-time and pass the bar exam on the first try. However, not every state imposes the same requirements, so choosing to practice in one state over another can significantly affect the time it takes to become a lawyer.
Getting an Undergraduate Degree
The initial step to becoming a lawyer generally is four years of study as an undergraduate at a college or university. It isn’t necessary to focus your undergraduate studies in a legal field or in any particular major for that matter – just as long as you earn a bachelor’s degree. Most law schools that are accredited by the American Bar Association, or ABA, require you to complete a bachelor’s degree to be admitted. In California, however, you’re eligible to enter law school with just two years of undergraduate coursework or by passing an equivalency exam. Though you might be able to enter law school more quickly, you may have a hard time getting admitted into a top law school this way.
How long does it take to become a Lawyer – Taking the LSAT
A majority of the law schools in the United States require applicants to take the Law School Admission test, or LSAT, as it’s more commonly referred to. Your score on the LSAT is a significant part of your law school applications and you’ll need to spend time preparing for it. However, students who are pursuing an undergraduate degree usually complete the test while in college – so preparing for the LSAT doesn’t normally require additional time. If you’re unhappy with your initial score or you already completed your bachelor’s degree, retaking the test or finding time to study for it can increase the amount of time it takes you to become a lawyer.
How long does it take to be lawyer – Going to Law School
If you’re able to enroll in law school as a full-time student, you can expect to complete the program in three years. Attending law school on a part-time basis is an option at many law schools, but it does mean you’ll be studying for four rather than three years. Some states, such as Colorado, don’t even require that you attend law school. However, the majority of states, such as New Jersey, require attendance at an ABA-accredited law school.
Writing the State Bar Exam
Soon after graduating from, law school, you’ll need to sit for the bar exam in your state, or in the state where you want to practice law. Studying for the bar exam will likely consume two to three months of your time and will take an additional few months to get the results. But even if you pass, you still can’t hold yourself out as a lawyer until you’re officially admitted to the bar. To be admitted, you must pass a character and fitness review by your state’s bar association. This process includes a thorough background check of your financial, criminal, residence and employment history. The amount of time this takes will depend on how clean your background is, but you can generally expect it to take a number of months.
How to become a Lawyer?
All lawyers must be academically qualified and licensed to perform their professional role. Academic qualifications are a pre-requisite to taking a state’s bar examination.
The most typical route to becoming a lawyer entails completing an undergraduate degree in any major (those interested in intellectual property law should have a strong background in sciences), taking the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) and completing the juris doctor (J.D.) degree, before sitting for the state’s bar examination.
Before selecting a law school, applicants must make sure of the accreditation by the American Bar Association (ABA). There are non-accredited law schools as well, which may be imparting quality education, however, their graduates may not be able to sit for the state’s bar examination.
How long does it take to get a lawyer degree
SO How long does it take to become a Lawyer? Individuals interested in law careers typically ask a common question, “How long does it take to complete a law degree?” The answer is that the time can vary depending on the individual’s career goals and the type of legal degree they pursue. Becoming a lawyer can take a few years while pursuing a career as a scholar or a consultant may require a different amount of studies. Here is some information on law degrees and how long they can take to complete.
Types of Law Degrees
Determining the length of time to complete law degrees first requires knowing the type of degree the individual wishes to pursue. Here are the most common law degrees:
Juris Doctor – Referred to as the original of law degrees, this is for students who want to work as licensed lawyers.
Master of Legal Studies – This is for individuals who want a solid understanding of the law but don’t wish to become a licensed lawyer.
Master of Dispute Resolution – This non-JD degree program for individuals who want to work for various businesses and deal with negotiations and resolutions.
Master of Laws – This degree is for individuals who already have a law degree but want to specialize in a certain area of law, such as intellectual property, family law or immigration to name a few.
Doctor of Judicial Science – This high-level degree is for individuals who have already earned the Juris Doctor and the Master of Laws and wish to pursue careers in research, academia or as a legal scholar.
How Long to Complete Law Degrees
CLICK THE IMAGE TO ENLARGE IN A NEW WINDOWWhen determining the time it takes to earn a law degree, keep in mind that most law degrees require that the student first has a bachelor’s degree, which takes four years to complete. Beyond the bachelor’s degree, the law student can expect the following time periods.
Juris Doctor – This program requires three years to complete.
Master of Legal Studies – This program can be completed in 16 months of full-time study or 28 months of part-time study.
Master of Dispute Resolution – Students can complete this program in 16 to 28 months depending on the level of commitment.
Master of Laws – This program can be completed in one to two years.
Doctor of Judicial Science – This full-time program can be completed in two years.
Curriculum for Law Degrees
Students earning a law degree complete a curriculum that includes course work, seminars, internships, fellowships and extensive research. They can choose from several programs of study including law and history; criminal justice; international and comparative law; law and government; law and social change, and law, science and technology. Courses can vary depending on the field of law a student may choose. Course topics might include:
Lawyers continue to be in demand as individuals and businesses are in need of legal services in many areas. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts job growth of eight percent during the 2016-2026 decade. As of May 2017, lawyers earned wages ranging from $57,430 to $178,480 with the average annual wage at $141,890. Legal students who have the highest degree levels generally earn the highest wages.
A legal career can involve a lot of education, training and externships and it’s also a big commitment. Despite how long it can take to complete a law degree, working as an attorney can be exciting, challenging and very rewarding.